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ANTONIA
a fortress in Jerusalem, at the north-west corner of the temple area. It is called "the castle" (Acts 21:34, Acts 21: 37). From the stairs of this castle Paul delivered his famous speech to the multitude in the area below (Acts 22:1). It was originally a place in which were kept the vestments of the high priest. Herod fortified it, and called it Antonia in honour of his friend Mark Antony. It was ......

ANTOTHITE
an inhabitant of Anathoth, found only in 1-Chr 11:28;12:3. In 2-Sam 23:27 it is Anethothite; in 1-Chr 27:12, 1-Chr 27: Anetothite. (R.V., "Anathothite.")......

ARISTOBULUS
a Roman mentioned in Paul's Epistle to the Romans (16:10), whose "household" is saluated.......

ASHTORETH
the moon goddess of the Phoenicians, representing the passive principle in nature, their principal female deity; frequently associated with the name of Baal, the sun-god, their chief male deity (Judg. 10:6; 1-Sam 7:4;12:10). These names often occur in the plural (Ashtaroth, Baalim), probably as indicating either different statues or different modifications of the deities. This deity is spoken of a......

ATONEMENT
This word does not occur in the Authorized Version of the New Testament except in Rom. 5:11, Rom. 5: where in the Revised Version the word "reconciliation" is used. In the Old Testament it is of frequent occurrence. The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, i.e., the state of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is reconciliation. Thus it is used to denote the effect which fl......

ATONEMENT, DAY OF
the great annual day of humiliation and expiation for the sins of the nation, "the fast" (Acts 27:9), and the only one commanded in the law of Moses. The mode of its observance is described in Lev. 16:3;23:26; and Num. 29:7. It was kept on the tenth day of the month Tisri, i.e., five days before the feast of Tabernacles, and lasted from sunset to sunset. (See AZAZEL.)......

BABEL, TOWER OF
the name given to the tower which the primitive fathers of our race built in the land of Shinar after the Deluge (Gen. 11:1). Their object in building this tower was probably that it might be seen as a rallying-point in the extensive plain of Shinar, to which they had emigrated from the uplands of Armenia, and so prevent their being scattered abroad. But God interposed and defeated their design by......

BRIMSTONE
an inflammable mineral substance found in quantities on the shores of the Dead Sea. The cities of the plain were destroyed by a rain of fire and brimstone (Gen. 19:24, Gen. 19: 25). In Isa. 34:9 allusion is made to the destruction of these cities. This word figuratively denotes destruction or punishment (Job 18:15; Isa. 30:33;34:9; Psa 11:6; Ezek. 38:22). It is used to express the idea of excrucia......

CAPHTOR
a chaplet, the original seat of the Philistines (Deut. 2:23; Jer. 47:4; Amos 9:7). The name is found written in hieroglyphics in the temple of Kom Ombos in Upper Egypt. But the exact situation of Caphtor is unknown, though it is supposed to be Crete, since the Philistines seem to be meant by the "Cherethites" in 1-Sam 30:14 (see also 2-Sam 8:18). It may, however, have been a part of Egypt, the Cap......

CASTOR AND POLLUX
the "Dioscuri", two heroes of Greek and Roman mythology. Their figures were probably painted or sculptured on the prow of the ship which Luke refers to (Acts 28:11). They were regarded as the tutelary divinities of sailors. They appeared in the heavens as the constellation Gemini.......

COLOSSIANS, EPISTLE TO THE
was written by Paul at Rome during his first imprisonment there (Acts 28:16, Acts 28: 30), probably in the spring of A.D. 57, or, as some think, 62, and soon after he had written his Epistle to the Ephesians. Like some of his other epistles (e.g., those to Corinth), this seems to have been written in consequence of information which had somehow been conveyed to him of the internal state of the chu......

CORINTHIANS, FIRST EPISTLE TO THE
was written from Ephesus (1-Cor 16:8) about the time of the Passover in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there (Acts 19:10;20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57). The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had arisen among them, first from A......

CORINTHIANS, SECOND EPISTLE TO THE
Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the chu......

COVETOUSNESS
a strong desire after the possession of worldly things (Col. 3:5; Eph. 5:5; Heb. 13:5; 1-Tim 6:9, 1-Tim 6: 10; Matt. 6:20). It assumes sometimes the more aggravated form of avarice, which is the mark of cold-hearted worldliness. ......

CUSTOM
a tax imposed by the Romans. The tax-gatherers were termed publicans (q.v.), who had their stations at the gates of cities, and in the public highways, and at the place set apart for that purpose, called the "receipt of custom" (Matt.9:9; Mark 2:14), where they collected the money that was to be paid on certain goods (7:25). These publicans were tempted to exact more from the people than was lawfu......

DEBTOR
Various regulations as to the relation between debtor and creditor are laid down in the Scriptures. (1.) The debtor was to deliver up as a pledge to the creditor what he could most easily dispense with (Deut. 24:10, Deut. 24: 11). (2.) A mill, or millstone, or upper garment, when given as a pledge, could not be kept over night (Exo 22:26, Exo 22: 27). (3.) A debt could not be exacted during ......

DOCTOR
(Luke 2:46;5:17; Acts 5:34), a teacher. The Jewish doctors taught and disputed in synagogues, or wherever they could find an audience. Their disciples were allowed to propose to them questions. They assumed the office without any appointment to it. The doctors of the law were principally of the sect of the Pharisees. Schools were established after the destruction of Jerusalem at Babylon and Tiberi......

EPHESIANS, EPISTLE TO
was written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. Contents of. The Epistle to the Colossians is mainly polemical, designed to refute certain theosophic errors that had crept into the church there. That to the Ephesians does not seem to have originated in any special circumstances, but is simply a letter springing from Paul's love to the......

FOOTSTOOL
connected with a throne (2-Chr 9:18). Jehovah symbolically dwelt in the holy place between the cherubim above the ark of the covenant. The ark was his footstool (1-Chr 28:2; Psa 99:5;132:7). And as heaven is God's throne, so the earth is his footstool (Psa 110:1; Isa. 66:1; Matt. 5:35). ......

GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO
The genuineness of this epistle is not called in question. Its Pauline origin is universally acknowledged. Occasion of. The churches of Galatia were founded by Paul himself (Acts 16:6; Gal. 1:8;4:13, 4: 19). They seem to have been composed mainly of converts from heathenism (4:8), but partly also of Jewish converts, who probably, under the influence of Judaizing teachers, sought to incorporate t......

GLUTTON
(Deut. 21:20), Heb. zolel, from a word meaning "to shake out," "to squander;" and hence one who is prodigal, who wastes his means by indulgence. In Prov. 23:21, Prov. 23: the word means debauchees or wasters of their own body. In Prov. 28:7, Prov. 28: the word (pl.) is rendered Authorized Version "riotous men;" Revised Version, "gluttonous." Matt. 11:19, Matt. 11: Luke 7:34, Luke 7: Greek phagos, ......

HEBREWS, EPISTLE TO
(1.) Its canonicity. All the results of critical and historical research to which this epistle has been specially subjected abundantly vindicate its right to a place in the New Testament canon among the other inspired books. (2.) Its authorship. A considerable variety of opinions on this subject has at different times been advanced. Some have maintained that its author was Silas, Paul's companio......

ISHTOB
man of Tob, one of the small Syrian kingdoms which together constituted Aram (2-Sam 10:6, 2-Sam 10:8). ......

JEZREEL, TOWER OF
one of the turrets which guarded the entrance to the city (2-Kings 9:17). ......

LUKE, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best sources of information within his reach, and to have written an orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1). The authors of the first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Each ......

MARK, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
It is the current and apparently well-founded tradition that Mark derived his information mainly from the discourses of Peter. In his mother's house he would have abundant opportunities of obtaining information from the other apostles and their coadjutors, yet he was "the disciple and interpreter of Peter" specially. As to the time when it was written, the Gospel furnishes us with no definite in......

MATTHEW, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
The author of this book was beyond a doubt the Matthew, an apostle of our Lord, whose name it bears. He wrote the Gospel of Christ according to his own plans and aims, and from his own point of view, as did also the other "evangelists." As to the time of its composition, there is little in the Gospel itself to indicate. It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem (Matt. 24), and......

MATTOCK
(1.) Heb. ma'eder, an instrument for dressing or pruning a vineyard (Isa. 7:25); a weeding-hoe. (2.) Heb. mahareshah (1-Sam 13:1), perhaps the ploughshare or coulter. (3.) Heb. herebh, marg. of text (2-Chr 34:6). Authorized Version, "with their mattocks," marg. "mauls." The Revised Version renders "in their ruins," marg. "with their axes." The Hebrew text is probably corrupt. ......

MEDIATOR
one who intervenes between two persons who are at variance, with a view to reconcile them. This word is not found in the Old Testament; but the idea it expresses is found in Job 9:33, Job 9: in the word "daysman" (q.v.), marg., "umpire." This word is used in the New Testament to denote simply an internuncius, an ambassador, one who acts as a medium of communication between two contracting partie......

MOABITE STONE
a basalt stone, bearing an inscription by King Mesha, which was discovered at Dibon by Klein, a German missionary at Jerusalem, in 1868. It was 3 1/2 feet high and 2 in breadth and in thickness, rounded at the top. It consisted of thirty-four lines, written in Hebrew-Phoenician characters. It was set up by Mesha as a record and memorial of his victories. It records (1) Mesha's wars with Omri, (2) ......

NEPHTOAH
opened, a fountain and a stream issuing from it on the border between Judah and Benjamin (Josh. 15:8, Josh. 15: 9;18:15). It has been identified with 'Ain Lifta, a spring about 2 1/2 miles north-west of Jerusalem. Others, however, have identified it with 'Ain' Atan, on the south-west of Bethlehem, whence water is conveyed through "Pilate's aqueduct" to the Haram area at Jerusalem. ......

NETOPHAH
distillation; dropping, a town in Judah, in the neighbourhood, probably, of Bethlehem (Neh. 7:26; 1-Chr 2:54). Two of David's guards were Netophathites (1-Chr 27:13, 1-Chr 27: 15). It has been identified with the ruins of Metoba, or Um Toba, to the north-east of Bethlehem. ......

PHILEMON, EPISTLE TO
was written from Rome at the same time as the epistles to the Colossians and Ephesians, and was sent also by Onesimus. It was addressed to Philemon and the members of his family. It was written for the purpose of interceding for Onesimus (q.v.), who had deserted his master Philemon and been "unprofitable" to him. Paul had found Onesimus at Rome, and had there been instrumental in his conversion,......

PHILIPPIANS, EPISTLE TO
was written by Paul during the two years when he was "in bonds" in Rome (Phil. 1:7), probably early in the year A.D. 62 or in the end of 61. The Philippians had sent Epaphroditus, their messenger, with contributions to meet the necessities of the apostle; and on his return Paul sent back with him this letter. With this precious communication Epaphroditus sets out on his homeward journey. "The jo......

PRAETORIUM
The Greek word (praitorion) thus rendered in Mark 15:16 is rendered "common hall" (Matt. 27:27, Matt. 27: marg., "governor's house"), "judgment hall," (John 18:28, John 18: 33, marg., "Pilate's house",19:9; Acts 23:35), "palace" (Phil. 1:13). This is properly a military word. It denotes (1) the general's tent or headquarters; (2) the governor's residence, as in Acts 23:35 (R.V., "palace"); and (3)......

PTOLEMAIS
a maritime city of Galilee (Acts 21:7). It was originally called "Accho" (q.v.), and received the name Ptolemais from Ptolemy Soter when he was in possession of Coele-Syria.......

ROMANS, EPISTLE TO THE
This epistle was probably written at Corinth. Phoebe (Rom. 16:1) of Cenchrea conveyed it to Rome, and Gaius of Corinth entertained the apostle at the time of his writing it (16:23; 1-Cor 1:14), and Erastus was chamberlain of the city, i.e., of Corinth (2-Tim 4:20). The precise time at which it was written is not mentioned in the epistle, but it was obviously written when the apostle was about to......

SARDINE STONE
(Rev. 4:3, Rev. 4: R.V., "sardius;" Heb. 'odhem; LXX., Gr. sardion, from a root meaning "red"), a gem of a blood-red colour. It was called "sardius" because obtained from Sardis in Lydia. It is enumerated among the precious stones in the high priest's breastplate (Exo 28:17;39:10). It is our red carnelian. ......

SERVITOR
occurs only in 2-Kings 4:43, 2-Kings 4: Authorized Version (R.V., "servant"). The Hebrew word there rendered "servitor" is elsewhere rendered "minister," "servant" (Exo 24:13;33:11). Probably Gehazi, the personal attendant on Elisha, is here meant. ......

SILOAM, TOWER OF
mentioned only Luke 13:4. The place here spoken of is the village now called Silwan, or Kefr Silwan, on the east of the valley of Kidron, and to the north-east of the pool. It stands on the west slope of the Mount of Olives. As illustrative of the movement of small bands of Canaanites from place to place, and the intermingling of Canaanites and Israelites even in small towns in earlier times, M.......

STOICS
a sect of Greek philosophers at Athens, so called from the Greek word stoa i.e., a "porch" or "portico," where they have been called "the Pharisees of Greek paganism." The founder of the Stoics was Zeno, who flourished about B.C. 300. He taught his disciples that a man's happiness consisted in bringing himself into harmony with the course of the universe. They were trained to bear evils with indif......

STOMACHER
(Isa. 3:24), an article of female attire, probably some sort of girdle around the breast. ......

STONE
Stones were commonly used for buildings, also as memorials of important events (Gen. 28:18; Josh. 24:26, Josh. 24: 27; 1-Sam 7:12, 1-Sam 7: etc.). They were gathered out of cultivated fields (Isa. 5:2; comp. 2-Kings 3:19). This word is also used figuratively of believers (1-Pet 2:4, 1-Pet 2: 5), and of the Messiah (Psa 118:22; Isa. 28:16; Matt. 21:42; Acts 4:11, Acts 4: etc.). In Dan. 2:45 it refe......

STONES, PRECIOUS
Frequently referred to (1-Kings 10:2; 2-Chr 3:6;9:10; Rev. 18:16;21:19). There are about twenty different names of such stones in the Bible. They are figuratively introduced to denote value, beauty, durability (5:14; Isa 54:11, Isa 54: 12; Lam. 4:7). ......

STONING
a form of punishment (Lev. 20:2;24:14; Deut. 13:10;17:5;22:21) prescribed for certain offences. Of Achan (Josh. 7:25), Naboth (1 Kings 21), Stephen (Acts 7:59), Paul (Acts 14:19; 2-Cor 11:25). ......

STORK
Heb. hasidah, meaning "kindness," indicating thus the character of the bird, which is noted for its affection for its young. It is in the list of birds forbidden to be eaten by the Levitical law (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18). It is like the crane, but larger in size. Two species are found in Palestine, the white, which are dispersed in pairs over the whole country; and the black, which live in marshy ......

THESSALONIANS, EPISTLES TO THE
The first epistle to the Thessalonians was the first of all Paul's epistles. It was in all probability written from Corinth, where he abode a "long time" (Acts 18:11, Acts 18: 18), early in the period of his residence there, about the end of A.D. 52. The occasion of its being written was the return of Timotheus from Macedonia, bearing tidings from Thessalonica regarding the state of the church t......

TIMOTHY, FIRST EPISTLE TO
Paul in this epistle speaks of himself as having left Ephesus for Macedonia (1:3), and hence not Laodicea, as mentioned in the subscription; but probably Philippi, or some other city in that region, was the place where this epistle was written. During the interval between his first and second imprisonments he probably visited the scenes of his former labours in Greece and Asia, and then found his ......

TIMOTHY, SECOND EPISTLE TO
was probably written a year or so after the first, and from Rome, where Paul was for a second time a prisoner, and was sent to Timothy by the hands of Tychicus. In it he entreats Timothy to come to him before winter, and to bring Mark with him (comp. Phil. 2:22). He was anticipating that "the time of his departure was at hand" (2-Tim 4:6), and he exhorts his "son Timothy" to all diligence and stea......

TITUS, EPISTLE TO
was probably written about the same time as the first epistle to Timothy, with which it has many affinities. "Both letters were addressed to persons left by the writer to preside in their respective churches during his absence. Both letters are principally occupied in describing the qualifications to be sought for in those whom they should appoint to offices in the church; and the ingredients of t......

TOB, THE LAND OF
a district on the east of Jodan, about 13 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, to which Jephthah fled from his brethren (Judg. 11:3, Judg. 11: 5). It was on the northern boundary of Perea, between Syria and the land of Ammon (2-Sam 10:6, 2-Sam 10: 8). Its modern name is Taiyibeh. ......

TOB-ADONIJAH
good is Jehovah, my Lord, a Levite sent out by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people of Judah in the law (2-Chr 17:8). ......

TOBIAH
pleasing to Jehovah, the "servant," the "Ammonite," who joined with those who opposed the rebuilding of Jerusalem after the Exile (Neh. 2:10). He was a man of great influence, which he exerted in opposition to the Jews, and "sent letters" to Nehemiah "to put him in fear" (Neh. 6:17). "Eliashib the priest" prepared for him during Nehemiah's absence "a chamber in the courts of the house of God," whi......

TOBIJAH
id., a Levite sent out through Judah by Jehoshaphat to teach the people (2-Chr 17:8). ......

TOCHEN
measured, a town of Simeon (1-Chr 4:32). ......

TOGARMAH
(1.) A son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth (Gen. 10:3). (2.) A nation which traded in horses and mules at the fairs of Tyre (Ezek. 27:14;38:6); probably an Armenian or a Scythian race; descendants of (1). ......

TOHU
one of Samuel's ancestors (1-Sam 1:1). ......

TOI
a king of Hamath, who sent "Joram his son unto King David to salute him," when he "heard that David had smitten all the host of Hadadezer" (2-Sam 8:9, 2-Sam 8: 10). Called Tou (1-Chr 18:9, 1-Chr 18: 10). ......

TOLA
a scarlet worm. (1.) Eldest son of Issachar (Gen. 46:13). (2.) A judge of the tribe of Issachar who "judged" Israel twenty-three years (Judg. 10:1, Judg. 10: 2), when he died, and was buried in Shamir. He was succeeded by Jair. ......

TOLAD
productive, a town of Simeon, in the south of Judah (1-Chr 4:29). ......

TOLAITES
descendants of Tola (Num. 26:23; 1-Chr 7:1, 1-Chr 7: 2). ......

TOLL
one of the branches of the king of Persia's revenues (Ezra 4:13;7:24), probably a tax levied from those who used the bridges and fords and highways. ......

TOMBS
of the Hebrews were generally excavated in the solid rock, or were natural caves. Mention is made of such tombs in Judg. 8:32; 2-Sam 2:32; 2-Kings 9:28;23:30. They were sometimes made in gardens (2-Kings 21:26;23:16; Matt. 27:60). They are found in great numbers in and around Jerusalem and all over the land. They were sometimes whitewashed (Matt. 23:27, Matt. 23: 29). The body of Jesus was laid in......

TONGUES, CONFUSION OF
at Babel, the cause of the early separation of mankind and their division into nations. The descendants of Noah built a tower to prevent their dispersion; but God "confounded their language" (Gen. 11:1), and they were scattered over the whole earth. Till this time "the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." (See SHINAR.) ......

TONGUES, GIFT OF
granted on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:4), in fulfilment of a promise Christ had made to his disciples (Mark 16:17). What this gift actually was has been a subject of much discussion. Some have argued that it was merely an outward sign of the presence of the Holy Spirit among the disciples, typifying his manifold gifts, and showing that salvation was to be extended to all nations. But the words o......

TOOTH
one of the particulars regarding which retaliatory punishment was to be inflicted (Exo 21:24; Lev. 24:20; Deut. 19:21). "Gnashing of teeth" =rage, despair (Matt. 8:12; Acts 7:54); "cleanness of teeth" =famine (Amos 4:6); "children's teeth set on edge" =children suffering for the sins of their fathers (Ezek. 18:2). ......

TOPAZ
Heb. pitdah (Ezek. 28:13; Rev. 21:20), a golden yellow or "green" stone brought from Cush or Ethiopia (Job 28:19). It was the second stone in the first row in the breastplate of the high priest, and had the name of Simeon inscribed on it (Exo 28:17). It is probably the chrysolite of the moderns. ......

TOPHEL
lime, a place in the wilderness of Sinai (Deut. 1:1), now identified with Tafyleh or Tufileh, on the west side of the Edomitish mountains. ......

TOPHET
=Topheth, from Heb. toph "a drum," because the cries of children here sacrificed by the priests of Moloch were drowned by the noise of such an instrument; or from taph or toph, meaning "to burn," and hence a place of burning, the name of a particular part in the valley of Hinnom. "Fire being the most destructive of all elements, is chosen by the sacred writers to symbolize the agency by which God ......

TORCHES
On the night of his betrayal, when our Lord was in the garden of Gethsemane, Judas, "having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons" (John 18:1). Although it was the time of full moon, yet in the valley of the Kidron "there fell great, deep shadows from the declivity of the mountain and projecting rocks; there w......

TORMENT
Gr. basanos (Matt. 4:24), the "touch-stone" of justice; hence inquisition by torture, and then any disease which racks and tortures the limbs. ......

TORTOISE
(Heb. tsabh). Ranked among the unclean animals (Lev. 11:29). Land tortoises are common in Syria. The LXX. renders the word by "land crocodile." The word, however, more probably denotes a lizard, called by the modern Arabs _dhabb_. ......

TOW
(Judg. 16:9). See FLAX. ......

TOWER OF THE FURNACES
(Neh. 3:11;12:38), a tower at the north-western angle of the second wall of Jerusalem. It was probably so named from its contiguity to the "bakers' street" (Jer. 37:21). ......

TOWERS
of Babel (Gen. 11:4), Edar (Gen. 35:21), Penuel (Judg. 8:9, Judg. 8: 17), Shechem (9:46), David (4:4), Lebanon (7:4), Syene (Ezek. 29:10), Hananeel (Zech. 14:10), Siloam (Luke 13:4). There were several towers in Jerusalem (2-Chr 26:9; Psa 48:12). They were erected for various purposes, as watch-towers in vineyard (Isa. 5:2; Matt. 21:33) and towers for defence. ......