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ALEXANDER
man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts 4:6). (2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of Christ (Mark 15:21). (3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33). The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It wa......

ALEXANDER THE GREAT
the king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented in Daniel by the "belly of brass" (Dan. 2:32), and the leopard and the he-goat (7:6;11:3, 11:4). He succeeded his father Philip, and died at the age of thirty-two from the effects of intemperance, B.C. 323. His empire was divided among his four generals.......

ALEXANDRIA
the ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about B.C. 333). It was for a long period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and only incidentally in the New. Apollos, eloq......

ANDREW
manliness, a Greek name; one of the apostles of our Lord. He was of Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44), and was the brother of Simon Peter (Matt. 4:18;10:2). On one occasion John the Baptist, whose disciple he then was, pointing to Jesus, said, "Behold the Lamb of God" (John 1:40); and Andrew, hearing him, immediately became a follower of Jesus, the first of his disciples. After he had been led to r......

ANDRONICUS
man-conquering, a Jewish Christian, the kinsman and fellowprisoner of Paul (Rom. 16:7); "of note among the apostles."......

AUGUSTUS BAND
(Acts 27:1.: literally, of Sebaste, the Greek form of Augusta, the name given to Caesarea in honour of Augustus Caesar). Probably this "band" or cohort consisted of Samaritan soldiers belonging to Caesarea.......

AZUR AND AZZUR
helper. (1.) The father of Hananiah, a false prophet (Jer. 28:1). (2.) The father of Jaazaniah (Ezek. 11:1). (3.) One of those who sealed the covenant with Jehovah on the return from Babylon (Neh. 10:17).......

BANDS
(1) of love (Hos. 11:4); (2) of Christ (Psa 2:3); (3) uniting together Christ's body the church (Col. 2:19;3:14; Eph. 4:3); (4) the emblem of the captivity of Israel (Ezek. 34:27; Isa. 28:22;52:2); (5) of brotherhood (Ezek. 37:15); (6) no bands to the wicked in their death (Psa 73:4; Job 21:7; Psa 10:6). Also denotes chains (Luke 8:29); companies of soldiers (Acts 21:31); a shepherd's staff, indic......

BRIGANDINE
(Jer. 46:4;51:3), an obsolete English word denoting a scale coat of armour, or habergeon, worn by light-armed "brigands." The Revised Version has "coat of mail."......

BY AND BY
immediately (Matt. 13:21; R.V., "straightway;" Luke 21:9).......

CANDACE
the queen of the Ethiopians whose "eunuch" or chamberlain was converted to Christianity by the instrumentality of Philip the evangelist (Acts 8:27). The country which she ruled was called by the Greeks Meroe, in Upper Nubia. It was long the centre of commercial intercourse between Africa and the south of Asia, and hence became famous for its wealth (Isa. 45:14). It is somewhat singular that fema......

CANDLE
Heb. ner, Job 18:6;29:3; Psa 18:28; Prov. 24:20, Prov. 24: in all which places the Revised Version and margin of Authorized Version have "lamp," by which the word is elsewhere frequently rendered. The Hebrew word denotes properly any kind of candle or lamp or torch. It is used as a figure of conscience (Prov. 20:27), of a Christian example (Matt. 5:14, Matt. 5: 15), and of prosperity (Job 21:17; P......

CANDLESTICK
the lamp-stand, "candelabrum," which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. Its form is described in Exo 25:31;37:17, 37: and may be seen represented on the Arch of Titus at Rome. It was among the spoils taken by the Romans from the temple of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). It was made of fine gold, and with the utensils belonging to it was a talent in weight. T......

CASTOR AND POLLUX
the "Dioscuri", two heroes of Greek and Roman mythology. Their figures were probably painted or sculptured on the prow of the ship which Luke refers to (Acts 28:11). They were regarded as the tutelary divinities of sailors. They appeared in the heavens as the constellation Gemini.......

COMMANDMENTS, THE TEN
(Exo 34:28; Deut. 10:4, Deut. 10: marg. "ten words") i.e., the Decalogue (q.v.), is a summary of the immutable moral law. These commandments were first given in their written form to the people of Israel when they were encamped at Sinai, about fifty days after they came out of Egypt (Exo 19:10). They were written by the finger of God on two tables of stone. The first tables were broken by Moses wh......

CORIANDER
Heb. gad, (Exo 16:31; Num. 11:7), seed to which the manna is likened in its form and colour. It is the Coriandrum sativum of botanists, an umbelliferous annual plant with a round stalk, about two feet high. It is widely cultivated in Eastern countries and in the south of Europe for the sake of its seeds, which are in the form of a little ball of the size of a peppercorn. They are used medicinally ......

FIREBRAND
Isa. 7:4, Isa. 7: Amos 4:11, Amos 4: Zech. 3:2, Zech. 3: denotes the burnt end of a stick (Heb. 'ud); in Judg. 15:4, Judg. 15: a lamp or torch, a flambeau (Heb. lappid); in Prov. 26:18 (comp. Eph. 6:16), burning darts or arrows (Heb. zikkim). ......

GARLANDS
(Acts 14:13). In heathen sacrifices the victims were adorned with fillets and garlands made of wool, with leaves and flowers interwoven. The altar and the priests and attendants were also in like manner adorned.......

HAND
Called by Galen "the instrument of instruments." It is the symbol of human action (Psa 9:16; Job 9:30; Isa. 1:15; 1-Tim 2:8). Washing the hands was a symbol of innocence (Psa 26:6;73:13; Matt. 27:24), also of sanctification (1-Cor 6:11; Isa. 51:16; Psa 24:3, Psa 24: 4). In Psa 77:2 the correct rendering is, as in the Revised Version, "My hand was stretched out," etc., instead of, as in the Authori......

HANDBREADTH
a measure of four fingers, equal to about four inches (Exo 25:25;37:12; Psa 39:5, Psa 39: etc.).......

HANDKERCHIEF
Only once in Authorized Version (Acts 19:12). The Greek word (sudarion) so rendered means properly "a sweat-cloth." It is rendered "napkin" in John 11:44;20:7; Luke 19:20.......

HANDMAID
servant (Gen. 16:1; Ruth 3:9; Luke 1:48). It is probable that Hagar was Sarah's personal attendant while she was in the house of Pharaoh, and was among those maid-servants whom Abram had brought from Egypt.......

HANDWRITING
(Col. 2:14). The "blotting out the handwriting" is the removal by the grace of the gospel of the condemnation of the law which we had broken.......

HEAD-BANDS
(Heb. kishshurim), properly girdles or belts for the waist (Isa. 3:20, Isa. 3: R.V., "sashes;" Jer. 2:32, Jer. 2: rendered "attire", i.e., a girdle round the waist).......

HUSBAND
i.e., the "house-band," connecting and keeping together the whole family. A man when betrothed was esteemed from that time a husband (Matt. 1:16, Matt. 1: 20; Luke 2:5). A recently married man was exempt from going to war for "one year" (Deut. 20:7;24:5). ......

HUSBANDMAN
one whose business it is to cultivate the ground. It was one of the first occupations, and was esteemed most honourable (Gen. 9:20;26:12, 26: 14;37:7, 37: etc.). All the Hebrews, except those engaged in religious services, were husbandmen. (See AGRICULTURE.) ......

ISLAND
(Heb. 'i, "dry land," as opposed to water) occurs in its usual signification (Isa. 42:4, Isa. 42: 10, 12, 15, comp. Jer. 47:4), but more frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast (Isa. 20:6, Isa. 20: R.V.," coastland;"23:2, 23: 6; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6, Ezek. 27: 7). (See CHITTIM.) The shores of the Mediterranean are called the "islands of the sea" (Isa. 11:11), or the "isles of the......

ITALIAN BAND
the name of the Roman cohort to which Cornelius belonged (Acts 10:1), so called probably because it consisted of men recruited in Italy. ......

JACHIN AND BOAZ
the names of two brazen columns set up in Solomon's temple (1-Kings 7:15). Each was eighteen cubits high and twelve in circumference (Jer. 52:21, Jer. 52: 23; 1-Kings 7:17). They had doubtless a symbolical import. ......

LANDMARK
a boundary line indicated by a stone, stake, etc. (Deut. 19:14;27:17; Prov. 22:28;23:10; Job 24:2). Landmarks could not be removed without incurring the severe displeasure of God. ......

LEFT HAND
among the Hebrews, denoted the north (Job 23:9; Gen. 14:15), the face of the person being supposed to be toward the east. ......

LEFT-HANDED
(Judg. 3:15;20:16), one unable to use the right hand skilfully, and who therefore uses the left; and also one who uses the left as well as the right, ambidexter. Such a condition of the hands is due to physical causes. This quality was common apparently in the tribe of Benjamin. ......

MANDRAKES
Hebrew dudaim; i.e., "love-plants", occurs only in Gen. 30:14 and 7:13. Many interpretations have been given of this word _dudaim_. It has been rendered "violets," "Lilies," "jasmines," "truffles or mushrooms," "flowers," the "citron," etc. The weight of authority is in favour of its being regarded as the Mandragora officinalis of botanists, "a near relative of the night-shades, the 'apple of Sodo......

PARSHANDATHA
an interpreter of the law, the eldest of Haman's sons, slain in Shushan (Esther 9:7).......

QUICKSANDS
found only in Acts 27:17, Acts 27: the rendering of the Greek Syrtis. On the north coast of Africa were two localities dangerous to sailors, called the Greater and Lesser Syrtis. The former of these is probably here meant. It lies between Tripoli and Barca, and near Cyrene. The Lesser Syrtis lay farther to the west.......

RUDDER BANDS
Ancient ships had two great broad-bladed oars for rudders. These, when not in use, were lifted out of the water and bound or tied up. When required for use, these bands were unloosed and the rudders allowed to drop into the water (Acts 27:40). ......

SANDALS
Mentioned only in Mark 6:9 and Acts 12:8. The sandal was simply a sole, made of wood or palm-bark, fastened to the foot by leathern straps. Sandals were also made of seal-skin (Ezek. 16:10; lit. tahash, "leather;" A.V., "badger's skin;" R.V., "sealskin," or marg., "porpoise-skin"). (See SHOE.) ......

SHALIM, LAND OF
land of foxes, a place apparently to the north-west of Jerusalem (1-Sam 9:4), perhaps in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin in Dan (Josh. 19:42).......

SHALISHA, LAND OF
probably the district of Baal-shalisha (2-Kings 4:42), lying about 12 miles north of Lydda (1-Sam 9:4).......

SHINAR, THE LAND OF
LXX. and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel was built (Gen. 11:1), and the city of Babylon. The name occurs later in Jewish history (Isa. 11:11; Zech. 5:11). Shinar was apparently first peopled by Turanian tribes, who tilled the land and made bricks and built citie......

SHUAL, THE LAND OF
land of the fox, a district in the tribe of Benjamin (1-Sam 13:17); possibly the same as Shalim (9:4), in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin (Josh. 19:42). ......

SINIM, THE LAND OF
(Isa. 49:12), supposed by some to mean China, but more probably Phoenicia (Gen. 10:17) is intended. ......

THOUSANDS
(Micah 5:2), another name for "families" or "clans" (see Num. 1:16;10:4; Josh. 22:14, Josh. 22: 21). Several "thousands" or "families" made up a "tribe." ......

TOB, THE LAND OF
a district on the east of Jodan, about 13 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, to which Jephthah fled from his brethren (Judg. 11:3, Judg. 11: 5). It was on the northern boundary of Perea, between Syria and the land of Ammon (2-Sam 10:6, 2-Sam 10: 8). Its modern name is Taiyibeh. ......

TREE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOOD AND EVIL
stood in the midst of the garden of Eden, beside the tree of life (Gen. 2, 3). Adam and Eve were forbidden to take of the fruit which grew upon it. But they disobeyed the divine injunction, and so sin and death by sin entered our world and became the heritage of Adam's posterity. (See ADAM.) ......

TRYPHENA AND TRYPHOSA
two female Christians, active workers, whom Paul salutes in his epistle to the Romans (16:12). ......

UZ, THE LAND OF
where Job lived (1:1; Jer. 25:20; Lam. 4:21), probably somewhere to the east or south-east of Palestine and north of Edom. It is mentioned in Scripture only in these three passages. ......

WANDERING
of the Israelites in the wilderness in consequence of their rebellious fears to enter the Promised Land (Num. 14:26). They wandered for forty years before they were permitted to cross the Jordan (Josh. 4:19;5:6). The record of these wanderings is given in Num. 33:1. Many of the stations at which they camped cannot now be identified. Questions of an intricate nature have been discussed regardin......

ZUPH, LAND OF
(1-Sam 9:5, 1-Sam 9: 6), a district in which lay Samuel's city, Ramah. It was probably so named after Elkanah's son, Zuph (1-Chr 6:26, 1-Chr 6: marg.).......

ALLEGORY
used only in Gal. 4:24, Gal. 4: where the apostle refers to the history of Isaac the free-born, and Ishmael the slave-born, and makes use of it allegorically. Every parable is an allegory. Nathan (2-Sam 12:1) addresses David in an allegorical narrative. In the eightieth Psalm there is a beautiful allegory: "Thou broughtest a vine out of Egypt," etc. In Eccl. 12:2, Eccl. 12: there is a striking a......

ALLELUIA
the Greek form (Rev. 19:1, Rev. 19: 3, 4, 6) of the Hebrew Hallelujah = Praise ye Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the psalms (106, 111, 112, 113, etc.).......

ALLIANCE
a treaty between nations, or between individuals, for their mutual advantage. Abraham formed an alliance with some of the Canaanitish princes (Gen. 14:13), also with Abimelech (21:22). Joshua and the elders of Israel entered into an alliance with the Gibeonites (Josh. 9:3). When the Israelites entered Palestine they were forbidden to enter into alliances with the inhabitants of the country (Lev.......

ALLON
oak. (1.) The expression in the Authorized Version of Josh. 19:33, Josh. 19: "from Allon to Zaanannim," is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version, "from the oak in Zaanannim." The word denotes some remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim, and which served as a landmark. (2.) The son of Jedaiah, of the family of the Simeonites, who expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (1-Chr 4......

ALLON-BACHUTH
oak of weeping, a tree near Bethel, at the spot where Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried (Gen. 35:8). Large trees, from their rarity in the plains of Palestine, were frequently designated as landmarks. This particular tree was probably the same as the "palm tree of Deborah" (Judg. 4:5).......

BACA, VALLEY OF
(Psa 84:6; R.V., "valley of weeping," marg., "or balsam trees"), probably a valley in some part of Palestine, or generally some one of the valleys through which pilgrims had to pass on their way to the sanctuary of Jehovah on Zion; or it may be figuratively "a valley of weeping."......

CALL
(1.) To cry for help, hence to pray (Gen. 4:26). Thus men are said to "call upon the name of the Lord" (Acts 2:21;7:59;9:14; Rom. 10:12; 1-Cor 1:2). (2.) God calls with respect to men when he designates them to some special office (Exo 31:2; Isa. 22:20; Acts 13:2), and when he invites them to accept his offered grace (Matt. 9:13;11:28;22:4). In the message of the gospel his call is addressed t......

CALLING
a profession, or as we usually say, a vocation (1-Cor 7:20). The "hope of your calling" in Eph. 4:4 is the hope resulting from your being called into the kingdom of God.......

DECISION, VALLEY OF
a name given to the valley of Jehoshaphat (q.v.) as the vale of the sentence. The scene of Jehovah's signal inflictions on Zion's enemies (Joel 3:14; marg., "valley of concision or threshing"). ......

DESIRE OF ALL NATIONS
(Hag. 2:7), usually interpreted as a title of the Messiah. The Revised Version, however, more correctly renders "the desirable things of all nations;" i.e., the choicest treasures of the Gentiles shall be consecrated to the Lord. ......

EFFECTUAL CALL
See CALL. ......

FALL OF MAN
an expression probably borrowed from the Apocryphal Book of Wisdom, to express the fact of the revolt of our first parents from God, and the consequent sin and misery in which they and all their posterity were involved. The history of the Fall is recorded in Gen. 2 and 3. That history is to be literally interpreted. It records facts which underlie the whole system of revealed truth. It is referr......

FALLOW-DEER
Deut. 14:5 (R.V., "Wild goat"); 1-Kings 4:23 (R.V., "roebucks"). This animal, called in Hebrew _yahmur_, from a word meaning "to be red," is regarded by some as the common fallow-deer, the Cervus dama, which is said to be found very generally over Western and Southern Asia. It is called "fallow" from its pale-red or yellow colour. Some interpreters, however, regard the name as designating the buba......

FALLOW-GROUND
The expression, "Break up your fallow ground" (Hos. 10:12; Jer. 4:3) means, "Do not sow your seed among thorns", i.e., break off all your evil habits; clear your hearts of weeds, in order that they may be prepared for the seed of righteousness. Land was allowed to lie fallow that it might become more fruitful; but when in this condition, it soon became overgrown with thorns and weeds. The cultivat......

GALL
(1) Heb. mererah, meaning "bitterness" (Job 16:13); i.e., the bile secreted in the liver. This word is also used of the poison of asps (20:14), and of the vitals, the seat of life (25). (2.) Heb. rosh. In Deut. 32:33 and Job 20:16 it denotes the poison of serpents. In Hos. 10:4 the Hebrew word is rendered "hemlock." The original probably denotes some bitter, poisonous plant, most probably the po......

GALLERY
(1.) Heb. 'attik (Ezek. 41:15, Ezek. 41: 16), a terrace; a projection; ledge. (2.) Heb. rahit (1:17), translated "rafters," marg. "galleries;" probably panel-work or fretted ceiling.......

GALLIM
heaps, (1-Sam 25:44; Isa. 10:30). The native place of Phalti, to whom Michal was given by Saul. It was probably in Benjamin, to the north of Jerusalem.......

GALLIO
the elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and for some time minister of the emperor Nero. He was "deputy", i.e., proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the emperor Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth (Acts 18:12). The word used here by Luke in describing the rank of Gallio shows his accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Claudius, and the governor of such a p......

GALLOWS
Heb. 'ets, meaning "a tree" (Esther 6:4), a post or gibbet. In Gen. 40:19 and Deut. 21:22 the word is rendered "tree."......

HALL
(Gr. aule, Luke 22:55; R.V., "court"), the open court or quadrangle belonging to the high priest's house. In Matt. 26:69 and Mark 14:66 this word is incorrectly rendered "palace" in the Authorized Version, but correctly "court" in the Revised Version. In John 10:1, John 10:16 it means a "sheep-fold." In Matt. 27:27 and Mark 15:16 (A.V., "common hall;" R.V., "palace") it refers to the proetorium or......

HALLEL
praise, the name given to the group of Psalms 113-118, which are preeminently psalms of praise. It is called "The Egyptian Hallel," because it was chanted in the temple whilst the Passover lambs were being slain. It was chanted also on other festival occasions, as at Pentecost, the feast of Tabernacles, and the feast of Dedication. The Levites, standing before the altar, chanted it verse by verse,......

HALLELUJAH
praise ye Jehovah, frequently rendered "Praise ye the LORD," stands at the beginning of ten of the psalms (106, 111-113, 135, 146-150), hence called "hallelujah psalms." From its frequent occurrence it grew into a formula of praise. The Greek form of the word (alleluia) is found in Rev. 19:1, Rev. 19: 3, 4, 6.......

HALLOW
to render sacred, to consecrate (Exo 28:38;29:1). This word is from the Saxon, and properly means "to make holy." The name of God is "hallowed", i.e., is reverenced as holy (Matt. 6:9).......

JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF
mentioned in Scripture only in Joel 3:2, Joel 3: 12. This is the name given in modern times to the valley between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, and the Kidron flows through it. Here Jehoshaphat overthrew the confederated enemies of Israel (Psa 83:6); and in this valley also God was to overthrow the Tyrians, Zidonians, etc. (Joel 3:4, Joel 3: 19), with an utter overthrow. This has been fulfill......

JEZREEL, VALLEY OF
lying on the northern side of the city, between the ridges of Gilboa and Moreh, an offshoot of Esdraelon, running east to the Jordan (Josh. 17:16; Judg. 6:33; Hos. 1:5). It was the scene of the signal victory gained by the Israelites under Gideon over the Midianites, the Amalekites, and the "children of the east" (Judg. 6:3). Two centuries after this the Israelites were here defeated by the Philis......

JUDGMENT HALL
Gr. praitorion (John 18:28, John 18: 33;19:9; Matt. 27:27), "common hall." In all these passages the Revised Version renders "palace." In Mark 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium" (q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word "praitorion" has this meaning (comp. A......

MALLOTHI
my fulness, a Kohathite Levite, one of the sons of Heman the Levite (1-Chr 25:4), and chief of the nineteenth division of the temple musicians (26). ......

MALLOWS
occurs only in Job 30:4 (R.V., "saltwort"). The word so rendered (malluah, from melah, "salt") most probably denotes the Atriplex halimus of Linnaeus, a species of sea purslane found on the shores of the Dead Sea, as also of the Mediterranean, and in salt marshes. It is a tall shrubby orach, growing to the height sometimes of 10 feet. Its buds and leaves, with those of other saline plants, are eat......

MALLUCH
reigned over, or reigning. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1-Chr 6:44). (2.) A priest who returned from Babylon (Neh. 12:2). (3.) Ezra 10:29. (4.) Ezra 10:32 ......

MOUNT OF THE VALLEY
(Josh. 13:19), a district in the east of Jordan, in the territory of Reuben. The "valley" here was probably the Ghor or valley of the Jordan, and hence the "mount" would be the hilly region in the north end of the Dead Sea. (See ZARETH-SHAHAR.) ......

NAHALLAL
pasture, a city in Zebulun on the border of Issachar (Josh. 19:15), the same as Nahalol (Judg. 1:30). It was given to the Levites. It has been by some identified with Malul in the plain of Esdraelon, 4 miles from Nazareth.......

NEBALLAT
wickedness in secret, (Neh. 11:34), probably the village of Beit Nebala, about 4 miles north of Lydda.......

PALLU
separated, the second son of Reuben (1-Chr 5:3); called Phallu, Gen. 46:9. He was the father of the Phalluites (Exo 6:14; Num. 26:5, Num. 26: 8).......

PHALLU
separated, the second son of Reuben (Gen. 46:9). ......

REPHAIM, VALLEY OF
(Josh. 15:8;18:16, 18: R.V.). When David became king over all Israel, the Philistines, judging that he would now become their uncompromising enemy, made a sudden attack upon Hebron, compelling David to retire from it. He sought refuge in "the hold" at Adullam (2-Sam 5:17), and the Philistines took up their position in the valley of Rephaim, on the west and south-west of Jerusalem. Thus all communi......

SALLAI
basket-maker. (1.) A Benjamite (Neh. 11:8). (2.) A priest in the days of Joshua and Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:20). ......

SALLU
weighed. (1.) A priest (Neh. 12:7). (2.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 9:7; Neh. 11:7). ......

SALT, VALLEY OF
a place where it is said David smote the Syrians (2-Sam 8:13). This valley (the' Arabah) is between Judah and Edom on the south of the Dead Sea. Hence some interpreters would insert the words, "and he smote Edom," after the words, "Syrians" in the above text. It is conjectured that while David was leading his army against the Ammonites and Syrians, the Edomites invaded the south of Judah, and that......

SANBALLAT
held some place of authority in Samaria when Nehemiah went up to Jerusalem to rebuild its ruined walls. He vainly attempted to hinder this work (Neh. 2:10, Neh. 2: 19;4:1; 6). His daughter became the wife of one of the sons of Joiada, a son of the high priest, much to the grief of Nehemiah (13:28). ......

SHALLECHETH, THE GATE OF
i.e., "the gate of casting out," hence supposed to be the refuse gate; one of the gates of the house of the Lord, "by the causeway of the going up" i.e., the causeway rising up from the Tyropoeon valley = valley of the cheesemakers (1-Chr 26:16).......

SHALLUM
retribution. (1.) The son of Jabesh, otherwise unknown. He "conspired against Zachariah, and smote him before the people, and slew him, and reigned in his stead" (2-Kings 15:10). He reigned only "a month of days in Samaria" (15:13, 15: marg.). Menahem rose up against Shallum and put him to death (2-Kings 15:14, 2-Kings 15: 15, 17), and became king in his stead. (2.) Keeper of the temple vestment......

SHAVEH, VALLEY OF
valley of the plain the ancient name of the "king's dale" (q.v.), or Kidron, on the north side of Jerusalem (Gen. 14:17).......

SWALLOW
(1.) Heb. sis (Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7), the Arabic for the swift, which "is a regular migrant, returning in myriads every spring, and so suddenly that while one day not a swift can be seen in the country, on the next they have overspread the whole land, and fill the air with their shrill cry." The swift (cypselus) is ordinarily classed with the swallow, which it resembles in its flight, habits, and ......

TYROPOEON VALLEY
(i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemongers"), the name given by Josephus the historian to the valley or rugged ravine which in ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion. This valley, now filled up with a vast accumulation of rubbish, and almost a plain, was spanned by bridges, the most noted of which was Zion Bridge, which was probably the ordinary means of communication between the royal pala......

VALLEY
(1.) Heb. bik'ah, a "cleft" of the mountains (Deut. 8:7;11:11; Psa 104:8; Isa. 41:18); also a low plain bounded by mountains, as the plain of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon around the sources of the Jordan (Josh. 11:17;12:7), and the valley of Megiddo (2-Chr 35:22). (2.) 'Emek, "deep;" "a long, low plain" (Job 39:10, Job 39: 21; Psa 65:13; 2:1), such as the plain of Esdraelon; the "valley of gian......

WALL
Cities were surrounded by walls, as distinguished from "unwalled villages" (Ezek. 38:11; Lev. 25:29). They were made thick and strong (Num. 13:28; Deut. 3:5). Among the Jews walls were built of stone, some of those in the temple being of great size (1-Kings 6:7;7:9;20:30; Mark 13:1, Mark 13: 2). The term is used metaphorically of security and safety (Isa. 26:1;60:18; Rev. 21:12). (See FENCE.) ......

ANCIENT OF DAYS
an expression applied to Jehovah three times in the vision of Daniel (7:9, 7: 13, 22) in the sense of eternal. In contrast with all earthly kings, his days are past reckoning.......

DAYSMAN
an umpire or arbiter or judge (Job 9:33). This word is formed from the Latin diem dicere, i.e., to fix a day for hearing a cause. Such an one is empowered by mutual consent to decide the cause, and to "lay his hand", i.e., to impose his authority, on both, and enforce his sentence. ......

DAYSPRING
(Job 38:12; Luke 1:78), the dawn of the morning; daybreak. (Comp. Isa. 60:1, Isa. 60: 2; Mal. 4:2; Rev. 22:16.) ......

DAYSTAR
which precedes and accompanies the sun-rising. It is found only in 2-Pet 1:19, 2-Pet 1: where it denotes the manifestation of Christ to the soul, imparting spiritual light and comfort. He is the "bright and morning star" of Rev. 2:28;22:16. (Comp. Num. 24:17.) ......