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ABEL-CHERAMIM
(Judg. 11:33, Judg. 11: R.V.; A. V., "plain of the vineyards"), a village of the Ammonites, whither Jephthah pursued their forces.......

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES
the title now given to the fifth and last of the historical books of the New Testament. The author styles it a "treatise" (1:1). It was early called "The Acts," "The Gospel of the Holy Ghost," and "The Gospel of the Resurrection." It contains properly no account of any of the apostles except Peter and Paul. John is noticed only three times; and all that is recorded of James, the son of Zebedee, is......

ADAM, THE CITY OF
is referred to in Josh. 3:16. It stood "beside Zarethan," on the west bank of Jordan (1-Kings 4:12). At this city the flow of the water was arrested and rose up "upon an heap" at the time of the Israelites' passing over (Josh. 3:16). ......

AHITHOPHEL
brother of insipidity or impiety, a man greatly renowned for his sagacity among the Jews. At the time of Absalom's revolt he deserted David (Psa 41:9;55:12) and espoused the cause of Absalom (2-Sam 15:12). David sent his old friend Hushai back to Absalom, in order that he might counteract the counsel of Ahithophel (2-Sam 15:31). This end was so far gained that Ahithophel saw he had no longer any i......

ALEXANDER THE GREAT
the king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented in Daniel by the "belly of brass" (Dan. 2:32), and the leopard and the he-goat (7:6;11:3, 11:4). He succeeded his father Philip, and died at the age of thirty-two from the effects of intemperance, B.C. 323. His empire was divided among his four generals.......

AMRAPHEL
king of Shinar, southern Chaldea, one of the confederates of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, in a war against Sodom and cities of the plain (Gen. 14:1, Gen. 14: 4). It is now found that Amraphel (or Ammirapaltu) is the Khammu-rabi whose name appears on recently-discovered monuments. (See CHEDORLAOMER). After defeating Arioch (q.v.) he united Babylonia under one rule, and made Babylon his capital.......

ANATHEMA
anything laid up or suspended; hence anything laid up in a temple or set apart as sacred. In this sense the form of the word is _anath(ee)ma_, once in plural used in the Greek New Testament, in Luke 21:5, Luke 21: where it is rendered "gifts." In the LXX. the form _anathema_ is generally used as the rendering of the Hebrew word _herem_, derived from a verb which means (1) to consecrate or devote; ......

APOTHECARY
rendered in the margin and the Revised Version "perfumer," in Exo 30:25;37:29; Eccl. 10:1. The holy oils and ointments were prepared by priests properly qualified for this office. The feminine plural form of the Hebrew word is rendered "confectionaries" in 1-Sam 8:13.......

ARCHELAUS
ruler of the people, son of Herod the Great, by Malthace, a Samaritan woman. He was educated along with his brother Antipas at Rome. He inherited from his father a third part of his kingdom viz., Idumea, Judea, and Samaria, and hence is called "king" (Matt. 2:22). It was for fear of him that Joseph and Mary turned aside on their way back from Egypt. Till a few days before his death Herod had named......

ARCHER
a shooter with the bow (1-Chr 10:3). This art was of high antiquity (Gen. 21:20;27:3). Saul was wounded by the Philistine archers (1-Sam 31:3). The phrase "breaking the bow" (Hos. 1:5; Jer. 49:35) is equivalent to taking away one's power, while "strengthening the bow" is a symbol of its increase (Gen. 49:24). The Persian archers were famous among the ancients (Isa. 13:18; Jer. 49:35;50:9, 50: 14, ......

ARCHEVITE
one of the nations planted by the Assyrians in Samaria (Ezra 4:9); the men of Erech.......

ARIMATHEA
a "city of the Jews" (Luke 23:51), the birth-place of Joseph in whose sepulchre our Lord was laid (Matt. 27:57, Matt. 27: 60; John 19:38). It is probably the same place as Ramathaim in Ephraim, and the birth-place of Samuel (1-Sam 1:1, 1-Sam 1: 19). Others identify it with Ramleh in Dan, or Rama (q.v.) in Benjamin (Matt. 2:18).......

ASAHEL
made by God, the youngest son of Zeruiah, David's sister. He was celebrated for his swiftness of foot. When fighting against Ish-bosheth at Gibeon, in the army of his brother Joab, he was put to death by Abner, whom he pursued from the field of battle (2-Sam 2:18, 2-Sam 2: 19). He is mentioned among David's thirty mighty men (2-Sam 23:24; 1-Chr 11:26). Others of the same name are mentioned (2-Chr ......

ASHER
happy, Jacob's eigth son; his mother was Zilpah, Leah's handmaid (Gen. 30:13). Of the tribe founded by him nothing is recorded beyond its holding a place in the list of the tribes (35:26;46:17; Exo 1:4, Exo 1: etc.) It increased in numbers twenty-nine percent, during the thirty-eight years' wanderings. The place of this tribe during the march through the desert was between Dan and Naphtali (Num. 2......

ASHERAH
and pl. Asherim in Revised Version, instead of "grove" and "groves" of the Authorized Version. This was the name of a sensual Canaanitish goddess Astarte, the feminine of the Assyrian Ishtar. Its symbol was the stem of a tree deprived of its boughs, and rudely shaped into an image, and planted in the ground. Such religious symbols ("groves") are frequently alluded to in Scripture (Exo 34:13; Judg.......

ASHES
The ashes of a red heifer burned entire (Num. 19:5) when sprinkled on the unclean made them ceremonially clean (Heb. 9:13). To cover the head with ashes was a token of self-abhorrence and humiliation (2-Sam 13:19; Esther 4:3; Jer. 6:26, Jer. 6: etc.). To feed on ashes (Isa. 44:20), means to seek that which will prove to be vain and unsatisfactory, and hence it denotes the unsatisfactory nature......

ATHENS
the capital of Attica, the most celebrated city of the ancient world, the seat of Greek literature and art during the golden period of Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of novelty (Acts 17:21), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship of the gods. It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist that it was "easier to find a god at Athens than a man." On his second missionary jo......

BAAL-HERMON
lord of Hermon. (1.) A city near Mount Hermon inhabited by the Ephraimites (1-Chr 5:23). Probably identical with Baal-gad (Josh. 11:17). (2.) A mountain east of Lebanon (Judg. 3:3). Probably it may be the same as Mount Hermon, or one of its three peaks.......

BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD
only mentioned in 1-Cor 15:29. This expression as used by the apostle may be equivalent to saying, "He who goes through a baptism of blood in order to join a glorified church which has no existence [i.e., if the dead rise not] is a fool." Some also regard the statement here as an allusion to the strange practice which began, it is said, to prevail at Corinth, in which a person was baptized in the ......

BARACHEL
whom God has blessed, a Buzite, the father of Elihu, one of Job's friends (Job 32:2, Job 32: 6).......

BASHEMATH
sweet-smelling. (1.) The daughter of Ishmael, the last of Esau's three wives (Gen. 36:3, Gen. 36: 4, 13), from whose son Reuel four tribes of the Edomites sprung. She is also called Mahalath (Gen. 28:9). It is noticeable that Esau's three wives receive different names in the genealogical table of the Edomites (Gen. 36) from those given to them in the history (Gen. 26:34;28:9). (2.) A daughter of......

BATH-SHEBA
daughter of the oath, or of seven, called also Bath-shu'a (1-Chr 3:5), was the daughter of Eliam (2-Sam 11:3) or Ammiel (1-Chr 3:5), and wife of Uriah the Hittite. David committed adultery with her (2-Sam 11:4, 2-Sam 11: 5; Psa 51:1). The child born in adultery died (2-Sam 12:15). After her husband was slain (11:15) she was married to David (11:27), and became the mother of Solomon (12:24; 1-Kings......

BECHER
first-born; a youth, the second son of Benjamin (Gen. 46:21), who came down to Egypt with Jacob. It is probable that he married an Ephraimitish heiress, and that his descendants were consequently reckoned among the tribe of Ephraim (Num. 26:35; 1-Chr 7:20, 1-Chr 7: 21). They are not reckoned among the descendants of Benjamin (Num. 26:38). ......

BEEROTH OF THE CHILDREN OF JAAKAN
(Deut. 10:6). The same as Bene-jaakan (Num. 33:31).......

BEERSHEBA
well of the oath, or well of seven, a well dug by Abraham, and so named because he and Abimelech here entered into a compact (Gen. 21:31). On re-opening it, Isaac gave it the same name (Gen. 26:31). It was a favourite place of abode of both of these patriarchs (21:33:1, 19;26:33;28:10). It is mentioned among the "cities" given to the tribe of Simeon (Josh. 19:2; 1-Chr 4:28). From Dan to Beersheba,......

BEHEAD
a method of taking away life practised among the Egyptians (Gen. 40:17). There are instances of this mode of punishment also among the Hebrews (2-Sam 4:8;20:21, 20:22; 2-Kings 10:6). It is also mentioned in the New Testament (Matt. 14:8; Acts 12:2).......

BEHEMOTH
(Job 40:15). Some have supposed this to be an Egyptian word meaning a "water-ox." The Revised Version has here in the margin "hippopotamus," which is probably the correct rendering of the word. The word occurs frequently in Scripture, but, except here, always as a common name, and translated "beast" or "cattle."......

BETH-SHEAN
house of security or rest, a city which belonged to Manasseh (1-Chr 7:29), on the west of Jordan. The bodies of Saul and his sons were fastened to its walls. In Solomon's time it gave its name to a district (1-Kings 4:12). The name is found in an abridged form, Bethshan, in 1-Sam 31:10, 1-Sam 31: 12 and 2-Sam 21:12. It is on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus, about 5 miles from the Jordan, and 1......

BETH-SHEMESH
house of the sun. (1.) A sacerdotal city in the tribe of Dan (Josh. 21:16; 1-Sam 6:15), on the north border of Judah (Josh. 15:10). It was the scene of an encounter between Jehoash, king of Israel, and Amaziah, king of Judah, in which the latter was made prisoner (2-Kings 14:11, 2-Kings 14: 13). It was afterwards taken by the Philistines (2-Chr 28:18). It is the modern ruined Arabic village 'Ain-s......

BETHEL
house of God. (1.) A place in Central Palestine, about 10 miles north of Jerusalem, at the head of the pass of Michmash and Ai. It was originally the royal Canaanite city of Luz (Gen. 28:19). The name Bethel was at first apparently given to the sanctuary in the neighbourhood of Luz, and was not given to the city itself till after its conquest by the tribe of Ephraim. When Abram entered Canaan he f......

BETHELITE
a designation of Hiel (q.v.), who rebuilt Jericho and experienced the curse pronounced long before (1-Kings 16:34). ......

BETHER
dissection or separation, certain mountains mentioned in 2:17; probably near Lebanon. ......

BETHESDA
house of mercy, a reservoir (Gr. kolumbethra, "a swimming bath") with five porches, close to the sheep-gate or market (Neh. 3:1; John 5:2). Eusebius the historian (A.D. 330) calls it "the sheep-pool." It is also called "Bethsaida" and "Beth-zatha" (John 5:2, John 5: R.V. marg.). Under these "porches" or colonnades were usually a large number of infirm people waiting for the "troubling of the water......

BETHLEHEM
house of bread. (1.) A city in the "hill country" of Judah. It was originally called Ephrath (Gen. 35:16, Gen. 35: 19;48:7; Ruth 4:11). It was also called Beth-lehem Ephratah (Micah 5:2), Beth-lehem-judah (1-Sam 17:12), and "the city of David" (Luke 2:4). It is first noticed in Scripture as the place where Rachel died and was buried "by the wayside," directly to the north of the city (Gen. 48:7). ......

BLASPHEMY
In the sense of speaking evil of God this word is found in Psa 74:18; Isa. 52:5; Rom. 2:24; Rev. 13:1, Rev. 13: 6;16:9, 16: 11, 21. It denotes also any kind of calumny, or evil-speaking, or abuse (1-Kings 21:10; Acts 13:45;18:6, 18: etc.). Our Lord was accused of blasphemy when he claimed to be the Son of God (Matt. 26:65; comp. Matt. 9:3; Mark 2:7). They who deny his Messiahship blaspheme Jesus (......

BREECHES
(Exo 28:42), rather linen drawers, reaching from the waist to a little above the knee, worn by the priests (Ezek. 44:17, Ezek. 44: 18). ......

BROTHER
(1.) In the natural and common sense (Matt. 1:2; Luke 3:1, Luke 3: 19). (2.) A near relation, a cousin (Gen. 13:8;14:16; Matt. 12:46; John 7:3; Acts 1:14; Gal. 1:19). (3.) Simply a fellow-countryman (Matt. 5:47; Acts 3:22; Heb. 7:5). (4.) A disciple or follower (Matt. 25:40; Heb. 2:11, Heb. 2: 12). (5.) One of the same faith (Amos 1:9; Acts 9:30;11:29; 1-Cor 5:11); whence the early discipl......

CANAAN, THE LANGUAGE OF
mentioned in Isa. 19:18, Isa. 19: denotes the language spoken by the Jews resident in Palestine. The language of the Canaanites and of the Hebrews was substantially the same. This is seen from the fragments of the Phoenician language which still survive, which show the closest analogy to the Hebrew. Yet the subject of the language of the "Canaanites" is very obscure. The cuneiform writing of Babyl......

CARCHEMISH
fortress of Chemosh, a city on the west bank of the Euphrates (Jer. 46:2; 2-Chr 35:20), not, as was once supposed, the Circesium at the confluence of the Chebar and the Euphrates, but a city considerably higher up the river, and commanding the ordinary passage of the Euphrates; probably identical with Hierapolis. It was the capital of the kingdom of the northern Hittites. The Babylonian army, unde......

CHEBAR
length, a river in the "land of the Chaldeans" (Ezek. 1:3), on the banks of which were located some of the Jews of the Captivity (Ezek. 1:1;3:15, 3: 23;10:15, 10: 20, 22). It has been supposed to be identical with the river Habor, the Chaboras, or modern Khabour, which falls into the Euphrates at Circesium. To the banks of this river some of the Israelites were removed by the Assyrians (2-Kings 17......

CHEDORLAOMER
(= Khudur-Lagamar of the inscriptions), king of Elam. Many centuries before the age of Abraham, Canaan and even the Sinaitic peninsula had been conquered by Babylonian kings, and in the time of Abraham himself Babylonia was ruled by a dynasty which claimed sovereignity over Syria and Palestine. The kings of the dynasty bore names which were not Babylonian, but at once South Arabic and Hebrew. The ......

CHEEK
Smiting on the cheek was accounted a grievous injury and insult (Job 16:10; Lam. 3:30; Micah 5:1). The admonition (Luke 6:29), "Unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other," means simply, "Resist not evil" (Matt. 5:39; 1-Pet 2:19). Psa 3:7 = that God had deprived his enemies of the power of doing him injury. ......

CHEESE
(A.S. cese). This word occurs three times in the Authorized Version as the translation of three different Hebrew words: (1.) 1-Sam 17:18, 1-Sam 17: "ten cheeses;" i.e., ten sections of curd. (2.) 2-Sam 17:29, 2-Sam 17: "cheese of kine" = perhaps curdled milk of kine. The Vulgate version reads "fat calves." (3.) Job 10:10, Job 10: curdled milk is meant by the word. ......

CHEMARIM
black, (Zeph. 1:4; rendered "idolatrous priests" in 2-Kings 23:5, 2-Kings 23: and "priests" in Hos. 10:5). Some derive this word from the Assyrian Kamaru, meaning "to throw down," and interpret it as describing the idolatrous priests who prostrate themselves before the idols. Others regard it as meaning "those who go about in black," or "ascetics." ......

CHEMOSH
the destroyer, subduer, or fish-god, the god of the Moabites (Num. 21:29; Jer. 48:7, Jer. 48: 13, 46). The worship of this god, "the abomination of Moab," was introduced at Jerusalem by Solomon (1-Kings 11:7), but was abolished by Josiah (2-Kings 23:13). On the "Moabite Stone" (q.v.), Mesha (2-Kings 3:5) ascribes his victories over the king of Israel to this god, "And Chemosh drove him before my s......

CHENAANAH
merchant. (1.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 7:10). (2.) The father of Zedekiah (1-Kings 22:11, 1-Kings 22: 24). ......

CHENAIAH
whom Jehovah hath made. "Chief of the Levites," probably a Kohathite (1-Chr 15:22), and therefore not the same as mentioned 26:29. ......

CHEPHIRAH
village, one of the four cities of the Gibeonitish Hivites with whom Joshua made a league (9:17). It belonged to Benjamin. It has been identified with the modern Kefireh, on the west confines of Benjamin, about 2 miles west of Ajalon and 11 from Jerusalem. ......

CHERETHIM
(Ezek. 25:16), more frequently Cherethites, the inhabitants of Southern Philistia, the Philistines (Zeph. 2:5). The Cherethites and the Pelethites were David's life-guards (1-Sam 30:14; 2-Sam 8:18;20:7, 20: 23;23:23). This name is by some interpreted as meaning "Cretans," and by others "executioners," who were ready to execute the king's sentence of death (Gen. 37:36, Gen. 37: marg.; 1-Kings 2:25)......

CHERITH
a cutting; separation; a gorge, a torrent-bed or winter-stream, a "brook," in whose banks the prophet Elijah hid himself during the early part of the three years' drought (1-Kings 17:3, 1-Kings 17: 5). It has by some been identified as the Wady el-Kelt behind Jericho, which is formed by the junction of many streams flowing from the mountains west of Jericho. It is dry in summer. Travellers have de......

CHERUB
plural cherubim, the name of certain symbolical figures frequently mentioned in Scripture. They are first mentioned in connection with the expulsion of our first parents from Eden (Gen. 3:24). There is no intimation given of their shape or form. They are next mentioned when Moses was commanded to provide furniture for the tabernacle (Exo 25:17;26:1, 26: 31). God promised to commune with Moses "fro......

CHESALON
strength; confidence, a place on the border of Judah, on the side of Mount Jearim (Josh. 15:10); probably identified with the modern village of Kesla, on the western mountains of Judah. ......

CHESED
gain, the son of Nahor (Gen. 22:22). ......

CHESIL
ungodly, a town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:30); probably the same as Bethul (19:4) and Bethuel (1-Chr 4:30); now Khelasa. ......

CHEST
(Heb. _'aron_, generally rendered "ark"), the coffer into which the contributions for the repair of the temple were put (2-Kings 12:9, 2-Kings 12: 10; 2-Chr 24:8, 2-Chr 24: 10, 11). In Gen. 50:26 it is rendered "coffin." In Ezek. 27:24 a different Hebrew word, _genazim_ (plur.), is used. It there means "treasure-chests." ......

CHESTNUT TREE
(Heb. _'armon_; i.e., "naked"), mentioned in connection with Jacob's artifice regarding the cattle (Gen. 30:37). It is one of the trees of which, because of its strength and beauty, the Assyrian empire is likened (Ezek. 31:8; R.V., "plane trees"). It is probably the Oriental plane tree (Platanus orientalis) that is intended. It is a characteristic of this tree that it annually sheds its outer bark......

CHESULLOTH
fertile places; the loins, a town of Issachar, on the slopes of some mountain between Jezreel and Shunem (Josh. 19:18). It has been identified with Chisloth-tabor, 2 1/2 miles to the west of Mount Tabor, and north of Jezreel; now Iksal. ......

CHEZIB
deceitful, a town where Shelah, the son of Judah, was born (Gen. 38:5). Probably the same as Achzib (q.v.). ......

CHIEF OF THE THREE
a title given to Adino the Eznite, one of David's greatest heroes (2-Sam 23:8); also called Jashobeam (1-Chr 11:11). ......

COLOSSIANS, EPISTLE TO THE
was written by Paul at Rome during his first imprisonment there (Acts 28:16, Acts 28: 30), probably in the spring of A.D. 57, or, as some think, 62, and soon after he had written his Epistle to the Ephesians. Like some of his other epistles (e.g., those to Corinth), this seems to have been written in consequence of information which had somehow been conveyed to him of the internal state of the chu......

COMMANDMENTS, THE TEN
(Exo 34:28; Deut. 10:4, Deut. 10: marg. "ten words") i.e., the Decalogue (q.v.), is a summary of the immutable moral law. These commandments were first given in their written form to the people of Israel when they were encamped at Sinai, about fifty days after they came out of Egypt (Exo 19:10). They were written by the finger of God on two tables of stone. The first tables were broken by Moses wh......

CONGREGATION, MOUNT OF THE
(Isa. 14:13), has been supposed to refer to the place where God promised to meet with his people (Exo 25:22;29:42, 29: 43) i.e., the mount of the Divine presence, Mount Zion. But here the king of Babylon must be taken as expressing himself according to his own heathen notions, and not according to those of the Jews. The "mount of the congregation" will therefore in this case mean the northern moun......

CORINTHIANS, FIRST EPISTLE TO THE
was written from Ephesus (1-Cor 16:8) about the time of the Passover in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there (Acts 19:10;20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57). The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had arisen among them, first from A......

CORINTHIANS, SECOND EPISTLE TO THE
Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the chu......

COVERING OF THE EYES
occurs only in Gen. 20:16. In the Revised Version the rendering is "it (i.e., Abimelech's present of 1,000 pieces of silver to Abraham) is for thee a covering of the eyes." This has been regarded as an implied advice to Sarah to conform to the custom of married women, and wear a complete veil, covering the eyes as well as the rest of the face. ......

DALE, THE KING'S
the name of a valley, the alternative for "the valley of Shaveh" (q.v.), near the Dead Sea, where the king of Sodom met Abraham (Gen. 14:17). Some have identified it with the southern part of the valley of Jehoshaphat, where Absalom reared his family monument (2-Sam 18:18). ......

DEDICATION, FEAST OF THE
(John 10:22, John 10: 42), i.e., the feast of the renewing. It was instituted B.C. 164 to commemorate the purging of the temple after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes (B.C. 167), and the rebuilding of the altar after the Syrian invaders had been driven out by Judas Maccabaeus. It lasted for eight days, beginning on the 25th of the month Chisleu (December), which was often a period of heavy rai......

DIOTREPHES
Jove-nourished, rebuked by John for his pride (3-John 1:9). He was a Judaizer, prating against John and his fellow-labourers "with malicious words" (7). ......

EAST, CHILDREN OF THE
the Arabs as a whole, known as the Nabateans or Kedarenes, nomad tribes (Judg. 6:3, Judg. 6:33;7:12;8:10). ......

EL-BETHEL
God of Bethel, the name of the place where Jacob had the vision of the ladder, and where he erected an altar (Gen. 31:13;35:7). ......

EL-ELOHE-ISREAL
mighty one; God of Israel, the name which Jacob gave to the alter which he erected on the piece of land where he pitched his tent before Shechem, and which he afterwards purchased from the sons of Hamor (Gen. 33:20).......

ELIPHELEH
God will distinguish him, one of the porters appointed to play "on the Sheminith" on the occasion of the bringing up of the ark to the city of David (1-Chr 15:18, 1-Chr 15: 21).......

ELIPHELET
God his deliverance. (1.) One of David's distinguished warriors (2-Sam 23:34); called also Eliphal in 1-Chr 11:35. (2.) One of the sons of David born at Jerusalem (1-Chr 3:6;14:5); called Elpalet in 1-Chr 14:5. Also another of David's sons (1-Chr 3:8); called Eliphalet in 2-Sam 5:16; 1-Chr 14:7. (3.) A descendant of king Saul through Jonathan (1-Chr 8:39).......

ELISHEBA
God is her oath, the daughter of Amminadab and the wife of Aaron (Exo 6:23).......

EN-SHEMESH
fountain of the sun a spring which formed one of the landmarks on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin (Josh. 15:7;18:17). It was between the "ascent of Adummim" and the spring of En-rogel, and hence was on the east of Jerusalem and of the Mount of Olives. It is the modern 'Ain-Haud i.e., the "well of the apostles" about a mile east of Bethany, the only spring on the road to Jericho. The sun sh......

EPHER
a calf. (1.) One of the sons of Midian, who was Abraham's son by Keturah (Gen. 25:4). (2.) The head of one of the families of trans-Jordanic Manasseh who were carried captive by Tiglath-pileser (1-Chr 5:24).......

EPHES-DAMMIM
boundary of blood, a place in the tribe of Judah where the Philistines encamped when David fought with Goliath (1-Sam 17:1). It was probably so called as having been the scene of frequent sanguinary conflicts between Israel and the Philistines. It is called Pas-dammim (1-Chr 11:13). It has been identified with the modern Beit Fased, i.e., "house of bleeding", near Shochoh (q.v.).......

EPHESIANS, EPISTLE TO
was written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. Contents of. The Epistle to the Colossians is mainly polemical, designed to refute certain theosophic errors that had crept into the church there. That to the Ephesians does not seem to have originated in any special circumstances, but is simply a letter springing from Paul's love to the......

EPHESUS
the capital of proconsular Asia, which was the western part of Asia Minor. It was colonized principally from Athens. In the time of the Romans it bore the title of "the first and greatest metropolis of Asia." It was distinguished for the Temple of Diana (q.v.), who there had her chief shrine; and for its theatre, which was the largest in the world, capable of containing 50,000 spectators. It was, ......

EPHRAIM IN THE WILDERNESS
(John 11:54), a town to which our Lord retired with his disciples after he had raised Lazarus, and when the priests were conspiring against him. It lay in the wild, uncultivated hill-country to the north-east of Jerusalem, betwen the central towns and the Jordan valley.......

EPHRAIM, THE TRIBE OF
took precedence over that of Manasseh by virtue of Jacob's blessing (Gen. 41:52;48:1). The descendants of Joseph formed two of the tribes of Israel, whereas each of the other sons of Jacob was the founder of only one tribe. Thus there were in reality thirteen tribes; but the number twelve was preserved by excluding that of Levi when Ephraim and Manasseh are mentioned separately (Num. 1:32; Josh. 1......

ESCHEW
from old French eschever, "to flee from" (Job 1:1, Job 1: 8;2:3; 1-Pet 3:11).......

ESHEAN
a place in the mountains of Judah (5:52), supposed to be the ruin es-Simia, near Dumah, south of Hebron.......

ESTHER
the queen of Ahasuerus, and heroine of the book that bears her name. She was a Jewess named Hadas'sah (the myrtle), but when she entered the royal harem she received the name by which she henceforth became known (Esther 2:7). It is a Syro-Arabian modification of the Persian word satarah, which means a star. She was the daughter of Abihail, a Benjamite. Her family did not avail themselves of the pe......

ESTHER, BOOK OF
The authorship of this book is unknown. It must have been obviously written after the death of Ahasuerus (the Xerxes of the Greeks), which took place B.C. 465. The minute and particular account also given of many historical details makes it probable that the writer was contemporary with Mordecai and Esther. Hence we may conclude that the book was written probably about B.C. 444-434, and that the a......

FATHER
a name applied (1) to any ancestor (Deut. 1:11; 1-Kings 15:11; Matt. 3:9;23:30, 23: etc.); and (2) as a title of respect to a chief, ruler, or elder, etc. (Judg. 17:10;18:19; 1-Sam 10:12; 2-Kings 2:12; Matt. 23:9, Matt. 23: etc.). (3) The author or beginner of anything is also so called; e.g., Jabal and Jubal (Gen. 4:20, Gen. 4: 21; comp. Job 38:28). Applied to God (Exo 4:22; Deut. 32:6; 2-Sam 7......

FEAR OF THE LORD THE
is in the Old Testament used as a designation of true piety (Prov. 1:7; Job 28:28; Psa 19:9). It is a fear conjoined with love and hope, and is therefore not a slavish dread, but rather filial reverence. (Comp. Deut. 32:6; Hos. 11:1; Isa. 1:2;63:16;64:8.) God is called "the Fear of Isaac" (Gen. 31:42, Gen. 31: 53), i.e., the God whom Isaac feared. A holy fear is enjoined also in the New Testamen......

FIRST-BORN, SANCTIFICATION OF THE
A peculiar sanctity was attached to the first-born both of man and of cattle. God claimed that the first-born males of man and of animals should be consecrated to him, the one as a priest (Exo 19:22, Exo 19: 24), representing the family to which he belonged, and the other to be offered up in sacrifice (Gen. 4:4). ......

FISHER
Besides its literal sense (Luke 5:2), this word is also applied by our Lord to his disciples in a figurative sense (Matt. 4:19; Mark 1:17). ......

FISHING, THE ART OF
was prosecuted with great industry in the waters of Palestine. It was from the fishing-nets that Jesus called his disciples (Mark 1:16), and it was in a fishing-boat he rebuked the winds and the waves (Matt. 8:26) and delivered that remarkable series of prophecies recorded in Matt. 13. He twice miraculously fed multitudes with fish and bread (Matt. 14:19;15:36). It was in the mouth of a fish that ......

FITCHES
(Isa. 28:25, Isa. 28: 27), the rendering of the Hebrew _ketsah_, "without doubt the Nigella sativa, a small annual of the order Ranunculacece, which grows wild in the Mediterranean countries, and is cultivated in Egypt and Syria for its seed." It is rendered in margin of the Revised Version "black cummin." The seeds are used as a condiment. In Ezek. 4:9 this word is the rendering of the Hebrew _......

FOREHEAD
The practice common among Oriental nations of colouring the forehead or impressing on it some distinctive mark as a sign of devotion to some deity is alluded to in Rev. 13:16, Rev. 13: 17;14:9;17:5;20:4. The "jewel on thy forehead" mentioned in Ezek. 16:12 (R.V., "a ring upon thy nose") was in all probability the "nose-ring" (Isa. 3:21). In Ezek. 3:7 the word "impudent" is rightly rendered in ......

FOUNTAIN OF THE VIRGIN
the perennial source from which the Pool of Siloam (q.v.) is supplied, the waters flowing in a copious stream to it through a tunnel cut through the rock, the actual length of which is 1,750 feet. The spring rises in a cave 20 feet by 7. A serpentine tunnel 67 feet long runs from it toward the left, off which the tunnel to the Pool of Siloam branches. It is the only unfailing fountain in Jerusalem......

GATH-HEPHER
wine-press of the well, a town of Lower Galilee, about 5 miles from Nazareth; the birthplace of Jonah (2-Kings 14:25); the same as Gittah-hepher (Josh. 19:13). It has been identified with the modern el-Meshed, a village on the top of a rocky hill. Here the supposed tomb of Jonah, Neby Yunas, is still pointed out.......

GEHENNA
(originally Ge bene Hinnom; i.e., "the valley of the sons of Hinnom"), a deep, narrow glen to the south of Jerusalem, where the idolatrous Jews offered their children in sacrifice to Molech (2-Chr 28:3;33:6; Jer. 7:31;19:2). This valley afterwards became the common receptacle for all the refuse of the city. Here the dead bodies of animals and of criminals, and all kinds of filth, were cast and con......

GESHEM
or Gashmu, firmness, probably chief of the Arabs south of Palestine, one of the enemies of the Jews after the return from Babylon (Neh. 2:19;6:1, 6: 2). He united with Sanballat and Tobiah in opposing the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem. ......

GITTAH-HEPHER
(Josh. 19:13). See GATH-HEPHER. ......

GODHEAD
(Acts 17:29; Rom. 1:20; Col. 2:9), the essential being or the nature of God. ......

GOPHER
a tree from the wood of which Noah was directed to build the ark (Gen. 6:14). It is mentioned only there. The LXX. render this word by "squared beams," and the Vulgate by "planed wood." Other versions have rendered it "pine" and "cedar;" but the weight of authority is in favour of understanding by it the cypress tree, which grows abundantly in Chaldea and Armenia. ......

GOSHEN
(1.) A district in Egypt where Jacob and his family settled, and in which they remained till the Exodus (Gen. 45:10;46:28, 46: 29, 31, etc.). It is called "the land of Goshen" (7:27), and also simply "Goshen" (6:28), and "the land of Rameses" (7:11; Exo 12:37), for the towns Pithom and Rameses lay within its borders; also Zoan or Tanis (Psa 78:12). It lay on the east of the Nile, and apparently no......

HABAKKUK, PROPHECIES OF
were probably written about B.C. 650-627, or, as some think, a few years later. This book consists of three chapters, the contents of which are thus comprehensively described: "When the prophet in spirit saw the formidable power of the Chaldeans approaching and menacing his land, and saw the great evils they would cause in Judea, he bore his complaints and doubts before Jehovah, the just and the p......

HARNEPHER
a chief of the tribe of Asher (1-Chr 7:36).......

HAROSHETH OF THE GENTILES
(Judg. 4:2) or nations, a city near Hazor in Galilee of the Gentiles, or Upper Galilee, in the north of Palestine. It was here that Jabin's great army was marshalled before it went forth into the great battlefield of Esdraelon to encounter the army of Israel, by which it was routed and put to flight (Judg. 4). It was situated "at the entrance of the pass to Esdraelon from the plain of Acre" at the......

HE-ASS
Heb. hamor, (Gen. 12:16), the general designation of the donkey used for carrying burdens (Gen. 42:26) and for ploughing (Isa. 30:24). It is described in Gen. 49:14, Gen. 49: 2-Sam 19:26. (See ASS.) ......

HEAD-BANDS
(Heb. kishshurim), properly girdles or belts for the waist (Isa. 3:20, Isa. 3: R.V., "sashes;" Jer. 2:32, Jer. 2: rendered "attire", i.e., a girdle round the waist).......

HEAD-DRESS
Not in common use among the Hebrews. It is first mentioned in Exo 28:40 (A.V., "bonnets;" R.V., "head-tires"). It was used especially for purposes of ornament (Job 29:14; Isa. 3:23;62:3). The Hebrew word here used, _tsaniph_, properly means a turban, folds of linen wound round the head. The Hebrew word _peer_, used in Isa. 61:3, Isa. 61: there rendered "beauty" (A.V.) and "garland" (R.V.), is a he......

HEAP
When Joshua took the city of Ai (Josh. 8), he burned it and "made it an heap [Heb. tel] for ever" (8:28). The ruins of this city were for a long time sought for in vain. It has been at length, however, identified with the mound which simply bears the name of "Tel." "There are many Tels in modern Palestine, that land of Tels, each Tel with some other name attached to it to mark the former site. But......

HEART
According to the Bible, the heart is the centre not only of spiritual activity, but of all the operations of human life. "Heart" and "soul" are often used interchangeably (Deut. 6:5;26:16; comp. Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, Mark 12: 33), but this is not generally the case. The heart is the "home of the personal life," and hence a man is designated, according to his heart, wise (1-Kings 3:12, 1-Kings......

HEARTH
Heb. ah (Jer. 36:22, Jer. 36: 23; R.V., "brazier"), meaning a large pot like a brazier, a portable furnace in which fire was kept in the king's winter apartment. Heb. kiyor (Zech. 12:6; R.V., "pan"), a fire-pan. Heb. moqed (Psa 102:3; R.V., "fire-brand"), properly a fagot. Heb. yaqud (Isa. 30:14), a burning mass on a hearth. ......

HEATH
Heb. 'arar, (Jer. 17:6;48:6), a species of juniper called by the Arabs by the same name ('arar), the Juniperus sabina or savin. "Its gloomy, stunted appearance, with its scale-like leaves pressed close to its gnarled stem, and cropped close by the wild goats, as it clings to the rocks about Petra, gives great force to the contrast suggested by the prophet, between him that trusteth in man, naked a......

HEATHEN
(Heb. plural goyum). At first the word _goyim_ denoted generally all the nations of the world (Gen. 18:18; comp. Gal. 3:8). The Jews afterwards became a people distinguished in a marked manner from the other _goyim_. They were a separate people (Lev. 20:23;26:14; Deut. 28), and the other nations, the Amorites, Hittites, etc., were the _goyim_, the heathen, with whom the Jews were forbidden to be a......

HEAVE OFFERING
Heb. terumah, (Exo 29:27) means simply an offering, a present, including all the offerings made by the Israelites as a present. This Hebrew word is frequently employed. Some of the rabbis attach to the word the meaning of elevation, and refer it to the heave offering, which consisted in presenting the offering by a motion up and down, distinguished from the wave offering, which consisted in a repe......

HEAVEN
(1.) Definitions. The phrase "heaven and earth" is used to indicate the whole universe (Gen. 1:1; Jer. 23:24; Acts 17:24). According to the Jewish notion there were three heavens, (a) The firmament, as "fowls of the heaven" (Gen. 2:19;7:3, 7: 23; Psa 8:8, Psa 8: etc.), "the eagles of heaven" (Lam. 4:19), etc. (b) The starry heavens (Deut. 17:3; Jer. 8:2; Matt. 24:29). (c) "The heaven of heav......

HEBER
passing over. (1.) Son of Beriah and grandson of Asher (Gen. 46:17; 1-Chr 7:31, 1-Chr 7: 32). (2.) The Kenite (Judg. 4:11, Judg. 4: 17;5:24), a descendant of Hobab. His wife Jael received Sisera (q.v.) into her tent and then killed him. (3.) 1-Chr 4:18. (4.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 8:17). (5.) A Gadite (5:13). (See EBER.) ......

HEBREW
a name applied to the Israelites in Scripture only by one who is a foreigner (Gen. 39:14, Gen. 39: 17;41:12, 41: etc.), or by the Israelites when they speak of themselves to foreigners (0:15; Exo 1:19), or when spoken of an contrasted with other peoples (Gen. 43:32; Exo 1:3, Exo 1: 7, 15; Deut. 15:12). In the New Testament there is the same contrast between Hebrews and foreigners (Acts 6:1; Phil. ......

HEBREW LANGUAGE
the language of the Hebrew nation, and that in which the Old Testament is written, with the exception of a few portions in Chaldee. In the Old Testament it is only spoken of as "Jewish" (2-Kings 18:26, 2-Kings 18: 28; Isa. 36:11, Isa. 36: 13; 2 32:18). This name is first used by the Jews in times subsequent to the close of the Old Testament. It is one of the class of languages called Semitic, be......

HEBREW OF THE HEBREWS
one whose parents are both Hebrews (Phil. 3:5; 2-Cor 11:22); a genuine Hebrew. ......

HEBREWS
(Acts 6:1) were the Hebrew-speaking Jews, as distinguished from those who spoke Greek. (See GREEKS.) ......

HEBREWS, EPISTLE TO
(1.) Its canonicity. All the results of critical and historical research to which this epistle has been specially subjected abundantly vindicate its right to a place in the New Testament canon among the other inspired books. (2.) Its authorship. A considerable variety of opinions on this subject has at different times been advanced. Some have maintained that its author was Silas, Paul's companio......

HEBRON
a community; alliance. (1.) A city in the south end of the valley of Eshcol, about midway between Jerusalem and Beersheba, from which it is distant about 20 miles in a straight line. It was built "seven years before Zoan in Egypt" (Gen. 13:18; Num. 13:22). It still exists under the same name, and is one of the most ancient cities in the world. Its earlier name was Kirjath-arba (Gen. 23:2; Josh. 14......

HEGAI
eunuch, had charge of the harem of Ahasuerus (Esther 2:8). ......

HEIFER
Heb. 'eglah, (Deut. 21:4, Deut. 21: 6; Jer. 46:20). Untrained to the yoke (Hos. 10:11); giving milk (Isa. 7:21); ploughing (Judg. 14:18); treading out grain (Jer. 50:11); unsubdued to the yoke an emblem of Judah (Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:34). Heb. parah (Gen. 41:2; Num. 19:2). Bearing the yoke (Hos. 4:16); "heifers of Bashan" (Amos 4:1), metaphorical for the voluptuous females of Samaria. The ordinanc......

HEIR
Under the patriarchs the property of a father was divided among the sons of his legitimate wives (Gen. 21:10;24:36;25:5), the eldest son getting a larger portion than the rest. The Mosaic law made specific regulations regarding the transmission of real property, which are given in detail in Deut. 21:17; Num. 27:8;36:6;27:9. Succession to property was a matter of right and not of favour. Christ is ......

HELAH
rust, (1-Chr 4:5, 1-Chr 4: 7), one of the wives of Ashur. ......

HELAM
place of abundance, a place on the east of Jordan and west of the Euphrates where David gained a great victory over the Syrian army (2-Sam 10:16), which was under the command of Shobach. Some would identify it with Alamatta, near Nicephorium. ......

HELBAH
fatness, a town of the tribe of Asher (Judg. 1:31), in the plain of Phoenicia. ......

HELBON
fat; i.e., "fertile", (Ezek. 27:18 only), a place whence wine was brought to the great market of Tyre. It has been usually identified with the modern Aleppo, called Haleb by the native Arabs, but is more probably to be found in one of the villages in the Wady Helbon, which is celebrated for its grapes, on the east slope of Anti-Lebanon, north of the river Barada (Abana). ......

HELDAI
wordly. (1.) 1-Chr 27:15; called also Heleb (2-Sam 23:29); one of David's captains. (2.) Zech. 6:10, Zech. 6: one who returned from Babylon. ......

HELEB
fatness, one of David's warriors (2-Sam 23:29). ......

HELED
this world, (1-Chr 11:30); called Heleb (2-Sam 23:29). ......

HELEK
a portion, (Josh. 17:2), descended from Manasseh. ......

HELEM
a stroke, great-grandson of Asher (1-Chr 7:35). ......

HELEPH
exchange, a city on the north border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:33). ......

HELEZ
strong, or loin (?) (1.) One of Judah's posterity (1-Chr 2:39). (2.) One of David's warriors (2-Sam 23:26). ......

HELI
elevation, father of Joseph in the line of our Lord's ancestry (Luke 3:23). ......

HELKAI
smooth-tongued, one of the chief priests in the time of Joiakim (Neh. 12:15). ......

HELKATH
smoothness, a town of Asher, on the east border (Josh. 19:25;21:31); called also Hukok (1-Chr 6:75). ......

HELKATH-HAZZURIM
plot of the sharp blades, or the field of heroes, (2-Sam 2:16). After the battle of Gilboa, so fatal to Saul and his house, David, as divinely directed, took up his residence in Hebron, and was there anointed king over Judah. Among the fugitives from Gilboa was Ish-bosheth, the only surviving son of Saul, whom Abner, Saul's uncle, took across the Jordan to Mahanaim, and there had him proclaimed ki......

HELL
derived from the Saxon helan, to cover; hence the covered or the invisible place. In Scripture there are three words so rendered: (1.) Sheol, occurring in the Old Testament sixty-five times. This word sheol is derived from a root-word meaning "to ask," "demand;" hence insatiableness (Prov. 30:15, Prov. 30: 16). It is rendered "grave" thirty-one times (Gen. 37:35;42:38;44:29, 44: 31; 1-Sam 2:6, 1......

HELMET
(Heb. kob'a), a cap for the defence of the head (1-Sam 17:5, 1-Sam 17: 38). In the New Testament the Greek equivalent is used (Eph. 6:17; 1-Thess 5:8). (See ARMS.) ......

HELON
strong, father of Eliab, who was "captain of the children of Zebulun" (Num. 1:9;2:7). ......

HELP-MEET
(Heb. 'ezer ke-negdo; i.e., "a help as his counterpart" = a help suitable to him), a wife (Gen. 2:18). ......

HELPS
(1-Cor 12:28) may refer to help (i.e., by interpretation) given to him who speaks with tongues, or more probably simply help which Christians can render to one another, such as caring for the poor and needy, etc. ......

HEM
of a garment, the fringe of a garment. The Jews attached much importance to these, because of the regulations in Num. 15:38, Num. 15: 39. These borders or fringes were in process of time enlarged so as to attract special notice (Matt. 23:5). The hem of Christ's garment touched (9:20;14:36; Luke 8:44). ......

HEMAN
faithful. (1.) 1-Kings 4:31; 1-Chr 2:6, 1-Chr 2: a son of Zerah, noted for his wisdom. (2.) Grandson of Samuel (1-Chr 6:33;15:17), to whom the 88th Psalm probably was inscribed. He was one of the "seers" named in 2-Chr 29:14, 2-Chr 29: 30, and took a leading part in the administration of the sacred services. ......

HEMATH
a Kenite (1-Chr 2:55), the father of the house of Rechab. ......

HEMLOCK
(1.) Heb. rosh (Hos. 10:4; rendered "gall" in Deut. 29:18;32:32; Psa 69:21; Jer. 9:15;23:15; "poison," Job 20:16; "venom," Deut. 32:33). "Rosh is the name of some poisonous plant which grows quickly and luxuriantly; of a bitter taste, and therefore coupled with wormwood (Deut. 29:18; Lam. 3:19). Hence it would seem to be not the hemlock cicuta, nor the colocynth or wild gourd, nor lolium darnel, b......

HEN
common in later times among the Jews in Palestine (Matt. 23:37; Luke 13:34). It is noticeable that this familiar bird is only mentioned in these passages in connection with our Lord's lamentation over the impenitence of Jerusalem. ......

HENA
one of the cities of Mesopotamia destroyed by sennacherib (2-Kings 18:34;19:13). It is identified with the modern Anah, lying on the right bank of the Euphrates, not far from Sepharvaim. ......

HENADAD
favour of Hadad, the name of a Levite after the Captivity (Ezra 3:9). ......

HENOCH
See ENOCH. ......

HEPHER
a well or stream. (1.) A royal city of the Canaanites taken by Joshua (12:17). (2.) The youngest son of Gilead (Num. 26:32;27:1). (3.) The second son of Asher (1-Chr 4:6). (4.) One of David's heroes (1-Chr 11:36). ......

HEPHZIBAH
my delight is in her. (1.) The wife of Hezekiah and mother of king Manasseh (2-Kings 21:1). (2.) A symbolical name of Zion, as representing the Lord's favour toward her (Isa. 62:4). ......

HERB
(1.) Heb. 'eseb, any green plant; herbage (Gen. 1:11, Gen. 1: 12, 29, 30;2:5;3:18, 3: etc.); comprehending vegetables and all green herbage (Amos 7:1, Amos 7: 2). (2.) _Yarak_, green; any green thing; foliage of trees (2-Kings 19:26; Psa 37:2); a plant; herb (Deut. 11:10). (3.) _Or_, meaning "light" In Isa. 26:19 it means "green herbs;" in 2-Kings 4:39 probably the fruit of some plant. (4.) ......

HERD
Gen. 13:5; Deut. 7:14. (See CATTLE.) ......

HERDSMAN
In Egypt herdsmen were probably of the lowest caste. Some of Joseph's brethren were made rulers over Pharaoh's cattle (Gen. 47:6, Gen. 47: 17). The Israelites were known in Egypt as "keepers of cattle;" and when they left it they took their flocks and herds with them (Exo 12:38). Both David and Saul came from "following the herd" to occupy the throne (1 Sam. 9;11:5; Psa 78:70). David's herd-master......

HERES
sun. (1.) "Mount Heres" (Judg. 1:35), Heb. Har-heres, i.e., "sun-mountain;" probably identical with Irshemesh in Josh. 19:41. (2.) Isa. 19:18, Isa. 19: marg. (See ON.) ......

HERESY
from a Greek word signifying (1) a choice, (2) the opinion chosen, and (3) the sect holding the opinion. In the Acts of the Apostles (5:17;15:5;24:5, 24: 14;26:5) it denotes a sect, without reference to its character. Elsewhere, however, in the New Testament it has a different meaning attached to it. Paul ranks "heresies" with crimes and seditions (Gal. 5:20). This word also denotes divisions or s......

HERMAS
Mercury, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sends greetings (Rom. 16:14). Some suppose him to have been the author of the celebrated religious romance called The Shepherd, but it is very probable that that work is the production of a later generation.......

HERMES
Mercury, a Roman Christian (Rom. 16:14).......

HERMOGENES
Mercury-born, at one time Paul's fellow-labourer in Asia Minor, who, however, afterwards abandoned him, along with one Phygellus, probably on account of the perils by which they were beset (2-Tim 1:15).......

HERMON
a peak, the eastern prolongation of the Anti-Lebanon range, reaching to the height of about 9,200 feet above the Mediterranean. It marks the north boundary of Palestine (Deut. 3:8, Deut. 3:4:48; Josh. 11:3, Josh. 11: 17;13:11;12:1), and is seen from a great distance. It is about 40 miles north of the Sea of Galilee. It is called "the Hermonites" (Psa 42:6) because it has more than one summit. The ......

HERMONITES, THE
(Psa 42:6, Psa 42: 7) = "the Hermons", i.e., the three peaks or summits of Hermon, which are about a quarter of a mile apart.......

HEROD AGRIPPA I.
son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great. He was made tetrarch of the provinces formerly held by Lysanias II., and ultimately possessed the entire kingdom of his grandfather, Herod the Great, with the title of king. He put the apostle James the elder to death, and cast Peter into prison (Luke 3:1; Acts 12:1). On the second day of a festival held in honour of the emperor Clau......

HEROD ANTIPAS
Herod's son by Malthace (Matt. 14:1; Luke 3:1, Luke 3: 19;9:7; Acts 13:1). (See ANTIPAS.)......

HEROD ARCHELAUS
(Matt. 2:22), the brother of Antipas (q.v.).......

HEROD ARIPPA II.
the son of Herod Agrippa I. and Cypros. The emperor Claudius made him tetrarch of the provinces of Philip and Lysanias, with the title of king (Acts 25:13;26:2, 26: 7). He enlarged the city of Caesarea Philippi, and called it Neronias, in honour of Nero. It was before him and his sister that Paul made his defence at Caesarea (Acts 25:12). He died at Rome A.D. 100, in the third year of the emperor ......

HEROD PHILIP I.
(Mark 6:17), the son of Herod the Great by Mariamne, the daughter of Simon, the high priest. He is distinguished from another Philip called "the tetrarch." He lived at Rome as a private person with his wife Herodias and his daughter Salome.......

HEROD PHILIP II.
the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem. He was "tetrarch" of Batanea, Iturea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. He rebuilt the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own name to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea-coast which was the seat of the Roman government. He married Salome, the daughter of Herodias (Matt. 16:13; Mark 8:27; Luke 3:1).......

HEROD THE GREAT
(Matt. 2:1; Luke 1:5; Acts 23:35), the son of Antipater, an Idumaean, and Cypros, an Arabian of noble descent. In the year B.C. 47 Julius Caesar made Antipater, a "wily Idumaean," procurator of Judea, who divided his territories between his four sons, Galilee falling to the lot of Herod, who was afterwards appointed tetrarch of Judea by Mark Antony (B.C. 40), and also king of Judea by the Roman se......

HERODIANS
a Jewish political party who sympathized with (Mark 3:6;12:13; Matt,22:16; Luke 20:20) the Herodian rulers in their general policy of government, and in the social customs which they introduced from Rome. They were at one with the Sadducees in holding the duty of submission to Rome, and of supporting the Herods on the throne. (Comp. Mark 8:15; Matt. 16:6.)......

HERODIAS
(Matt. 14:3; Mark 6:17; Luke 3:19), the daughter of Aristobulus and Bernice. While residing at Rome with her husband Herod Philip I. and her daughter, Herod Antipas fell in with her during one of his journeys to that city. She consented to leave her husband and become his wife. Some time after, Herod met John the Baptist, who boldly declared the marriage to be unlawful. For this he was "cast into ......

HERODION
a Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes and calls his "kinsman" (Rom. 16:11).......

HERON
(Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18), ranked among the unclean birds. The Hebrew name is _'anaphah_, and indicates that the bird so named is remarkable for its angry disposition. "The herons are wading-birds, peculiarly irritable, remarkable for their voracity, frequenting marshes and oozy rivers, and spread over the regions of the East." The Ardea russeta, or little golden egret, is the commonest species in......

HESHBON
intelligence, a city ruled over by Sihon, king of the Amorites (Josh. 3:10;13:17). It was taken by Moses (Num. 21:23), and became afterwards a Levitical city (Josh. 21:39) in the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:37). After the Exile it was taken possession of by the Moabites (Isa. 15:4; Jer. 48:2, Jer. 48: 34, 45). The ruins of this town are still seen about 20 miles east of Jordan from the north end of t......

HESHMON
fatness, a town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:27).......

HETH
dread, a descendant of Canaan, and the ancestor of the Hittites (Gen. 10:18; Deut. 7:1), who dwelt in the vicinity of Hebron (Gen. 23:3, Gen. 23: 7). The Hittites were a Hamitic race. They are called "the sons of Heth" (Gen. 23:3, Gen. 23: 5, 7, 10, 16, 18, 20).......

HETHLON
wrapped up, a place on the north border of Palestine. The "way of Hethlon" (Ezek. 47:15;48:1) is probably the pass at the end of Lebanon from the Mediterranean to the great plain of Hamath (q.v.), or the "entrance of Hamath."......

HEZEKIAH
whom Jehovah has strengthened. (1.) Son of Ahaz (2-Kings 18:1; 2-Chr 29:1), whom he succeeded on the throne of the kingdom of Judah. He reigned twenty-nine years (B.C. 726-697). The history of this king is contained in 2-Kings 18:20, 2-Kings 18: Isa. 36-39, and 2 Chr. 29-32. He is spoken of as a great and good king. In public life he followed the example of his great-granfather Uzziah. He set hims......

HEZION
vision, the father of Tabrimon, and grandfather of Ben-hadad, king of Syria (1-Kings 15:18).......

HEZIR
swine or strong. (1.) The head of the seventeenth course of the priests (1-Chr 24:15). (2.) Neh. 10:20, Neh. 10: one who sealed Nehemiah's covenant.......

HEZRO
a Carmelite, one of David's warriors (1-Chr 11:37).......

HEZRON
enclosed. (1.) One of the sons of Reuben (Gen. 46:9; Exo 6:14). (2.) The older of the two sons of Pharez (Gen. 46:12). (3.) A plain in the south of Judah, west of Kadesh-barnea (Josh. 15:3).......

HOSEA, PROPHECIES OF
This book stands first in order among the "Minor Prophets." "The probable cause of the location of Hosea may be the thoroughly national character of his oracles, their length, their earnest tone, and vivid representations." This was the longest of the prophetic books written before the Captivity. Hosea prophesied in a dark and melancholy period of Israel's history, the period of Israel's decline a......

HOSHEA
salvation. (1.) The original name of the son of Nun, afterwards called Joshua (Num. 13:8, Num. 13: 16; Deut. 32:44). (2.) 1-Chr 27:20. The ruler of Ephraim in David's time. (3.) The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew his predecessor, Pekah (Isa. 7:16), but did not ascend the throne till after an interregnum of warfare of eight years (2-Kings 17:1, 2-Kings 17: 2). Soon after thi......

HOST OF HEAVEN
The sun, moon, and stars are so designated (Gen. 2:1). When the Jews fell into idolatry they worshipped these (Deut. 4:19; 2-Kings 17:16;21:3, 21:5;23:5; Jer. 19:13; Zeph. 1:5; Acts 7:42). ......

INTERCESSION OF THE SPIRIT
(Rom. 8:26, Rom. 8: 27; John 14:26). "Christ is a royal Priest (Zech. 6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven, a......

IPHEDEIAH
set free by Jehovah, a chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1-Chr 8:25). ......

IRHA-HERES
according to some MSS., meaning "city of destruction." Other MSS. read _'Irhahares_; rendered "city of the sun", Isa. 19:18, Isa. 19: where alone the word occurs. This name may probably refer to Heliopolis. The prophecy here points to a time when the Jews would so increase in number there as that the city would fall under their influence. This might be in the time of the Ptolemies. (See ON.) ......

ISAIAH, THE BOOK OF
consists of prophecies delivered (Isa. 1) in the reign of Uzziah (1-5), (2) of Jotham (6), (3) Ahaz (4:28), (4) the first half of Hezekiah's reign (14:28), (5) the second half of Hezekiah's reign (36-66). Thus, counting from the fourth year before Uzziah's death (B.C. 762) to the last year of Hezekiah (B.C. 698), Isaiah's ministry extended over a period of sixty-four years. He may, however, have s......

ISH-BOSHETH
man of shame or humiliation, the youngest of Saul's four sons, and the only one who survived him (2 Sam. 2-4). His name was originally Eshbaal (1-Chr 8:33;9:39). He was about forty years of age when his father and three brothers fell at the battle of Gilboa. Through the influence of Abner, Saul's cousin, he was acknowledged as successor to the throne of Saul, and ruled over all Israel, except the ......

JAPHETH
wide spreading: "God shall enlarge Japheth" (Heb. Yaphat Elohim le-Yephet, Gen. 9:27. Some, however, derive the name from _yaphah_, "to be beautiful;" hence white), one of the sons of Noah, mentioned last in order (Gen. 5:32;6:10;7:13), perhaps first by birth (10:21; 9:24). He and his wife were two of the eight saved in the ark (1-Pet 3:20). He was the progenitor of many tribes inhabiting the east......

JASHEN
sleeping, called also Hashem (1-Chr 11:34); a person, several of whose sons were in David's body-guard (2-Sam 23:32). ......

JASHER
upright. "The Book of Jasher," rendered in the LXX. "the Book of the Upright One," by the Vulgate "the Book of Just Ones," was probably a kind of national sacred song-book, a collection of songs in praise of the heroes of Israel, a "book of golden deeds," a national anthology. We have only two specimens from the book, (1) the words of Joshua which he spake to the Lord at the crisis of the battle o......

JEHOSHEBA
Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel. She is called Jehoshabeath in 2-Chr 22:11. She was the only princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest, Jehoiada (2-Chr 22:11). ......

JERUBBESHETH
contender with the shame; i.e., idol, a surname also of Gideon (2-Sam 11:21). ......

JESHEBEAB
seat of his father, the head of the fourteenth division of priests (1-Chr 24:13). ......

JESHER
uprightness, the first of the three sons of Caleb by Azubah (1-Chr 2:18). ......

JETHER
surplus; excellence. (1.) Father-in-law of Moses (Exo 4:18 marg.), called elsewhere Jethro (q.v.). (2.) The oldest of Gideon's seventy sons (Judg. 8:20). (3.) The father of Amasa, David's general (1-Kings 2:5, 1-Kings 2: 32); called Ithra (2-Sam 17:25). (4.) 1-Chr 7:38. (5.) 1-Chr 2:32; one of Judah's posterity. (6.) 1-Chr 4:17. ......

JETHETH
a peg, or a prince, one of the Edomitish kings of Mount Seir (Gen. 36:40). ......

JOCHEBED
Jehovah is her glory, the wife of Amram, and the mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Num. 26:59). She is spoken of as the sister of Kohath, Amram's father (Exo 6:20; comp. 16, 18;2:1). ......

JOHN THE BAPTIST
the "forerunner of our Lord." We have but fragmentary and imperfect accounts of him in the Gospels. He was of priestly descent. His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of Abia (1-Chr 24:10), and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron (Luke 1:5). The mission of John was the subject of prophecy (Matt. 3:3; Isa. 40:3; Mal. 3:1). His birth, which took place six months before th......

JOKTHEEL
subdued by God. (1.) A city of Judah near Lachish (Josh. 15, 38). Perhaps the ruin Kutlaneh, south of Gezer. (2.) Amaziah, king of Judah, undertook a great expedition against Edom (2-Chr 25:5), which was completely successful. He routed the Edomites and slew vast numbers of them. So wonderful did this victory appear to him that he acknowledged that it could have been achieved only by the special......

JOSHUA, THE BOOK OF
contains a history of the Israelites from the death of Moses to that of Joshua. It consists of three parts: (1.) The history of the conquest of the land (1-12). (2.) The allotment of the land to the different tribes, with the appointment of cities of refuge, the provision for the Levites (13-22), and the dismissal of the eastern tribes to their homes. This section has been compared to the Domesday......

JUDGMENT, THE FINAL
the sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, Rom. 14: 11; 2-Cor 5:10; 2-Thess 1:7). The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, John 5: 27; Rev. 1:7). "It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorio......

KEHELATHAH
assembly, one of the stations of the Israelites in the desert (Num. 33:22, Num. 33: 23).......

KINGS, THE BOOKS OF
The two books of Kings formed originally but one book in the Hebrew Scriptures. The present division into two books was first made by the LXX., which now, with the Vulgate, numbers them as the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel being the first and second books of Kings. They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon till the subjugation of ......

KIRJATH-SEPHER
city of books, Josh. 15:15; same as Kirjath-sannah (q.v.), now represented by the valley of ed-Dhaberiyeh, south-west of Hebron. The name of this town is an evidence that the Canaanites were acquainted with writing and books. "The town probably contained a noted school, or was the site of an oracle and the residence of some learned priest." The "books" were probably engraved stones or bricks. ......

LATCHET
a thong (Acts 22:25), cord, or strap fastening the sandal on the foot (Isa. 5:27; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16). ......

LEATHER
a girdle of, worn by Elijah (2-Kings 1:8) and John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4). Leather was employed both for clothing (Num. 31:20; Heb. 11:37) and for writing upon. The trade of a tanner is mentioned (Acts 9:43;10:6, 10: 32). It was probably learned in Egypt. ......

MACCABEES, BOOKS OF THE
There were originally five books of the Maccabees. The first contains a history of the war of independence, commencing (B.C. 175) in a series of patriotic struggles against the tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes, and terminating B.C. 135. It became part of the Vulgate Version of the Bible, and was thus retained among the Apocrypha. The second gives a history of the Maccabees' struggle from B.C. 176 ......

MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ
plunder speedeth; spoil hasteth, (Isa. 8:1; comp. Zeph. 1:14), a name Isaiah was commanded first to write in large characters on a tablet, and afterwards to give as a symbolical name to a son that was to be born to him (Isa. 8:1, Isa. 8: 3), as denoting the sudden attack on Damascus and Syria by the Assyrian army. ......

MAKHELOTH
assemblies, a station of the Israelites in the desert (Num. 33:25, Num. 33: 26). ......

MALACHI, PROPHECIES OF
The contents of the book are comprised in four chapters. In the Hebrew text the third and fourth chapters (of the A.V.) form but one. The whole consists of three sections, preceded by an introduction (Mal. 1:1), in which the prophet reminds Israel of Jehovah's love to them. The first section (1:6:9) contains a stern rebuke addressed to the priests who had despised the name of Jehovah, and been lea......

MARCHESHVAN
the post-biblical name of the month which was the eighth of the sacred and the second of the civil year of the Jews. It began with the new moon of our November. It is once called Bul (1-Kings 6:38). Assyrian, Arah Samna, "eighth month," ......

MATTHEW
gift of God, a common Jewish name after the Exile. He was the son of Alphaeus, and was a publican or tax-gatherer at Capernaum. On one occasion Jesus, coming up from the side of the lake, passed the custom-house where Matthew was seated, and said to him, "Follow me." Matthew arose and followed him, and became his disciple (Matt. 9:9). Formerly the name by which he was known was Levi (Mark 2:14; Lu......

MATTHEW, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
The author of this book was beyond a doubt the Matthew, an apostle of our Lord, whose name it bears. He wrote the Gospel of Christ according to his own plans and aims, and from his own point of view, as did also the other "evangelists." As to the time of its composition, there is little in the Gospel itself to indicate. It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem (Matt. 24), and......

MEHETABEEL
whose benefactor is God, the father of Delaiah, and grandfather of Shemaiah, who joined Sanballat against Nehemiah (Neh. 6:10). ......

MEHETABEL
wife of Hadad, one of the kings of Edom (Gen. 36:39). ......

MENAHEM
conforting, the son of Gadi, and successor of Shallum, king of Israel, whom he slew. After a reign of about ten years (B.C. 771-760) he died, leaving the throne to his son Pekahiah. His reign was one of cruelty and oppression (2-Kings 15:14). During his reign, Pul (q.v.), king of Assyria, came with a powerful force against Israel, but was induced to retire by a gift from Menahem of 1,000 talents o......

MEPHIBOSHETH
exterminator of shame; i.e., of idols. (1.) The name of Saul's son by the concubine Rizpah (q.v.), the daughter of Aiah. He and his brother Armoni were with five others "hanged on a hill before the Lord" by the Gibeonites, and their bodies exposed in the sun for five months (2-Sam 21:8). (2.) The son of Jonathan, and grandson of Saul (2-Sam 4:4). He was but five years old when his father and grand......

MESHECH
drawing out, the sixth son of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), the founder of a tribe (1-Chr 1:5; Ezek. 27:13;38:2, 38:3). They were in all probability the Moschi, a people inhabiting the Moschian Mountains, between the Black and the Caspian Seas. In Psa 120:5 the name occurs as simply a synonym for foreigners or barbarians. "During the ascendency of the Babylonians and Persians in Western Asia, the Moschi we......

MESHELEMIAH
friendship of Jehovah, a Levite of the family of the Korhites, called also Shelemiah (1-Chr 9:21;26:1, 26: 2, 9, 14). He was a temple gate-keeper in the time of David. ......

METHEG-AMMAH
bridle of the mother, a figurative name for a chief city, as in 2-Sam 8:1, 2-Sam 8: "David took Metheg-ammah out of the hand of the Philistines" (R.V., "took the bridle of the mother-city"); i.e., subdued their capital or strongest city, viz., Gath (1-Chr 18:1). ......

MISHEAL
(Josh. 19:26), a town of Asher, probably the same as Mishal. ......

MOREH, THE HILL OF
probably identical with "little Hermon," the modern Jebel ed-Duhy, or perhaps one of the lower spurs of this mountain. It is a gray ridge parallel to Gilboa on the north; and between the two lay the battle-field, the plain of Jezreel (q.v.), where Gideon overthrew the Midianites (Judg. 7:1). ......

MORESHETH-GATH
possession of the wine-press, the birthplace of the prophet Micah (1:14), who is called the "Morasthite" (Jer. 26:18). This place was probably a suburb of Gath. ......

MOUNT OF THE AMALEKITES
a place near Pirathon (q.v.), in the tribe of Ephraim (Judg. 12:15). ......

MOUNT OF THE AMORITES
the range of hills which rises abruptly in the wilderness of et-Tih ("the wandering"), mentioned Deut. 1:19, Deut. 1: 20, "that great and terrible wilderness." ......

MOUNT OF THE CONGREGATION
only in Isa. 14:13, Isa. 14: a mythic mountain of the Babylonians, regarded by them as the seat of the gods. It was situated in the far north, and in Babylonian inscriptions is described as a mountain called Im-Kharasak, "the mighty mountain of Bel, whose head reaches heaven, whose root is the holy deep." In their geography they are said to have identified it with mount El-wend, near Ecbatana. ......

MOUNT OF THE VALLEY
(Josh. 13:19), a district in the east of Jordan, in the territory of Reuben. The "valley" here was probably the Ghor or valley of the Jordan, and hence the "mount" would be the hilly region in the north end of the Dead Sea. (See ZARETH-SHAHAR.) ......

NEHELAMITE
the name given to a false prophet Shemaiah, who went with the captives to Babylon (Jer. 29:24, Jer. 29: 31, 32). The origin of the name is unknown. It is rendered in the marg, "dreamer."......

NEHEMIAH
comforted by Jehovah. (1.) Ezra 2:2; Neh. 7:7. (2.) Neh. 3:16. (3.) The son of Hachaliah (Neh. 1:1), and probably of the tribe of Judah. His family must have belonged to Jerusalem (Neh. 2:3). He was one of the "Jews of the dispersion," and in his youth was appointed to the important office of royal cup-bearer at the palace of Shushan. The king, Artaxerxes Longimanus, seems to have been on terms ......

NEHEMIAH, BOOK OF
The author of this book was no doubt Nehemiah himself. There are portions of the book written in the first person (ch. 1-7;12:27, 12: and 13). But there are also portions of it in which Nehemiah is spoken of in the third person (ch. 8; 9; 10). It is supposed that these portions may have been written by Ezra; of this, however, there is no distinct evidence. These portions had their place assigned t......

NUMBERING OF THE PEOPLE
Besides the numbering of the tribes mentioned in the history of the wanderings in the wilderness, we have an account of a general census of the whole nation from Dan to Beersheba, which David gave directions to Joab to make (1-Chr 21:1). Joab very reluctantly began to carry out the king's command. This act of David in ordering a numbering of the people arose from pride and a self-glorifying spir......

OHEL
a house; tent, the fourth son of Zerubbabel (1-Chr 3:20). ......

OPHEL
hill; mound, the long, narrow, rounded promontory on the southern slope of the temple hill, between the Tyropoeon and the Kedron valley (2-Chr 27:3;33:14; Neh. 3:26, Neh. 3: 27). It was surrounded by a separate wall, and was occupied by the Nethinim after the Captivity. This wall has been discovered by the engineers of the Palestine Exploration Fund at the south-eastern angle of the temple area. I......

OREB, THE ROCK OF
the place where Gideon slew Oreb after the defeat of the Midianites (Judg. 7:25; Isa. 10:26). It was probably the place now called Orbo, on the east of Jordan, near Bethshean.......

OUCHES
an Old English word denoting cavities or sockets in which gems were set (Exo 28:11).......

PALM TREES, THE CITY OF
the name given to Jericho (q.v.), Deut. 34:3; Judg. 1:16;3:13.......

PARCHED GROUND
(Isa. 35:7), Heb. sharab, a "mirage", a phenomenon caused by the refraction of the rays of the sun on the glowing sands of the desert, causing them suddenly to assume the appearance of a beautiful lake. It is called by the modern Arabs by the same Hebrew name _serab_.......

PEDAHEL
redeemed of God, the son of Ammihud, a prince of Naphtali (Num. 34:28).......

PERSEVERANCE OF THE SAINTS
their certain continuance in a state of grace. Once justified and regenerated, the believer can neither totally nor finally fall away from grace, but will certainly persevere therein and attain everlasting life. This doctrine is clearly taught in these passages, John 10:28, John 10: 29; Rom. 11:29; Phil. 1:6; 1-Pet 1:5. It, moreover, follows from a consideration of (1) the immutability of the di......

PHEBE
a "deaconess of the church at Cenchrea," the port of Corinth. She was probably the bearer of Paul's epistle to the Romans. Paul commended her to the Christians at Rome; "for she hath been," says he, "a succourer of many, and of myself also" (Rom. 16:1, Rom. 16: 2). ......

PHENICE
properly Phoenix a palm-tree (as in the R.V.), a town with a harbour on the southern side of Crete (Acts 27:12), west of the Fair Havens. It is now called Lutro. ......

PHENICIA
(Acts 21:2) = Phenice (11:19;15:3; R.V., Phoenicia), Gr. phoinix, "a palm", the land of palm-trees; a strip of land of an average breadth of about 20 miles along the shores of the Mediterranean, from the river Eleutherus in the north to the promotory of Carmel in the south, about 120 miles in length. This name is not found in the Old Testament, and in the New Testament it is mentioned only in the ......

PITCHER
a vessel for containing liquids. In the East pitchers were usually carried on the head or shoulders (Gen. 24:15; Judg. 7:16, Judg. 7: 19; Mark 14:13). ......

POTIPHERAH
a priest of On, whose daughter Asenath became Joseph's wife (Gen. 41:45). ......

POTSHERD
a "shred", i.e., anything severed, as a fragment of earthenware (Job 2:8; Prov. 26:23; Isa. 45:9). ......

PROPHECY
or prediction, was one of the functions of the prophet. It has been defined as a "miracle of knowledge, a declaration or description or representation of something future, beyond the power of human sagacity to foresee, discern, or conjecture." (See PROPHET.) The great prediction which runs like a golden thread through the whole contents of the Old Testament is that regarding the coming and work ......

PROPHET
(Heb. nabi, from a root meaning "to bubble forth, as from a fountain," hence "to utter", comp. Psa 45:1). This Hebrew word is the first and the most generally used for a prophet. In the time of Samuel another word, _ro'eh_, "seer", began to be used (1-Sam 9:9). It occurs seven times in reference to Samuel. Afterwards another word, _hozeh_, "seer" (2-Sam 24:11), was employed. In 1 29:29 all these t......

QUEEN OF HEAVEN
(Jer. 7:18;44:17, 44: 25), the moon, worshipped by the Assyrians as the receptive power in nature.......

RACHEL
ewe, "the daughter", "the somewhat petulant, peevish, and self-willed though beautiful younger daughter" of Laban, and one of Jacob's wives (Gen. 29:6, Gen. 29: 28). He served Laban fourteen years for her, so deep was Jacob's affection for her. She was the mother of Joseph (Gen. 30:22). Afterwards, on Jacob's departure from Mesopotamia, she took with her her father's teraphim (31:34, 31: 35). As t......

RAMATH OF THE SOUTH
(Heb. Ramath-negeb). The Heb. negeb is the general designation for south or south-west of Judah. This was one of the towns of Simeon (Josh. 19:8). It is the same as "south Ramoth" (1-Sam 30:27; R.V., "Ramoth of the south"). Its site is doubtful. Some have thought it another name for Baalath-beer.......

RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD
will be simultaneous both of the just and the unjust (Dan. 12:2; John 5:28, John 5: 29; Rom. 2:6; 2-Thess 1:6). The qualities of the resurrection body will be different from those of the body laid in the grave (1-Cor 15:53, 1-Cor 15: 54; Phil. 3:21); but its identity will nevertheless be preserved. It will still be the same body (1-Cor 15:42) which rises again. As to the nature of the resurrecti......

RHEGIUM
breach, a town in the south of Italy, on the Strait of Messina, at which Paul touched on his way to Rome (Acts 28:13). It is now called Rheggio. ......

RHESA
affection, son of Zorobabel, mentioned in the genealogy of our Lord (Luke 3:27). ......

ROMANS, EPISTLE TO THE
This epistle was probably written at Corinth. Phoebe (Rom. 16:1) of Cenchrea conveyed it to Rome, and Gaius of Corinth entertained the apostle at the time of his writing it (16:23; 1-Cor 1:14), and Erastus was chamberlain of the city, i.e., of Corinth (2-Tim 4:20). The precise time at which it was written is not mentioned in the epistle, but it was obviously written when the apostle was about to......

RUTH THE BOOK OF
was originally a part of the Book of Judges, but it now forms one of the twenty-four separate books of the Hebrew Bible. The history it contains refers to a period perhaps about one hundred and twenty-six years before the birth of David. It gives (1) an account of Naomi's going to Moab with her husband, Elimelech, and of her subsequent return to Bethlehem with her daughter-in-law; (2) the marria......

SALT, THE CITY OF
one of the cities of Judah (Josh. 15:62), probably in the Valley of Salt, at the southern end of the Dead Sea. ......

SANHEDRIM
more correctly Sanhedrin (Gr. synedrion), meaning "a sitting together," or a "council." This word (rendered "council," A.V.) is frequently used in the New Testament (Matt. 5:22;26:59; Mark 15:1, Mark 15: etc.) to denote the supreme judicial and administrative council of the Jews, which, it is said, was first instituted by Moses, and was composed of seventy men (Num. 11:16, Num. 11: 17). But that s......

SCHOOLS OF THE PROPHETS
(1-Sam 19:18; 2-Kings 2:3, 2-Kings 2: 5, 7, 12, 15) were instituted for the purpose of training young men for the prophetical and priestly offices. (See PROPHET; SAMUEL.) ......

SEA, THE
(Heb. yam), signifies (1) "the gathering together of the waters," the ocean (Gen. 1:10); (2) a river, as the Nile (Isa. 19:5), the Euphrates (Isa. 21:1; Jer. 51:36); (3) the Red Sea (Exo 14:16, Exo 14: 27;15:4, 15: etc.); (4) the Mediterranean (Exo 23:31; Num. 34:6, Num. 34: 7; Josh. 15:47; Psa 80:11, Psa 80: etc.); (5) the "sea of Galilee," an inland fresh-water lake, and (6) the Dead Sea or "sal......

SEA, THE MOLTEN
the great laver made by Solomon for the use of the priests in the temple, described in 1-Kings 7:23; 2-Chr 4:2. It stood in the south-eastern corner of the inner court. It was 5 cubits high, 10 in diameter from brim to brim, and 30 in circumference. It was placed on the backs of twelve oxen, standing with their faces outward. It was capable of containing two or three thousand baths of water (comp.......

SEETHE
to boil (Exo 16:23). ......

SENNACHERIB
Sin (the god) sends many brothers, son of Sargon, whom he succeeded on the throne of Assyria (B.C. 705), in the 23rd year of Hezekiah. "Like the Persian Xerxes, he was weak and vainglorious, cowardly under reverse, and cruel and boastful in success." He first set himself to break up the powerful combination of princes who were in league against him. Among these was Hezekiah, who had entered into a......

SERMON ON THE MOUNT
After spending a night in solemn meditation and prayer in the lonely mountain-range to the west of the Lake of Galilee (Luke 6:12), on the following morning our Lord called to him his disciples, and from among them chose twelve, who were to be henceforth trained to be his apostles (Mark 3:14, Mark 3: 15). After this solemn consecration of the twelve, he descended from the mountain-peak to a more l......

SHALLECHETH, THE GATE OF
i.e., "the gate of casting out," hence supposed to be the refuse gate; one of the gates of the house of the Lord, "by the causeway of the going up" i.e., the causeway rising up from the Tyropoeon valley = valley of the cheesemakers (1-Chr 26:16).......

SHAPHER
brightness, one of the stations where Israel encamped in the wilderness (Num. 33:23, Num. 33: 24).......

SHEALTIEL
asked for of God, father of Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2, Ezra 3: 8; Neh. 12:1).......

SHEAR-JASHUB
a remnant shall escape or return (i.e., to God), a symbolical name which the prophet Isaiah gave to his son (Isa. 7:3), perhaps his eldest son.......

SHEARING-HOUSE
(2-Kings 10:12, 2-Kings 10: 14; marg., "house of shepherds binding sheep." R.V., "the shearing-house of the shepherds;" marg., "house of gathering"), some place between Samaria and Jezreel, where Jehu slew "two and forty men" of the royal family of Judah. The Heb. word Beth-eked so rendered is supposed by some to be a proper name.......

SHEBA
an oath, seven. (1.) Heb. shebha, the son of Raamah (Gen. 10:7), whose descendants settled with those of Dedan on the Persian Gulf. (2.) Heb. id. A son of Joktan (Gen. 10:28), probably the founder of the Sabeans. (3.) Heb. id. A son of Jokshan, who was a son of Abraham by Keturah (Gen. 25:3). (4.) Heb. id. A kingdom in Arabia Felix. Sheba, in fact, was Saba in Southern Arabia, the Sabaeans o......

SHEBANIAH
whom Jehovah hides, or has made grow up. (1.) A Levite appointed to blow the trumpet before the ark of God (1-Chr 15:24). (2.) Another Levite (Neh. 9:4, Neh. 9: 5). (3.) A priest (Neh. 10:12). (4.) A Levite (Neh. 10:4).......

SHEBARIM
breaks; ruins, a place near Ai (Josh. 7:5; R.V. marg., "the quarries").......

SHEBNA
tender youth, "treasurer" over the house in the reign of Hezekiah, i.e., comptroller or governor of the palace. On account of his pride he was ejected from his office, and Eliakim was promoted to it (Isa. 22:15). He appears to have been the leader of the party who favoured an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. It is conjectured that "Shebna the scribe," who was one of those whom the king sent to......

SHEBUEL
captive of God. (1.) One of the descendants of Gershom, who had charge of the temple treasures in the time of David (1-Chr 23:16;26:24). (2.) One of the sons of Heman; one of those whose duty it was to "lift up the horn" in the temple service (1-Chr 25:4, 1-Chr 25: 5); called also Shubael (ver. 20).......

SHECANIAH
one intimate with Jehovah. (1.) A priest to whom the tenth lot came forth when David divided the priests (1-Chr 24:11). (2.) One of the priests who were set "to give to their brethren by courses" of the daily portion (2-Chr 31:15). Shechani'ah, id. (1.) A priest whose sons are mentioned in 1-Chr 3:21, 1-Chr 3: 22. (2.) Ezra 8:5. (3.) Ezra 10:2. (4.) The father of Shemaiah, who repaired t......

SHECHEM
shoulder. (1.) The son of Hamor the Hivite (Gen. 33:19; 34). (2.) A descendant of Manasseh (Num. 26:31; Josh. 17:2). (3.) A city in Samaria (Gen. 33:18), called also Sichem (12:6), Sychem (Acts 7:16). It stood in the narrow sheltered valley between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south, these mountains at their base being only some 500 yards apart. Here Abraham pitched his tent and built ......

SHECHINAH
a Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them "in a pillar of a cloud." This was the symbol of his presence with his people. For references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Exo ......

SHEEP
are of different varieties. Probably the flocks of Abraham and Isaac were of the wild species found still in the mountain regions of Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a result of intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his flock is referr......

SHEEP-FOLD
a strong fenced enclosure for the protection of the sheep gathered within it (Num. 32:24; 1-Chr 17:7; Psa 50:9;78:70). In John 10:16 the Authorized Version renders by "fold" two distinct Greek words, aule and poimne, the latter of which properly means a "flock," and is so rendered in the Revised Version. (See also Matt. 26:31; Luke 2:8; 1-Cor 9:7.) (See FOLD.)......

SHEEP-GATE
one of the gates of Jerusalem mentioned by Nehemiah (3:1, 3: 32;12:39). It was in the eastern wall of the city.......

SHEEP-MARKET
occurs only in John 5:2 (marg., also R.V., "sheep-gate"). The word so rendered is an adjective, and it is uncertain whether the noun to be supplied should be "gate" or, following the Vulgate Version, "pool."......

SHEKEL
weight, the common standard both of weight and value among the Hebrews. It is estimated at 220 English grains, or a little more than half an ounce avoirdupois. The "shekel of the sanctuary" (Exo 30:13; Num. 3:47) was equal to twenty gerahs (Ezek. 45:12). There were shekels of gold (1-Chr 21:25), of silver (1-Sam 9:8), of brass (17:5), and of iron (7). When it became a coined piece of money, the sh......

SHELAH
petition. (1.) Judah's third son (Gen. 38:2, Gen. 38: 5, 11, 14). (2.) A son of Arphaxad (1-Chr 1:18).......

SHELEMIAH
whom Jehovah repays. (1.) Ezra 10:39. (2.) The father of Hananiah (Neh. 3:30). (3.) A priest in the time of Nehemiah (13:13). (4.) Father of one of those who accused Jeremiah to Zedekiah (Jer. 37:3;38:1). (5.) Father of a captain of the ward (Jer. 37:13). (6.) Jer. 36:14.......

SHEM
a name; renown, the first mentioned of the sons of Noah (Gen. 5:32;6:10). He was probably the eldest of Noah's sons. The words "brother of Japheth the elder" in Gen. 10:21 are more correctly rendered "the elder brother of Japheth," as in the Revised Version. Shem's name is generally mentioned first in the list of Noah's sons. He and his wife were saved in the ark (7:13). Noah foretold his preemine......

SHEMA
rumour. (1.) A Reubenite (1-Chr 5:8). (2.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 8:13). (3.) One who stood by Ezra when he read the law (Neh. 8:4). (4.) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:26); the same as Sheba (ver. 5).......

SHEMAAH
rumour, a Benjamite whose sons "came to David to Ziklag" (1-Chr 12:3).......

SHEMAIAH
whom Jehovah heard. (1.) A prophet in the reign of Rehoboam (1-Kings 12:22). (2.) Neh. 3:29. (3.) A Simeonite (1-Chr 4:37). (4.) A priest (Neh. 12:42). (5.) A Levite (1-Chr 9:16). (6.) 1-Chr 9:14; Neh. 11:15. (7.) A Levite in the time of David, who with 200 of his brethren took part in the bringing up of the ark from Obed-edom to Hebron (1-Chr 15:8). (8.) A Levite (1-Chr 24:6). (9.......

SHEMARIAH
whom Jehovah guards. (1.) One who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:5). (2.) Ezra 10:32, Ezra 10: 41.......

SHEMEBER
soaring on high, the king of Zeboiim, who joined with the other kings in casting off the yoke of Chedorlaomer. After having been reconquered by him, he was rescued by Abraham (Gen. 14:2).......

SHEMINITH
eight; octave, a musical term, supposed to denote the lowest note sung by men's voices (1-Chr 15:21; Ps. 6; 12, title).......

SHEMIRAMOTH
most high name. (1.) A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat (2-Chr 17:8). (2.) A Levite in David's time (1-Chr 15:18, 1-Chr 15: 20).......

SHEMUEL
heard of God. (1.) The son of Ammihud. He represented Simeon in the division of the land (Num. 34:20). (2.) Used for "Samuel" (1-Chr 6:33, 1-Chr 6: R.V.). (3.) A prince of the tribe of Issachar (1-Chr 7:2).......

SHEN
a tooth, probably some conspicuous tooth-shaped rock or crag (1-Sam 7:12), a place between which and Mizpeh Samuel set up his "Ebenezer." In the Hebrew the word has the article prefixed, "the Shen." The site is unknown.......

SHENIR
=Senir, (Deut. 3:9; 4:8), the name given to Mount Hermon (q.v.) by the Sidonians.......

SHEOL
(Heb., "the all-demanding world" = Gr. Hades, "the unknown region"), the invisible world of departed souls. (See HELL.)......

SHEPHAM
a treeless place, Num. 34:10, Num. 34: 11: "The coast shall go down from Shepham to Riblah."......

SHEPHATIAH
judged of the Lord. (1.) A son of David by Abital (2-Sam 3:4). (2.) A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:5). (3.) A Simeonite prince in David's time (1-Chr 27:16). (4.) One of Jehoshaphat's sons (2-Chr 21:2). (5.) Ezra 2:4. (6.) Ezra 2:57; Neh. 7:59. (7.) One of the princes who urged the putting of Jeremiah to death (Jer. 38:1).......

SHEPHERD
a word naturally of frequent occurence in Scripture. Sometimes the word "pastor" is used instead (Jer. 2:8;3:15;10:21;12:10;17:16). This word is used figuratively to represent the relation of rulers to their subjects and of God to his people (Psa 23:1;80:1; Isa. 40:11;44:28; Jer. 25:34, Jer. 25: 35; Nahum 3:18; John 10:11, John 10: 14; Heb. 13:20; 1-Pet 2:25;5:4). The duties of a shepherd in an ......

SHEREBIAH
flame of the Lord, a priest whose name is prominent in connection with the work carried on by Ezra and Nehemiah at Jerusalem (Ezra 8:17, Ezra 8: 18, 24-30; Neh. 8:7;9:4, 9: 5;10:12).......

SHERESH
root, a descendant of Manasseh (1-Chr 7:16).......

SHEREZER
one of the messengers whom the children of the Captivity sent to Jerusalem "to pray for them before the Lord" (Zech. 7:2).......

SHERIFFS
(Dan. 3:2), Babylonian officers.......

SHESHACH
(Jer. 25:26), supposed to be equivalent to Babel (Babylon), according to a secret (cabalistic) mode of writing among the Jews of unknown antiquity, which consisted in substituting the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet for the first, the last but one for the second, and so on. Thus the letters sh, sh, ch become b, b, l, i.e., Babel. This is supposed to be confirmed by a reference to Jer. 51:41, Je......

SHESHAI
whitish, one of the sons of Anak (Num. 13:22). When the Israelites obtained possession of the country the sons of Anak were expelled and slain (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).......

SHESHBAZZAR
O sun-god, defend the lord! (Ezra 1:8, Ezra 1: 11), probably another name for Zerubbabel (q.v.), Ezra 2:2; Hag. 1:12, Hag. 1: 14; Zech. 4:6, Zech. 4: 10.......

SHETH
tumult. (1.) "The children of Sheth" (Num. 24:17); R.V., "the sons of tumult," which is probably the correct rendering, as there is no evidence that this is a proper name here. (2.) The antediluvian patriarch (1-Chr 1:1).......

SHETHAR
a star, a prince at the court of Ahasuerus (Esther 1:14).......

SHETHAR-BOZNAI
star of splendour, a Persian officer who vainly attempted to hinder the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 5:3, Ezra 5: 6;6:6, 6: 13).......

SHEVA
Heb. Shebher. (1.) The son of Caleb (1-Chr 2:49). (2.) Heb. Sheva', one of David's scribes (2-Sam 20:25).......

SHEWBREAD
Exo 25:30 (R.V. marg., "presence bread"); 1-Chr 9:32 (marg., "bread of ordering"); Num. 4:7: called "hallowed bread" (R.V., "holy bread") in 1-Sam 21:1. This bread consisted of twelve loaves made of the finest flour. They were flat and thin, and were placed in two rows of six each on a table in the holy place before the Lord. They were renewed every Sabbath (Lev. 24:5), and those that were remov......

SHILOAH, THE WATERS OF
=Siloah, (Neh. 3:15) and Siloam (q.v.)......

SHINAR, THE LAND OF
LXX. and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel was built (Gen. 11:1), and the city of Babylon. The name occurs later in Jewish history (Isa. 11:11; Zech. 5:11). Shinar was apparently first peopled by Turanian tribes, who tilled the land and made bricks and built citie......

SHUAL, THE LAND OF
land of the fox, a district in the tribe of Benjamin (1-Sam 13:17); possibly the same as Shalim (9:4), in the neighbourhood of Shaalabbin (Josh. 19:42). ......

SICHEM
=She'chem, (q.v.), Gen. 12:6. ......

SILOAH, THE POOL OF
Heb. shelah; i.e., "the dart", Neh. 3:15; with the art. _shiloah_, "sending," Isa. 8:6 (7:3)=Siloam (q.v.) ......

SIMEON, THE TRIBE OF
was "divided and scattered" according to the prediction in Gen. 49:5. They gradually dwindled in number, and sank into a position of insignificance among the other tribes. They decreased in the wilderness by about two-thirds (comp. Num. 1:23;26:14). Moses pronounces no blessing on this tribe. It is passed by in silence (Deut. 33). This tribe received as their portion a part of the territory alre......

SINIM, THE LAND OF
(Isa. 49:12), supposed by some to mean China, but more probably Phoenicia (Gen. 10:17) is intended. ......

SKULL, THE PLACE OF A
See GOLGOTHA. ......

SOSTHENES
safe in strength, the chief ruler of the synagogue at Corinth, who was seized and beaten by the mob in the presence of Gallio, the Roman governor, when he refused to proceed against Paul at the instigation of the Jews (Acts 18:12). The motives of this assault against Sosthenes are not recorded, nor is it mentioned whether it was made by Greeks or Romans. Some identify him, but without sufficient g......

STEPHEN
one of the seven deacons, who became a preacher of the gospel. He was the first Christian martyr. His personal character and history are recorded in Acts 6. "He fell asleep" with a prayer for his persecutors on his lips (7:60). Devout men carried him to his grave (8:2). It was at the feet of the young Pharisee, Saul of Tarsus, that those who stoned him laid their clothes (comp. Deut. 17:5) befor......

STOMACHER
(Isa. 3:24), an article of female attire, probably some sort of girdle around the breast. ......

SYCHEM
See SHECHEM. ......

SYNTYCHE
fortunate; affable, a female member of the church at Philippi, whom Paul beseeches to be of one mind with Euodias (Phil. 4:2, Phil. 4:3). ......

SYROPHENICIAN
"a Greek, a Syrophenician by nation" (Mark 7:26), i.e., a Gentile born in the Phoenician part of Syria. (See PHENICIA.) When our Lord retired into the borderland of Tyre and Sidon (Matt. 15:21), a Syro-phoenician woman came to him, and earnestly besought him, in behalf of her daughter, who was grievously afflicted with a demon. Her faith in him was severely tested by his silence (Matt. 15:23), r......

TACHES
hooks or clasps by which the tabernacle curtains were connected (Exo 26:6, Exo 26: 11, 33;35:11). ......

TAVERNS, THE THREE
a place on the great "Appian Way," about 11 miles from Rome, designed for the reception of travellers, as the name indicates. Here Paul, on his way to Rome, was met by a band of Roman Christians (Acts 28:15). The "Tres Tabernae was the first mansio or mutatio, that is, halting-place for relays, from Rome, or the last on the way to the city. At this point three roads run into the Via Appia, that fr......

TEMPLE, HEROD'S
The temple erected by the exiles on their return from Babylon had stood for about five hundred years, when Herod the Great became king of Judea. The building had suffered considerably from natural decay as well as from the assaults of hostile armies, and Herod, desirous of gaining the favour of the Jews, proposed to rebuild it. This offer was accepted, and the work was begun (B.C. 18), and carried......

TEMPLE, THE SECOND
After the return from captivity, under Zerubbabel (q.v.) and the high priest Jeshua, arrangements were almost immediately made to reorganize the long-desolated kingdom. The body of pilgrims, forming a band of 42,360, including children, having completed the long and dreary journey of some four months, from the banks of the Euphrates to Jerusalem, were animated in all their proceeding by a strong r......

THEATRE
only mentioned in Acts 19:29, Acts 19: 31. The ruins of this theatre at Ephesus still exist, and they show that it was a magnificent structure, capable of accommodating some 56,700 persons. It was the largest structure of the kind that ever existed. Theatres, as places of amusement, were unknown to the Jews. ......

THEBEZ
brightness, a place some 11 miles north-east of Shechem, on the road to Scythopolis, the modern Tabas. Abimelech led his army against this place, because of its participation in the conspiracy of the men of Shechem; but as he drew near to the strong tower to which its inhabitants had fled for safety, and was about to set fire to it, a woman cast a fragment of millstone at him, and "all to brake hi......

THEFT
Punished by restitution, the proportions of which are noted in 2-Sam 12:6. If the thief could not pay the fine, he was to be sold to a Hebrew master till he could pay (Exo 22:1). A night-thief might be smitten till he died, and there would be no blood-guiltiness for him (22:2). A man-stealer was to be put to death (21:16). All theft is forbidden (Exo 20:15;21:16; Lev. 19:11; Deut. 5:19;24:7; Psa 5......

THEOCRACY
a word first used by Josephus to denote that the Jews were under the direct government of God himself. The nation was in all things subject to the will of their invisible King. All the people were the servants of Jehovah, who ruled over their public and private affairs, communicating to them his will through the medium of the prophets. They were the subjects of a heavenly, not of an earthly, king.......

THEOPHILUS
lover of God, a Christian, probably a Roman, to whom Luke dedicated both his Gospel (Luke 1:3) and the Acts of the Apostles (1:1). Nothing beyond this is known of him. From the fact that Luke applies to him the title "most excellent", the same title Paul uses in addressing Felix (Acts 23:26;24:3) and Festus (26:25), it has been concluded that Theophilus was a person of rank, perhaps a Roman office......

THESSALONIANS, EPISTLES TO THE
The first epistle to the Thessalonians was the first of all Paul's epistles. It was in all probability written from Corinth, where he abode a "long time" (Acts 18:11, Acts 18: 18), early in the period of his residence there, about the end of A.D. 52. The occasion of its being written was the return of Timotheus from Macedonia, bearing tidings from Thessalonica regarding the state of the church t......

THESSALONICA
a large and populous city on the Thermaic bay. It was the capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia, and was ruled by a praetor. It was named after Thessalonica, the wife of Cassander, who built the city. She was so called by her father, Philip, because he first heard of her birth on the day of his gaining a victory over the Thessalians. On his second missionary journey, Paul preache......

THEUDAS
thanksgiving, referred to by Gamaliel in his speech before the council at Jerusalem (Acts 5:36). He headed an insurrection against the Roman authority. Beyond this nothing is known of him. ......

THIEVES, THE TWO
(Luke 23:32, Luke 23: 39-43), robbers, rather brigands, probably followers of Barabbas. Our Lord's cross was placed between those of the "malefactors," to add to the ignominy of his position. According to tradition, Demas or Dismas was the name of the penitent thief hanging on the right, and Gestas of the impenitent on the left. ......

THORN IN THE FLESH
(2-Cor 12:7). Many interpretations have been given of this passage. (1.) Roman Catholic writers think that it denotes suggestions to impiety. (2.) Luther, Calvin, and other Reformers interpret the expression as denoting temptation to unbelief. (3.) Others suppose the expression refers to "a pain in the ear or head," epileptic fits, or, in general, to some severe physical infirmity, which was a......

TIMNATH-HERES
portion of the sun, where Joshua was buried (Judg. 2:9). It was "in the mount of Ephraim, in the north side of the hill Gaash," 10 miles south-west of Shechem. The same as the following. ......

TIMOTHEUS
the Greek form of the name of Timothy (Acts 16:1, Acts 16: etc.; the R.V. always "Timothy"). ......

TITHE
a tenth of the produce of the earth consecrated and set apart for special purposes. The dedication of a tenth to God was recognized as a duty before the time of Moses. Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek (Gen. 14:20; Heb. 7:6); and Jacob vowed unto the Lord and said, "Of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee." The first Mosaic law on this subject is recorded in Lev. 2......

TOB, THE LAND OF
a district on the east of Jodan, about 13 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee, to which Jephthah fled from his brethren (Judg. 11:3, Judg. 11: 5). It was on the northern boundary of Perea, between Syria and the land of Ammon (2-Sam 10:6, 2-Sam 10: 8). Its modern name is Taiyibeh. ......

TOCHEN
measured, a town of Simeon (1-Chr 4:32). ......

TOPHEL
lime, a place in the wilderness of Sinai (Deut. 1:1), now identified with Tafyleh or Tufileh, on the west side of the Edomitish mountains. ......

TOPHET
=Topheth, from Heb. toph "a drum," because the cries of children here sacrificed by the priests of Moloch were drowned by the noise of such an instrument; or from taph or toph, meaning "to burn," and hence a place of burning, the name of a particular part in the valley of Hinnom. "Fire being the most destructive of all elements, is chosen by the sacred writers to symbolize the agency by which God ......

TORCHES
On the night of his betrayal, when our Lord was in the garden of Gethsemane, Judas, "having received a band of men and officers from the chief priests and Pharisees, cometh thither with lanterns and torches and weapons" (John 18:1). Although it was the time of full moon, yet in the valley of the Kidron "there fell great, deep shadows from the declivity of the mountain and projecting rocks; there w......

TOWER OF THE FURNACES
(Neh. 3:11;12:38), a tower at the north-western angle of the second wall of Jerusalem. It was probably so named from its contiguity to the "bakers' street" (Jer. 37:21). ......

TRANSFIGURATION, THE
of our Lord on a "high mountain apart," is described by each of the three evangelists (Matt. 17:1; Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28). The fullest account is given by Luke, who, no doubt, was informed by Peter, who was present on the occasion. What these evangelists record was an absolute historical reality, and not a mere vision. The concurrence between them in all the circumstances of the incident is exact. J......

TREE OF THE KNOWLEDGE OF GOOD AND EVIL
stood in the midst of the garden of Eden, beside the tree of life (Gen. 2, 3). Adam and Eve were forbidden to take of the fruit which grew upon it. But they disobeyed the divine injunction, and so sin and death by sin entered our world and became the heritage of Adam's posterity. (See ADAM.) ......

TRYPHENA AND TRYPHOSA
two female Christians, active workers, whom Paul salutes in his epistle to the Romans (16:12). ......

UZ, THE LAND OF
where Job lived (1:1; Jer. 25:20; Lam. 4:21), probably somewhere to the east or south-east of Palestine and north of Edom. It is mentioned in Scripture only in these three passages. ......

UZZEN-SHERAH
a town probably near Beth-horon. It derived its name from the daughter of Ephraim (1-Chr 7:24). ......

WARS OF THE LORD, THE BOOK OF THE
(Num. 21:14, Num. 21: 15), some unknown book so called (comp. Gen. 14:14; Exo 17:8; Num. 14:40;21:1, 21: 21-25, 33-35; 31. The wars here recorded might be thus designated). ......

WATCHES
the periods into which the time between sunset and sunrise was divided. They are so called because watchmen relieved each other at each of these periods. There are frequent references in Scripture to the duties of watchmen who were appointed to give notice of the approach of an enemy (2-Sam 18:24; 2-Kings 9:17; Isa. 21:5). They were sometimes placed for this purpose on watch-towers (2-Kings 17:9;1......

WHEAT
one of the earliest cultivated grains. It bore the Hebrew name _hittah_, and was extensively cultivated in Palestine. There are various species of wheat. That which Pharaoh saw in his dream was the Triticum compositum, which bears several ears upon one stalk (Gen. 41:5). The "fat of the kidneys of wheat" (Deut. 32:14), and the "finest of the wheat" (Psa 81:16;147:14), denote the best of the kind. ......

WHEEL
(Heb. galgal; rendered "wheel" in Psa 83:13, Psa 83: and "a rolling thing" in Isa. 17:13; R.V. in both, "whirling dust"). This word has been supposed to mean the wild artichoke, which assumes the form of a globe, and in autumn breaks away from its roots, and is rolled about by the wind in some places in great numbers. ......

WITNESS OF THE SPIRIT
(Rom. 8:16), the consciousness of the gracious operation of the Spirit on the mind, "a certitude of the Spirit's presence and work continually asserted within us", manifested "in his comforting us, his stirring us up to prayer, his reproof of our sins, his drawing us to works of love, to bear testimony before the world," etc. ......

WORD, THE
(Gr. Logos), one of the titles of our Lord, found only in the writings of John (John 1:1; 1-John 1:1; Rev. 19:13). As such, Christ is the revealer of God. His office is to make God known. "No man hath seen God at any time; the only begotten Son, which is in the bosom of the Father, he hath declared him" (John 1:18). This title designates the divine nature of Christ. As the Word, he "was in the beg......

YESHEBI
the Hebrew word rendered "inhabitants" in Josh. 17:7, Josh. 17: but probably rather the name of the village Yeshepheh, probably Yassuf, 8 miles south of Shechem. ......

ZACHER
memorial, a son of Jehiel (1-Chr 8:31;9:35); called Zechariah (9:37).......

ZELOPHEHAD
first-born, of the tribe of Manasseh, and of the family of Gilead; died in the wilderness. Having left no sons, his daughters, concerned lest their father's name should be "done away from among his family," made an appeal to Moses, who, by divine direction, appointed it as "a statute of judgment" in Israel that daughters should inherit their father's portion when no sons were left (Num. 27:1). But......

ZOHELETH
the serpent-stone, a rocky plateau near the centre of the village of Siloam, and near the fountain of En-rogel, to which the women of the village resort for water (1-Kings 1:5). Here Adonijah (q.v.) feasted all the royal princess except Solomon and the men who took part with him in his effort to succeed to the throne. While they were assembled here Solomon was proclaimed king, through the interven......

ZOHETH
snatching (?), one of the sons of Ishi (1-Chr 4:20).......