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ALEXANDER
man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts 4:6). (2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of Christ (Mark 15:21). (3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33). The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It wa......

ALEXANDER THE GREAT
the king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented in Daniel by the "belly of brass" (Dan. 2:32), and the leopard and the he-goat (7:6;11:3, 11:4). He succeeded his father Philip, and died at the age of thirty-two from the effects of intemperance, B.C. 323. His empire was divided among his four generals.......

ALEXANDRIA
the ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about B.C. 333). It was for a long period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and only incidentally in the New. Apollos, eloq......

ANDREW
manliness, a Greek name; one of the apostles of our Lord. He was of Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44), and was the brother of Simon Peter (Matt. 4:18;10:2). On one occasion John the Baptist, whose disciple he then was, pointing to Jesus, said, "Behold the Lamb of God" (John 1:40); and Andrew, hearing him, immediately became a follower of Jesus, the first of his disciples. After he had been led to r......

ANDRONICUS
man-conquering, a Jewish Christian, the kinsman and fellowprisoner of Paul (Rom. 16:7); "of note among the apostles."......

AUGUSTUS BAND
(Acts 27:1.: literally, of Sebaste, the Greek form of Augusta, the name given to Caesarea in honour of Augustus Caesar). Probably this "band" or cohort consisted of Samaritan soldiers belonging to Caesarea.......

AZUR AND AZZUR
helper. (1.) The father of Hananiah, a false prophet (Jer. 28:1). (2.) The father of Jaazaniah (Ezek. 11:1). (3.) One of those who sealed the covenant with Jehovah on the return from Babylon (Neh. 10:17).......

BANDS
(1) of love (Hos. 11:4); (2) of Christ (Psa 2:3); (3) uniting together Christ's body the church (Col. 2:19;3:14; Eph. 4:3); (4) the emblem of the captivity of Israel (Ezek. 34:27; Isa. 28:22;52:2); (5) of brotherhood (Ezek. 37:15); (6) no bands to the wicked in their death (Psa 73:4; Job 21:7; Psa 10:6). Also denotes chains (Luke 8:29); companies of soldiers (Acts 21:31); a shepherd's staff, indic......

BRIGANDINE
(Jer. 46:4;51:3), an obsolete English word denoting a scale coat of armour, or habergeon, worn by light-armed "brigands." The Revised Version has "coat of mail."......

BY AND BY
immediately (Matt. 13:21; R.V., "straightway;" Luke 21:9).......

CANDACE
the queen of the Ethiopians whose "eunuch" or chamberlain was converted to Christianity by the instrumentality of Philip the evangelist (Acts 8:27). The country which she ruled was called by the Greeks Meroe, in Upper Nubia. It was long the centre of commercial intercourse between Africa and the south of Asia, and hence became famous for its wealth (Isa. 45:14). It is somewhat singular that fema......

CANDLE
Heb. ner, Job 18:6;29:3; Psa 18:28; Prov. 24:20, Prov. 24: in all which places the Revised Version and margin of Authorized Version have "lamp," by which the word is elsewhere frequently rendered. The Hebrew word denotes properly any kind of candle or lamp or torch. It is used as a figure of conscience (Prov. 20:27), of a Christian example (Matt. 5:14, Matt. 5: 15), and of prosperity (Job 21:17; P......

CANDLESTICK
the lamp-stand, "candelabrum," which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. Its form is described in Exo 25:31;37:17, 37: and may be seen represented on the Arch of Titus at Rome. It was among the spoils taken by the Romans from the temple of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). It was made of fine gold, and with the utensils belonging to it was a talent in weight. T......

CASTOR AND POLLUX
the "Dioscuri", two heroes of Greek and Roman mythology. Their figures were probably painted or sculptured on the prow of the ship which Luke refers to (Acts 28:11). They were regarded as the tutelary divinities of sailors. They appeared in the heavens as the constellation Gemini.......

COMMANDMENTS, THE TEN
(Exo 34:28; Deut. 10:4, Deut. 10: marg. "ten words") i.e., the Decalogue (q.v.), is a summary of the immutable moral law. These commandments were first given in their written form to the people of Israel when they were encamped at Sinai, about fifty days after they came out of Egypt (Exo 19:10). They were written by the finger of God on two tables of stone. The first tables were broken by Moses wh......

CORIANDER
Heb. gad, (Exo 16:31; Num. 11:7), seed to which the manna is likened in its form and colour. It is the Coriandrum sativum of botanists, an umbelliferous annual plant with a round stalk, about two feet high. It is widely cultivated in Eastern countries and in the south of Europe for the sake of its seeds, which are in the form of a little ball of the size of a peppercorn. They are used medicinally ......

FIREBRAND
Isa. 7:4, Isa. 7: Amos 4:11, Amos 4: Zech. 3:2, Zech. 3: denotes the burnt end of a stick (Heb. 'ud); in Judg. 15:4, Judg. 15: a lamp or torch, a flambeau (Heb. lappid); in Prov. 26:18 (comp. Eph. 6:16), burning darts or arrows (Heb. zikkim). ......

GARLANDS
(Acts 14:13). In heathen sacrifices the victims were adorned with fillets and garlands made of wool, with leaves and flowers interwoven. The altar and the priests and attendants were also in like manner adorned.......

HAND
Called by Galen "the instrument of instruments." It is the symbol of human action (Psa 9:16; Job 9:30; Isa. 1:15; 1-Tim 2:8). Washing the hands was a symbol of innocence (Psa 26:6;73:13; Matt. 27:24), also of sanctification (1-Cor 6:11; Isa. 51:16; Psa 24:3, Psa 24: 4). In Psa 77:2 the correct rendering is, as in the Revised Version, "My hand was stretched out," etc., instead of, as in the Authori......

HANDBREADTH
a measure of four fingers, equal to about four inches (Exo 25:25;37:12; Psa 39:5, Psa 39: etc.).......

HANDKERCHIEF
Only once in Authorized Version (Acts 19:12). The Greek word (sudarion) so rendered means properly "a sweat-cloth." It is rendered "napkin" in John 11:44;20:7; Luke 19:20.......

HANDMAID
servant (Gen. 16:1; Ruth 3:9; Luke 1:48). It is probable that Hagar was Sarah's personal attendant while she was in the house of Pharaoh, and was among those maid-servants whom Abram had brought from Egypt.......

HANDWRITING
(Col. 2:14). The "blotting out the handwriting" is the removal by the grace of the gospel of the condemnation of the law which we had broken.......

HEAD-BANDS
(Heb. kishshurim), properly girdles or belts for the waist (Isa. 3:20, Isa. 3: R.V., "sashes;" Jer. 2:32, Jer. 2: rendered "attire", i.e., a girdle round the waist).......

HUSBAND
i.e., the "house-band," connecting and keeping together the whole family. A man when betrothed was esteemed from that time a husband (Matt. 1:16, Matt. 1: 20; Luke 2:5). A recently married man was exempt from going to war for "one year" (Deut. 20:7;24:5). ......

HUSBANDMAN
one whose business it is to cultivate the ground. It was one of the first occupations, and was esteemed most honourable (Gen. 9:20;26:12, 26: 14;37:7, 37: etc.). All the Hebrews, except those engaged in religious services, were husbandmen. (See AGRICULTURE.) ......

ISLAND
(Heb. 'i, "dry land," as opposed to water) occurs in its usual signification (Isa. 42:4, Isa. 42: 10, 12, 15, comp. Jer. 47:4), but more frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast (Isa. 20:6, Isa. 20: R.V.," coastland;"23:2, 23: 6; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6, Ezek. 27: 7). (See CHITTIM.) The shores of the Mediterranean are called the "islands of the sea" (Isa. 11:11), or the "isles of the......

ITALIAN BAND
the name of the Roman cohort to which Cornelius belonged (Acts 10:1), so called probably because it consisted of men recruited in Italy. ......

JACHIN AND BOAZ
the names of two brazen columns set up in Solomon's temple (1-Kings 7:15). Each was eighteen cubits high and twelve in circumference (Jer. 52:21, Jer. 52: 23; 1-Kings 7:17). They had doubtless a symbolical import. ......

LANDMARK
a boundary line indicated by a stone, stake, etc. (Deut. 19:14;27:17; Prov. 22:28;23:10; Job 24:2). Landmarks could not be removed without incurring the severe displeasure of God. ......

LEFT HAND
among the Hebrews, denoted the north (Job 23:9; Gen. 14:15), the face of the person being supposed to be toward the east. ......

LEFT-HANDED
(Judg. 3:15;20:16), one unable to use the right hand skilfully, and who therefore uses the left; and also one who uses the left as well as the right, ambidexter. Such a condition of the hands is due to physical causes. This quality was common apparently in the tribe of Benjamin. ......

MANDRAKES
Hebrew dudaim; i.e., "love-plants", occurs only in Gen. 30:14 and 7:13. Many interpretations have been given of this word _dudaim_. It has been rendered "violets," "Lilies," "jasmines," "truffles or mushrooms," "flowers," the "citron," etc. The weight of authority is in favour of its being regarded as the Mandragora officinalis of botanists, "a near relative of the night-shades, the 'apple of Sodo......

PARSHANDATHA
an interpreter of the law, the eldest of Haman's sons, slain in Shushan (Esther 9:7).......

QUICKSANDS
found only in Acts 27:17, Acts 27: the rendering of the Greek Syrtis. On the north coast of Africa were two localities dangerous to sailors, called the Greater and Lesser Syrtis. The former of these is probably here meant. It lies between Tripoli and Barca, and near Cyrene. The Lesser Syrtis lay farther to the west.......

RUDDER BANDS
Ancient ships had two great broad-bladed oars for rudders. These, when not in use, were lifted out of the water and bound or tied up. When required for use, these bands were unloosed and the rudders allowed to drop into the water (Acts 27:40). ......

SANDALS
Mentioned only in Mark 6:9 and Acts 12:8. The sandal was simply a sole, made of wood or palm-bark, fastened to the foot by leathern straps. Sandals were also made of seal-skin (Ezek. 16:10; lit. tahash, "leather;" A.V., "badger's skin;" R.V., "sealskin," or marg., "porpoise-skin"). (See SHOE.) ......

SHALIM, LAND OF
land of foxes, a place apparently to the north-west of Jerusalem (1-Sam 9:4), perhaps in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin in Dan (Josh. 19:42).......

SHALISHA, LAND OF
probably the district of Baal-shalisha (2-Kings 4:42), lying about 12 miles north of Lydda (1-Sam 9:4).......

SHINAR, THE LAND OF
LXX. and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel was built (Gen. 11:1), and the city of Babylon. The name occurs later in Jewish history (Isa. 11:11; Zech. 5:11). Shinar was apparently first peopled by Turanian tribes, who tilled the land and made bricks and built citie......

SHUAL, THE LAND OF
land of the fox, a district in the tribe of Benjamin (1-Sam 13:17); possibly the same as Shalim (9:4), in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin (Josh. 19:42). ......

SINIM, THE LAND OF
(Isa. 49:12), supposed by some to mean China, but more probably Phoenicia (Gen. 10:17) is intended. ......

THOUSANDS
(Micah 5:2), another name for "families" or "clans" (see Num. 1:16;10:4; Josh. 22:14, Josh. 22: 21). Several "thousands" or "families" made up a "tribe." ......

TOB, THE LAND OF
a district on the east of Jodan, about 13 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, to which Jephthah fled from his brethren (Judg. 11:3, Judg. 11: 5). It was on the northern boundary of Perea, between Syria and the land of Ammon (2-Sam 10:6, 2-Sam 10: 8). Its modern name is Taiyibeh. ......

TREE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOOD AND EVIL
stood in the midst of the garden of Eden, beside the tree of life (Gen. 2, 3). Adam and Eve were forbidden to take of the fruit which grew upon it. But they disobeyed the divine injunction, and so sin and death by sin entered our world and became the heritage of Adam's posterity. (See ADAM.) ......

TRYPHENA AND TRYPHOSA
two female Christians, active workers, whom Paul salutes in his epistle to the Romans (16:12). ......

UZ, THE LAND OF
where Job lived (1:1; Jer. 25:20; Lam. 4:21), probably somewhere to the east or south-east of Palestine and north of Edom. It is mentioned in Scripture only in these three passages. ......

WANDERING
of the Israelites in the wilderness in consequence of their rebellious fears to enter the Promised Land (Num. 14:26). They wandered for forty years before they were permitted to cross the Jordan (Josh. 4:19;5:6). The record of these wanderings is given in Num. 33:1. Many of the stations at which they camped cannot now be identified. Questions of an intricate nature have been discussed regardin......

ZUPH, LAND OF
(1-Sam 9:5, 1-Sam 9: 6), a district in which lay Samuel's city, Ramah. It was probably so named after Elkanah's son, Zuph (1-Chr 6:26, 1-Chr 6: marg.).......

ADAM
red, a Babylonian word, the generic name for man, having the same meaning in the Hebrew and the Assyrian languages. It was the name given to the first man, whose creation, fall, and subsequent history and that of his descendants are detailed in the first book of Moses (Gen. 1:27ch. 5). "God created man [Heb., Adam] in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he th......

ADAM, A TYPE
The apostle Paul speaks of Adam as "the figure of him who was to come." On this account our Lord is sometimes called the second Adam. This typical relation is described in Rom. 5:14. ......

ADAM, THE CITY OF
is referred to in Josh. 3:16. It stood "beside Zarethan," on the west bank of Jordan (1-Kings 4:12). At this city the flow of the water was arrested and rose up "upon an heap" at the time of the Israelites' passing over (Josh. 3:16). ......

ADAMAH
red earth, a fortified city of Naphtali, probably the modern Damieh, on the west side of the sea of Tiberias (Josh. 19:33, Josh. 19: 36). ......

ADAMANT
(Heb. shamir), Ezek. 3:9. The Greek word adamas means diamond. This stone is not referred to, but corundum or some kind of hard steel. It is an emblem of firmness in resisting adversaries of the truth (Zech. 7:12), and of hard-heartedness against the truth (Jer. 17:1). ......