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AARONITES
the descendants of Aaron, and therefore priests. Jehoiada, the father of Benaiah, led 3,700 Aaronites as "fighting men" to the support of David at Hebron (1-Chr 12:27). Eleazar (Num. 3:32), and at a later period Zadok (1-Chr 27:17), was their chief.......

ABEL-SHITTIM
meadow of the acacias, frequently called simply "Shittim" (Num. 25:1; Josh. 2:1; Micah 6:5), a place on the east of Jordan, in the plain of Moab, nearly opposite Jericho. It was the forty-second encampment of the Israelites, their last resting-place before they crossed the Jordan (Num. 33:49;22:1;26:3;31:12; 25:1;31:16).......

ABIEZRITE
father of help, a descendant of Abiezer (Judg. 6:11, Judg. 6:24;8:32).......

ABITAL
father of dew; i.e., "fresh", David's fifth wife (2-Sam 3:4).......

ABITUB
father of goodness, a Benjamite (1-Chr 8:11).......

ADAM, THE CITY OF
is referred to in Josh. 3:16. It stood "beside Zarethan," on the west bank of Jordan (1-Kings 4:12). At this city the flow of the water was arrested and rose up "upon an heap" at the time of the Israelites' passing over (Josh. 3:16). ......

ADULLAMITE
an inhabitant of the city of Adullam (Gen. 38:1, Gen. 38: 12, 20).......

AFFINITY
relationship by alliance (2-Chr 18:1) or by marriage (1-Kings 3:1). Marriages are prohibited within certain degrees of affinity, enumerated Lev. 18:6. Consanguinity is relationship by blood.......

AGAGITE
a name applied to Haman and also to his father (Esther 3:1, Esther 3: 10;8:3, 8: 5). Probably it was equivalent to Amalekite.......

AHITHOPHEL
brother of insipidity or impiety, a man greatly renowned for his sagacity among the Jews. At the time of Absalom's revolt he deserted David (Psa 41:9;55:12) and espoused the cause of Absalom (2-Sam 15:12). David sent his old friend Hushai back to Absalom, in order that he might counteract the counsel of Ahithophel (2-Sam 15:31). This end was so far gained that Ahithophel saw he had no longer any i......

AHITUB
brother of goodness = good. (1.) The son of Phinehas. On the death of his grandfather Eli he succeeded to the office of high priest, and was himself succeeded by his son Ahijah (1-Sam 14:3;22:9, 22: 11, 12, 20). (2.) The father of Zadok, who was made high priest by Saul after the extermination of the family of Ahimelech (1-Chr 6:7, 1-Chr 6: 8; 2-Sam 8:17).......

AHOHITE
an epithet applied to Dodo, one of Solomon's captains (1-Chr 27:4); to his son Eleazar, one of David's three mightiest heroes (2-Sam 23:9; 1-Chr 11:12); and to Zalmon, one of the thirty (2-Sam 23:28; 1-Chr 11:29), from their descent from Ahoah.......

ALTASCHITH
destroy not, the title of Ps. 57, 58, 59, and 75. It was probably the name of some song to the melody of which these psalms were to be chanted.......

AMALEKITE
a tribe that dwelt in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea. They were not the descendants of Amalek, the son of Eliphaz, for they existed in the days of Abraham (Gen. 14:7). They were probably a tribe that migrated from the shores of the Persian Gulf and settled in Arabia. "They dwelt in the land of the south...from Havilah until thou comest to Shur" (Num. 13:29; 1-Sam 15:7). They ......

AMITTAI
true, the father of Jonah the prophet, a native of Gath-hepher (2-Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1).......

AMMONITE
the usual name of the descendants of Ammon, the son of Lot (Gen. 19:38). From the very beginning (Deut. 2:16) of their history till they are lost sight of (Judg. 5:2), this tribe is closely associated with the Moabites (Judg. 10:11; 2-Chr 20:1; Zeph. 2:8). Both of these tribes hired Balaam to curse Israel (Deut. 23:4). The Ammonites were probably more of a predatory tribe, moving from place to pla......

AMORITES
highlanders, or hillmen, the name given to the descendants of one of the sons of Canaan (Gen. 14:7), called Amurra or Amurri in the Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions. On the early Babylonian monuments all Syria, including Palestine, is known as "the land of the Amorites." The southern slopes of the mountains of Judea are called the "mount of the Amorites" (Deut. 1:7, Deut. 1: 19, 20). They seem t......

ANTOTHITE
an inhabitant of Anathoth, found only in 1-Chr 11:28;12:3. In 2-Sam 23:27 it is Anethothite; in 1-Chr 27:12, 1-Chr 27: Anetothite. (R.V., "Anathothite.")......

APHARSACHITES
a company of the colonists whom the Assyrian king planted in Samaria (Ezra 5:6;6:6).......

APHARSITES
another of the tribes removed to Samaria (Ezra 4:9), or perhaps the same as the preceding.......

ARBATHITE
a name given to Abi-albon, or, as elsewhere called, Abiel, one of David's warriors (2-Sam 23:31; 1-Chr 11:32), probably as being an inhabitant of Arabah (Josh. 15:61), a town in the wilderness of Judah.......

ARCHEVITE
one of the nations planted by the Assyrians in Samaria (Ezra 4:9); the men of Erech.......

ARCHITE
the usual designation of Hushai (2-Sam 15:32;17:5, 17: 14; 1-Chr 27:33), who was a native of Archi. He was "the king's friend", i.e., he held office under David similar to that of our modern privy councillor.......

AREOPAGITE
a member of the court of Areopagus (Acts 17:34).......

ARKITE
(Gen. 10:17; 1-Chr 1:15), a designation of certain descendants from the Phoenicians or Sidonians, the inhabitants of Arka, 12 miles north of Tripoli, opposite the northern extremity of Lebanon.......

ASHURITES
mentioned among those over whom Ish-bosheth was made king (2-Sam 2:9).......

BAAL-BERITH
covenant lord, the name of the god worshipped in Shechem after the death of Gideon (Judg. 8:33;9:4). 9:46 he is called simply "the god Berith." The name denotes the god of the covenant into which the Israelites entered with the Canaanites, contrary to the command of Jehovah (Exo 34:12), when they began to fall away to the worship of idols.......

BACKBITE
In Psa 15:3, Psa 15: the rendering of a word which means to run about tattling, calumniating; in Prov. 25:23, Prov. 25: secret talebearing or slandering; in Rom. 1:30 and 2-Cor 12:20, 2-Cor 12: evil-speaking, maliciously defaming the absent.......

BAJITH
house, probably a city of Moab, which had a celebrated idol-temple (Isa. 15:2). It has also been regarded as denoting simply the temple of the idol of Moab as opposed to the "high place."......

BETHELITE
a designation of Hiel (q.v.), who rebuilt Jericho and experienced the curse pronounced long before (1-Kings 16:34). ......

BIT
the curb put into the mouths of horses to restrain them. The Hebrew word (metheg) so rendered in Psa 32:9 is elsewhere translated "bridle" (2-Kings 19:28; Prov. 26:3; Isa. 37:29). Bits were generally made of bronze or iron, but sometimes also of gold or silver. In James 3:3 the Authorized Version translates the Greek word by "bits," but the Revised Version by "bridles." ......

BITH-RON
the broken or divided place, a district in the Arabah or Jordan valley, on the east of the river (2-Sam 2:29). It was probably the designation of the region in general, which is broken and intersected by ravines. ......

BITHYNIA
a province in Asia Minor, to the south of the Euxine and Propontis. Christian congregations were here formed at an early time (1-Pet 1:1). Paul was prevented by the Spirit from entering this province (Acts 16:7). It is noted in church history as the province ruled over by Pliny as Roman proconsul, who was perplexed as to the course he should take with the numerous Christians brought before his tri......

BITTER
Bitterness is symbolical of affliction, misery, and servitude (Exo 1:14; Ruth 1:20; Jer. 9:15). The Chaldeans are called the "bitter and hasty nation" (Hab. 1:6). The "gall of bitterness" expresses a state of great wickedness (Acts 8:23). A "root of bitterness" is a wicked person or a dangerous sin (Heb. 12:15). The Passover was to be eaten with "bitter herbs" (Exo 12:8; Num. 9:11). The kind of ......

BITTERN
is found three times in connection with the desolations to come upon Babylon, Idumea, and Nineveh (Isa. 14:23;34:11; Zeph. 2:14). This bird belongs to the class of cranes. Its scientific name is Botaurus stellaris. It is a solitary bird, frequenting marshy ground. The Hebrew word (kippod) thus rendered in the Authorized Version is rendered "porcupine" in the Revised Version. But in the passages no......

BITUMEN
Gen. 11:3, Gen. 11: R.V., margin, rendered in the A.V. "slime"), a mineral pitch. With this the ark was pitched (6:14. See also Exo 2:3.) (See SLIME.) ......

BRUIT
a rumour or report (Jer. 10:22, Jer. 10: R.V. "rumour;" Nah. 3:19).......

CANAANITE
a name given to the apostle Simon (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:18). The word here does not, however, mean a descendant of Canaan, but is a translation, or rather almost a transliteration, of the Syriac word Kanenyeh (R.V. rendered "Cananaen"), which designates the Jewish sect of the Zealots. Hence he is called elsewhere (Luke 6:15) "Simon Zelotes;" i.e., Simon of the sect of the Zealots. (See SIMON.)......

CANAANITES
the descendants of Canaan, the son of Ham. Migrating from their original home, they seem to have reached the Persian Gulf, and to have there sojourned for some time. They thence "spread to the west, across the mountain chain of Lebanon to the very edge of the Mediterranean Sea, occupying all the land which later became Palestine, also to the north-west as far as the mountain chain of Taurus. This ......

CAPTIVITY
(1.) Of Israel. The kingdom of the ten tribes was successively invaded by several Assyrian kings. Pul (q.v.) imposed a tribute on Menahem of a thousand talents of silver (2-Kings 15:19, 2-Kings 15: 20; 1-Chr 5:26) (B.C. 762), and Tiglath-pileser, in the days of Pekah (B.C. 738), carried away the trans-Jordanic tribes and the inhabitants of Galilee into Assyria (2-Kings 15:29; Isa. 9:1). Subsequent......

CHAPITER
the ornamental head or capital of a pillar. Three Hebrew words are so rendered. (1.) _Cothereth_ (1-Kings 7:16; 2-Kings 25:17; 2-Chr 4:12), meaning a "diadem" or "crown." (2.) _Tzepheth_ (2-Chr 3:15). (3.) _Rosh_ (Exo 36:38;38:17, 38: 19, 28), properly a "head" or "top." ......

CHARITY
(1 Cor. 13), the rendering in the Authorized Version of the word which properly denotes love, and is frequently so rendered (always so in the Revised Version). It is spoken of as the greatest of the three Christian graces (1-Cor 12:31:13). ......

CHERITH
a cutting; separation; a gorge, a torrent-bed or winter-stream, a "brook," in whose banks the prophet Elijah hid himself during the early part of the three years' drought (1-Kings 17:3, 1-Kings 17: 5). It has by some been identified as the Wady el-Kelt behind Jericho, which is formed by the junction of many streams flowing from the mountains west of Jericho. It is dry in summer. Travellers have de......

CHITTIM
or Kittim, a plural form (Gen. 10:4), the name of a branch of the descendants of Javan, the "son" of Japheth. Balaam foretold (Num. 24:24) "that ships shall come from the coast of Chittim, and afflict Eber." Daniel prophesied (11:30) that the ships of Chittim would come against the king of the north. It probably denotes Cyprus, whose ancient capital was called Kition by the Greeks. The reference......

CIRCUIT
the apparent diurnal revolution of the sun round the earth (Psa 19:6), and the changes of the wind (Eccl. 1:6). In Job 22:14, Job 22: "in the circuit of heaven" (R.V. marg., "on the vault of heaven") means the "arch of heaven," which seems to be bent over our heads. ......

CITIZENSHIP
the rights and privileges of a citizen in distinction from a foreigner (Luke 15:15;19:14; Acts 21:39). Under the Mosaic law non-Israelites, with the exception of the Moabites and the Ammonites and others mentioned in Deut. 23:1, Deut. 23: were admitted to the general privileges of citizenship among the Jews (Exo 12:19; Lev. 24:22; Num. 15:15;35:15; Deut. 10:18;14:29;16:10, 16: 14). The right of ......

CITY
The earliest mention of city-building is that of Enoch, which was built by Cain (Gen. 4:17). After the confusion of tongues, the descendants of Nimrod founded several cities (10:10). Next, we have a record of the cities of the Canaanites, Sidon, Gaza, Sodom, etc. (10:12, 10: 19;11:3, 11: 9;36:31). The earliest description of a city is that of Sodom (19:1). Damascus is said to be the oldest existin......

COGITATIONS
(or "thoughts," as the Chaldee word in Dan. 7:28 literally means), earnest meditation. ......

CONDUIT
a water-course or channel (Job 38:25). The "conduit of the upper pool" (Isa. 7:3) was formed by Hezekiah for the purpose of conveying the waters from the upper pool in the valley of Gihon to the west side of the city of David (2-Kings 18:17;20:20; 2-Chr 32:30). In carrying out this work he stopped "the waters of the fountains which were without the city" i.e., "the upper water-course of Gihon", an......

CUBIT
Heb. 'ammah; i.e., "mother of the arm," the fore-arm, is a word derived from the Latin cubitus, the lower arm. It is difficult to determine the exact length of this measure, from the uncertainty whether it included the entire length from the elbow to the tip of the longest finger, or only from the elbow to the root of the hand at the wrist. The probability is that the longer was the original cubit......

CUSHITE
(1.) The messenger sent by Joab to David to announce his victory over Absalom (2-Sam 18:32). (2.) The father of Shelemiah (Jer. 36:14). (3.) Son of Gedaliah, and father of the prophet Zephaniah (1:1). (4.) Moses married a Cushite woman (Num. 12:1). From this circumstance some have supposed that Zipporah was meant, and hence that Midian was Cush. ......

DAVID, CITY OF
(1.) David took from the Jebusites the fortress of Mount Zion. He "dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David" (1-Chr 11:7). This was the name afterwards given to the castle and royal palace on Mount Zion, as distinguished from Jerusalem generally (1-Kings 3:1;8:1), It was on the south-west side of Jerusalem, opposite the temple mount, with which it was connected by a bridge over the Tyrop......

DEHAVITES
villagers, one of the Assyrian tribes which Asnapper sent to repopulate Samaria (Ezra 4:9). They were probably a nomad Persian tribe on the east of the Caspian Sea, and near the Sea of Azof. ......

DESTRUCTION, CITY OF
(Isa. 19:18; Heb. Ir-ha-Heres, "city of overthrow," because of the evidence it would present of the overthrow of heathenism), the ideal title of On or Heliopolis (q.v.). ......

ENMITY
deep-rooted hatred. "I will put enmity between thee and the woman, between thy seed and her seed" (Gen. 3:15). The friendship of the world is "enmity with God" (James 4:4; 1-John 2:15, 1-John 2: 16). The "carnal mind" is "enmity against God" (Rom. 8:7). By the abrogation of the Mosaic institutes the "enmity" between Jew and Gentile is removed. They are reconciled, are "made one" (Eph. 2:15, Eph. 2......

EPAPHRODITUS
fair, graceful; belonging to Aphrodite or Venus the messenger who came from Phillipi to the apostle when he was a prisoner at Rome (Phil. 2:25;4:10). Paul mentions him in words of esteem and affection. On his return to Philippi he was the bearer of Paul's letter to the church there.......

EPHRATHITE
a citizen of Ephratah, the old name of Bethlehem (Ruth 1:2; 1-Sam 17:12), or Bethlehem-Judah.......

EZRAHITE
a title given to Ethan (1-Kings 4:31; Ps. 89, title) and Heman (Ps. 88, title). They were both sons of Zerah (1-Chr 2:6). ......

FAITH
Faith is in general the persuasion of the mind that a certain statement is true (Phil. 1:27; 2-Thess 2:13). Its primary idea is trust. A thing is true, and therefore worthy of trust. It admits of many degrees up to full assurance of faith, in accordance with the evidence on which it rests. Faith is the result of teaching (Rom. 10:14). Knowledge is an essential element in all faith, and is someti......

FAITHFUL
as a designation of Christians, means full of faith, trustful, and not simply trustworthy (Acts 10:45;16:1; 2-Cor 6:15; Col. 1:2; 1-Tim 4:3, 1-Tim 4: 12;5:16;6:2; Titus 1:6; Eph. 1:1; 1-Cor 4:17, 1-Cor 4: etc.). It is used also of God's word or covenant as true and to be trusted (Psa 119:86, Psa 119: 138; Isa. 25:1; 1-Tim 1:15; Rev. 21:5;22:6, 22: etc.). ......

FAMILIAR SPIRIT
Sorcerers or necormancers, who professed to call up the dead to answer questions, were said to have a "familiar spirit" (Deut. 18:11; 2-Kings 21:6; 2-Chr 33:6; Lev. 19:31;20:6; Isa. 8:19;29:4). Such a person was called by the Hebrews an _'ob_, which properly means a leathern bottle; for sorcerers were regarded as vessels containing the inspiring demon. This Hebrew word was equivalent to the pytho ......

FENCED CITIES
There were in Palestine (1) cities, (2) unwalled villages, and (3) villages with castles or towers (1-Chr 27:25). Cities, so called, had walls, and were thus fenced. The fortifications consisted of one or two walls, on which were towers or parapets at regular intervals (2-Chr 32:5; Jer. 31:38). Around ancient Jerusalem were three walls, on one of which were ninety towers, on the second fourteen, a......

FIRST-FRUITS
The first-fruits of the ground were offered unto God just as the first-born of man and animals. The law required, (1.) That on the morrow after the Passover Sabbath a sheaf of new corn should be waved by the priest before the altar (Lev. 23:5, Lev. 23: 6, 10, 12;2:12). (2.) That at the feast of Pentecost two loaves of leavened bread, made from the new flour, were to be waved in like manner (Le......

FITCHES
(Isa. 28:25, Isa. 28: 27), the rendering of the Hebrew _ketsah_, "without doubt the Nigella sativa, a small annual of the order Ranunculacece, which grows wild in the Mediterranean countries, and is cultivated in Egypt and Syria for its seed." It is rendered in margin of the Revised Version "black cummin." The seeds are used as a condiment. In Ezek. 4:9 this word is the rendering of the Hebrew _......

FRUIT
a word as used in Scripture denoting produce in general, whether vegetable or animal. The Hebrews divided the fruits of the land into three classes:, (1.) The fruit of the field, "corn-fruit" (Heb. dagan); all kinds of grain and pulse. (2.) The fruit of the vine, "vintage-fruit" (Heb. tirosh); grapes, whether moist or dried. (3.) "Orchard-fruits" (Heb. yitshar), as dates, figs, citrons, etc.......

FUGITIVE
Gen. 4:12, Gen. 4: 14, a rover or wanderer (Heb. n'a); Judg. 12:4, Judg. 12: a refugee, one who has escaped (Heb. palit); 2-Kings 25:11, 2-Kings 25: a deserter, one who has fallen away to the enemy (Heb. nophel); Ezek. 17:21, Ezek. 17: one who has broken away in flight (Heb. mibrah); Isa. 15:5;43:14, 43: a breaker away, a fugitive (Heb. beriah), one who flees away. ......

GAULANITIS
a name derived from "Golan" (q.v.), one of the cities of refuge in the territory of Manasseh (Josh. 20:8;21:27; Deut. 4:43). This was one of the provinces ruled by Herod Antipas. It lay to the east of the Lake of Galilee, and included among its towns Bethsaida-Julias (Mark 8:22) and Seleucia.......

GEBALITES
(1-Kings 5:18 R.V., in A.V. incorrectly rendered, after the Targum, "stone-squarers," but marg. "Giblites"), the inhabitants of Gebal (2).......

GEDERATHITE
an epithet applied to Josabad, one of David's warriors at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:4), a native of Gederah. ......

GESHURITES
(1.) The inhabitants of Geshur. They maintained friendly relations with the Israelites on the east of Jordan (Josh. 12:5;13:11, 13: 13). (2.) Another aboriginal people of Palestine who inhabited the south-west border of the land. Geshuri in Josh. 13:2 should be "the Geshurite," not the Geshurites mentioned in ver. 11, 13, but the tribe mentioned in 1-Sam 27:8. ......

GIFTS, SPIRITUAL
(Gr. charismata), gifts supernaturally bestowed on the early Christians, each having his own proper gift or gifts for the edification of the body of Christ. These were the result of the extraordinary operation of the Spirit, as on the day of Pentecost. They were the gifts of speaking with tongues, casting out devils, healing, etc. (Mark 16:17, Mark 16: 18), usually communicated by the medium of th......

GIRGASHITE
dwelling in clayey soil, the descendants of the fifth son of Canaan (Gen. 10:16), one of the original tribes inhabiting the land of Canaan before the time of the Israelites (Gen. 15:21; Deut. 7:1). They were a branch of the great family of the Hivites. Of their geographical position nothing is certainly known. Probably they lived somewhere in the central part of Western Palestine. ......

GITTAH-HEPHER
(Josh. 19:13). See GATH-HEPHER. ......

GITTAIM
two wine-presses, (2-Sam 4:3; Neh. 11:33), a town probably in Benjamin to which the Beerothites fled. ......

GITTITE
a native of the Philistine city of Gath (Josh. 13:3). Obed-edom, in whose house the ark was placed, is so designated (2-Sam 6:10). Six hundred Gittites came with David from Gath into Israel (15:18, 15: 19). ......

GITTITH
a stringed instrument of music. This word is found in the titles of Ps. 8, 81, 84. In these places the LXX. render the word by "on the wine-fats." The Targum explains by "on the harp which David brought from Gath." It is the only stringed instrument named in the titles of the Psalms. ......

GIZONITE
a name given to Hashem, an inhabitant of Gizoh, a place somewhere in the mountains of Judah (1-Chr 11:34; 2-Sam 23:32, 2-Sam 23: 34). ......

GOLDSMITH
(Neh. 3:8, Neh. 3:32; Isa. 40:19;41:7;46:6). The word so rendered means properly a founder or finer. ......

HABITATION
God is the habitation of his people, who find rest and safety in him (Psa 71:3;91:9). Justice and judgment are the habitation of God's throne (Psa 89:14, Psa 89: Heb. mekhon, "foundation"), because all his acts are founded on justice and judgment. (See Psa 132:5, Psa 132: 13; Eph. 2:22, Eph. 2: of Canaan, Jerusalem, and the temple as God's habitation.) God inhabits eternity (Isa. 57:15), i.e., dwe......

HAGGITH
festive; the dancer, a wife of David and the mother of Adonijah (2-Sam 3:4; 1-Kings 1:5, 1-Kings 1: 11;2:13; 1-Chr 3:2), who, like Absalom, was famed for his beauty.......

HANDWRITING
(Col. 2:14). The "blotting out the handwriting" is the removal by the grace of the gospel of the condemnation of the law which we had broken.......

HARODITE
an epithet applied to two of David's heroes (2-Sam 23:25). (Comp. 1-Chr 11:27.)......

HARUPHITE
a native of Hariph; an epithet given to Shephatiah, one of those who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:5).......

HATITA
exploration, one of the temple porters or janitors (Ezra 2:42). He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.......

HERMONITES, THE
(Psa 42:6, Psa 42: 7) = "the Hermons", i.e., the three peaks or summits of Hermon, which are about a quarter of a mile apart.......

HITTITES
Palestine and Syria appear to have been originally inhabited by three different tribes. (1.) The Semites, living on the east of the isthmus of Suez. They were nomadic and pastoral tribes. (2.) The Phoenicians, who were merchants and traders; and (3.) the Hittites, who were the warlike element of this confederation of tribes. They inhabited the whole region between the Euphrates and Damascus, their......

HIVITES
one of the original tribes scattered over Palestine, from Hermon to Gibeon in the south. The name is interpreted as "midlanders" or "villagers" (Gen. 10:17; 1-Chr 1:15). They were probably a branch of the Hittites. At the time of Jacob's return to Canaan, Hamor the Hivite was the "prince of the land" (Gen. 24:2). They are next mentioned during the Conquest (Josh. 9:7;11:19). They principally inh......

HORITES
cave-men, a race of Troglodytes who dwelt in the limestone caves which abounded in Edom. Their ancestor was "Seir," who probably gave his name to the district where he lived. They were a branch of the Hivites (Gen. 14:6;36:20; 1-Chr 1:38, 1-Chr 1: 39). They were dispossessed by the descendants of Esau, and as a people gradually became extinct (Deut. 2:12). ......

HORONITE
the designation of Sanballat (Neh. 2:10, Neh. 2: 19), a native of Horonaim, or of one of the two Beth-horons, the "upper" or the "nether," mentioned in Josh. 16:3, Josh. 16:5. ......

HUMILITY
a prominent Christian grace (Rom. 12:3;15:17, 15: 18; 1-Cor 3:5; 2-Cor 3:5; Phil. 4:11). It is a state of mind well pleasing to God (1-Pet 3:4); it preserves the soul in tranquillity (Psa 69:32, Psa 69: 33), and makes us patient under trials (Job 1:22). Christ has set us an example of humility (Phil. 2:6). We should be led thereto by a remembrance of our sins (Lam. 3:39), and by the thought that......

HYPOCRITE
one who puts on a mask and feigns himself to be what he is not; a dissembler in religion. Our Lord severely rebuked the scribes and Pharisees for their hypocrisy (Matt. 6:2, Matt. 6: 5, 16). "The hypocrite's hope shall perish" (Job 8:13). The Hebrew word here rendered "hypocrite" rather means the "godless" or "profane," as it is rendered in Jer. 23:11, Jer. 23: i.e., polluted with crimes. ......

IMMORTALITY
perpetuity of existence. The doctrine of immortality is taught in the Old Testament. It is plainly implied in the writings of Moses (Gen. 5:22, Gen. 5: 24;25:8;37:35;47:9;49:29, 49: comp. Heb. 11:13; Exo 3:6, Exo 3: comp. Matt. 22:23). It is more clearly and fully taught in the later books (Isa. 14:9; Psa 17:15;49:15;73:24). It was thus a doctrine obviously well known to the Jews. With the full ......

INTERCESSION OF THE SPIRIT
(Rom. 8:26, Rom. 8: 27; John 14:26). "Christ is a royal Priest (Zech. 6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven, a......

ISHMEELITES
(Gen. 37:28;39:1, 39: A.V.) should be "Ishmaelites," as in the Revised Version. ......

ITALIAN BAND
the name of the Roman cohort to which Cornelius belonged (Acts 10:1), so called probably because it consisted of men recruited in Italy. ......

ITALY
Acts 18:2;27:1, 27: 6; Heb. 13:24), like most geographical names, was differently used at different periods of history. As the power of Rome advanced, nations were successively conquered and added to it till it came to designate the whole country to the south of the Alps. There was constant intercourse between Palestine and Italy in the time of the Romans. ......

ITHAMAR
palm isle, the fourth and youngest son of Aaron (1-Chr 6:3). He was consecrated to the priesthood along with his brothers (Exo 6:23); and after the death of Nadab and Abihu, he and Eleazar alone discharged the functions of that office (Lev. 10:6, Lev. 10: 12; Num. 3:4). He and his family occupied the position of common priest till the high priesthood passed into his family in the person of Eli (1-......

ITHRITE
two of David's warriors so designated (2-Sam 23:38; 1-Chr 11:40). ......

ITTAI
near; timely; or, with the Lord. (1.) A Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes (2-Sam 23:29). (2.) A native of Gath, a Philistine, who had apparently the command of the six hundred heroes who formed David's band during his wanderings (2-Sam 15:19; comp. 1-Sam 23:13;27:2;30:9, 30: 10). He is afterwards with David at Mahanaim, holding in the army equal rank with Joab and Abishai (2-Sam 18:2, 2-Sa......

ITURAEA
a district in the north-east of Palestine, forming, along with the adjacent territory of Trachonitis, the tetrarchy of Philip (Luke 3:1). The present Jedur comprehends the chief part of Ituraea. It is bounded on the east by Trachonitis, on the south by Gaulanitis, on the west by Hermon, and on the north by the plain of Damascus. ......

IZRAHITE
the designation of one of David's officers (1-Chr 27:8). ......

JEBUSITES
the name of the original inhabitants of Jebus, mentioned frequently among the seven nations doomed to destruction (Gen. 10:16;15:21; Exo 3:8, Exo 3: 17;13:5, 13: etc.). At the time of the arrival of the Israelites in Palestine they were ruled by Adonizedek (Josh. 10:1, Josh. 10: 23). They were defeated by Joshua, and their king was slain; but they were not entirely driven out of Jebus till the tim......

JEZREEL, DITCH OF
(1-Kings 21:23; comp. 13), the fortification surrounding the city, outside of which Naboth was executed. ......

JUDITH
Jewess, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and one of Esau's wives (Gen. 26:34), elsewhere called Aholibamah (36:2).......

JUPITER
the principal deity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. He was worshipped by them under various epithets. Barnabas was identified with this god by the Lycaonians (Acts 14:12), because he was of stately and commanding presence, as they supposed Jupiter to be. There was a temple dedicated to this god outside the gates of Lystra (14:13).......

KADMONITES
Orientals, the name of a Canaanitish tribe which inhabited the north-eastern part of Palestine in the time of Abraham (Gen. 15:19). Probably they were identical with the "children of the east," who inhabited the country between Palestine and the Euphrates.......

KELITA
dwarf, a Levite who assisted Ezra in expounding the law to the people (Neh. 8:7;10:10).......

KENITES
smiths, the name of a tribe inhabiting the desert lying between southern Palestine and the mountains of Sinai. Jethro was of this tribe (Judg. 1:16). He is called a "Midianite" (Num. 10:29), and hence it is concluded that the Midianites and the Kenites were the same tribe. They were wandering smiths, "the gipsies and travelling tinkers of the old Oriental world. They formed an important guild in a......

KENIZZITE
(1.) The name of a tribe referred to in the covenant God made with Abraham (Gen. 15:19). They are not mentioned among the original inhabitants of Canaan (Exo 3:8; Josh. 3:10), and probably they inhabited some part of Arabia, in the confines of Syria. (2.) A designation given to Caleb (R.V., Num. 32:12; A.V., Kenezite).......

KESITAH
(Gen. 33:19, Gen. 33: R.V., marg., a Hebrew word, rendered, A.V., pl. "pieces of money," marg., "lambs;" Josh. 24:32, Josh. 24: "pieces of silver;" Job 42:11, Job 42: "piece of money"). The kesitah was probably a piece of money of a particular weight, cast in the form of a lamb. The monuments of Egypt show that such weights were used. (See PIECES.)......

KITE
an unclean and keen-sighted bird of prey (Lev. 11:14; Deut. 14:13). The Hebrew word used, _'ayet_, is rendered "vulture" in Job 28:7 in Authorized Version, "falcon" in Revised Version. It is probably the red kite (Milvus regalis), a bird of piercing sight and of soaring habits found all over Palestine. ......

KITHLISH
a man's wall, a town in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:40). It has been identified with Jelameh. ......

KITRON
knotty, a city of Zebulun (Judg. 1:30), called also Kattath (Josh. 19:15); supposed to be "Cana of Galilee." ......

KITTIM
(Gen. 10:4). (See CHITTIM.) ......

KOHATHITES
the descendants of Kohath. They formed the first of the three divisions of the Levites (Exo 6:16, Exo 6: 18; Num. 3:17). In the journeyings of the Israelites they had the charge of the most holy portion of the vessels of the tabernacle, including the ark (Num. 4). Their place in the marching and encampment was south of the tabernacle (Num. 3:29, Num. 3: 31). Their numbers at different times are sp......

KORAHITES
that portion of the Kohathites that descended from Korah. (1.) They were an important branch of the singers of the Kohathite division (2-Chr 20:19). There are eleven psalms (42-49; 84; 85; 87; 88) dedicated to the sons of Korah. (2.) Some of the sons of Korah also were "porters" of the temple (1-Chr 9:17); one of them was over "things that were made in the pans" (31), i.e., the baking in pans fo......

KORHITES
a Levitical family descended from Korah (Exo 6:24; 1-Chr 12:6;26:1; 2-Chr 20:19). ......

LEVITE
a descendant of the tribe of Levi (Exo 6:25; Lev. 25:32; Num. 35:2; Josh. 21:3, Josh. 21: 41). This name is, however, generally used as the title of that portion of the tribe which was set apart for the subordinate offices of the sanctuary service (1-Kings 8:4; Ezra 2:70), as assistants to the priests. When the Israelites left Egypt, the ancient manner of worship was still observed by them, the ......

LEVITICUS
the third book of the Pentateuch; so called in the Vulgate, after the LXX., because it treats chiefly of the Levitical service. In the first section of the book (1-17), which exhibits the worship itself, there is, (1.) A series of laws (1-7) regarding sacrifices, burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, and thank-offerings (1-3), sin-offerings and trespass-offerings (4; 5), followed by the law of the pr......

LITTER
(Heb. tsab, as being lightly and gently borne), a sedan or palanquin for the conveyance of persons of rank (Isa. 66:20). In Num. 7:3, Num. 7: the words "covered wagons" are more literally "carts of the litter kind." There they denote large and commodious vehicles drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the furniture of the temple. ......

LUHITH
made of boards, a Moabitish place between Zoar and Horonaim (Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:5). ......

MATTITHIAH
gift of Jehovah. (1.) One of the sons of Jeduthun (1-Chr 25:3, 1-Chr 25: 21). (2.) The eldest son of Shallum, of the family of Korah (1-Chr 9:31). (3.) One who stood by Ezra while reading the law (Neh. 8:4). (4.) The son of Amos, and father of Joseph, in the genealogy of our Lord (Luke 3:25). ......

MELITA
(Acts 27:28), an island in the Mediterranean, the modern Malta. Here the ship in which Paul was being conveyed a prisoner to Rome was wrecked. The bay in which it was wrecked now bears the name of "St. Paul's Bay", "a certain creek with a shore." It is about 2 miles deep and 1 broad, and the whole physical condition of the scene answers the description of the shipwreck given in Acts 28. It was ori......

MERARITES
the descendants of Merari (Num. 26:57). They with the Gershonites and the Kohathites had charge of the tabernacle, which they had to carry from place to place (Num. 3:20, Num. 3: 33-37;4:29). In the distribution of the oxen and waggons offered by the princes (Num. 7), Moses gave twice as many to the Merarites (four waggons and eight oxen) as he gave to the Gershonites, because the latter had to ca......

MERONOTHITE
a name given to Jehdeiah, the herdsman of the royal asses in the time of David and Solomon (1-Chr 27:30), probably as one being a native of some unknown town called Meronoth. ......

MIDIANITE
an Arabian tribe descended from Midian. They inhabited principally the desert north of the peninsula of Arabia. The peninsula of Sinai was the pasture-ground for their flocks. They were virtually the rulers of Arabia, being the dominant tribe. Like all Arabians, they were a nomad people. They early engaged in commercial pursuits. It was to one of their caravans that Joseph was sold (Gen. 37:28, Ge......

MINNITH
distribution, an Ammonitish town (Judg. 11:33) from which wheat was exported to Tyre (Ezek. 27:17). It was probably somewhere in the Mishor or table-land on the east of Jordan. There is a gentle valley running for about 4 miles east of Dhiban called Kurm Dhiban, "the vineyards of Dibon." Tristram supposes that this may be the "vineyards" mentioned in Judg. (l.c.). ......

MITE
contraction of minute, from the Latin minutum, the translation of the Greek word lepton, the very smallest bronze of copper coin (Luke 12:59;21:2). Two mites made one quadrans, i.e., the fourth part of a Roman as, which was in value nearly a halfpenny. (See FARTHING.) ......

MITHCAH
sweetness, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:28, Num. 33: 29). ......

MITHREDATH
given by Mithra, or dedicated to Mithra, i.e., the sun, the Hebrew form of the Greek name Mithridates. (1.) The "treasurer" of King Cyrus (Ezra 1:8). (2.) Ezra 4:7, Ezra 4: a Persian officer in Samaria. ......

MITRE
(Heb. mitsnepheth), something rolled round the head; the turban or head-dress of the high priest (Exo 28:4, Exo 28: 37, 39;29:6, 29: etc.). In the Authorized Version of Ezek. 21:26, Ezek. 21: this Hebrew word is rendered "diadem," but in the Revised Version, "mitre." It was a twisted band of fine linen, 8 yards in length, coiled into the form of a cap, and worn on official occasions (Lev. 8:9;16:4......

MITYLENE
the chief city of the island of Lesbos, on its east coast, in the AEgean Sea. Paul, during his third missionary journey, touched at this place on his way from Corinth to Judea (Acts 20:14), and here tarried for a night. It lies between Assos and Chios. It is now under the Turkish rule, and bears the name of Metelin. ......

MIXED MULTITUDE
(Exo 12:38), a class who accompanied the Israelites as they journeyed from Rameses to Succoth, the first stage of the Exodus. These were probably miscellaneous hangers-on to the Hebrews, whether Egyptians of the lower orders, or the remains of the Hyksos (see EGYPT; MOSES), as some think. The same thing happened on the return of the Jews from Babylon (Neh. 13:3), a "mixed multitude" accompanied th......

MOABITE
the designation of a tribe descended from Moab, the son of Lot (Gen. 19:37). From Zoar, the cradle of this tribe, on the south-eastern border of the Dead Sea, they gradually spread over the region on the east of Jordan. Rameses II., the Pharaoh of the Oppression, enumerates Moab (Muab) among his conquests. Shortly before the Exodus, the warlike Amorites crossed the Jordan under Sihon their king an......

MOABITE STONE
a basalt stone, bearing an inscription by King Mesha, which was discovered at Dibon by Klein, a German missionary at Jerusalem, in 1868. It was 3 1/2 feet high and 2 in breadth and in thickness, rounded at the top. It consisted of thirty-four lines, written in Hebrew-Phoenician characters. It was set up by Mesha as a record and memorial of his victories. It records (1) Mesha's wars with Omri, (2) ......

MOUNT OF BEATITUDES
See SERMON. ......

MOUNT OF THE AMALEKITES
a place near Pirathon (q.v.), in the tribe of Ephraim (Judg. 12:15). ......

MOUNT OF THE AMORITES
the range of hills which rises abruptly in the wilderness of et-Tih ("the wandering"), mentioned Deut. 1:19, Deut. 1: 20, "that great and terrible wilderness." ......

NAAMATHITE
the designation of Zophar, one of Job's three friends (Job 2:11;11:1), so called from some place in Arabia, called Naamah probably. ......

NATIVITY OF CHRIST
The birth of our Lord took place at the time and place predicted by the prophets (Gen. 49:10; Isa. 7:14; Jer. 31:15; Micah 5:2; Hag. 2:6; Dan. 9:24, Dan. 9: 25). Joseph and Mary were providentially led to go up to Bethlehem at this period, and there Christ was born (Matt. 2:1, Matt. 2: 6; Luke 2:1, Luke 2: 7). The exact year or month or day of his birth cannot, however, now be exactly ascertained.......

NAZARITE
(Heb. form Nazirite), the name of such Israelites as took on them the vow prescribed in Num. 6:2. The word denotes generally one who is separated from others and consecrated to God. Although there is no mention of any Nazarite before Samson, yet it is evident that they existed before the time of Moses. The vow of a Nazarite involved these three things, (1) abstinence from wine and strong drink, (2......

NEHELAMITE
the name given to a false prophet Shemaiah, who went with the captives to Babylon (Jer. 29:24, Jer. 29: 31, 32). The origin of the name is unknown. It is rendered in the marg, "dreamer."......

NICOLAITANES
The church at Ephesus (Rev. 2:6) is commended for hating the "deeds" of the Nicolaitanes, and the church of Pergamos is blamed for having them who hold their "doctrines" (15). They were seemingly a class of professing Christians, who sought to introduce into the church a false freedom or licentiousness, thus abusing Paul's doctrine of grace (comp. 2-Pet 2:15, 2-Pet 2: 16, 19), and were probably id......

NITRE
(Prov. 25:20; R.V. marg., "soda"), properly "natron," a substance so called because, rising from the bottom of the Lake Natron in Egypt, it becomes dry and hard in the sun, and is the soda which effervesces when vinegar is poured on it. It is a carbonate of soda, not saltpetre, which the word generally denotes (Jer. 2:22; R.V. "lye"). ......

PALM TREES, THE CITY OF
the name given to Jericho (q.v.), Deut. 34:3; Judg. 1:16;3:13.......

PALTITE
the designation of one of David's heroes (2-Sam 23:26); called also the Pelonite (1-Chr 11:27).......

PELETHITES
mentioned always along with the Cherethites, and only in the time of David. The word probably means "runners" or "couriers," and may denote that while forming part of David's bodyguard, they were also sometimes employed as couriers (2-Sam 8:18;20:7, 20: 23;1-Kings 1:38, 1-Kings 1: 44; 1-Chr 18:17). Some, however, think that these are the names simply of two Philistine tribes from which David selec......

PERIZZITES
villagers; dwellers in the open country, the Canaanitish nation inhabiting the fertile regions south and south-west of Carmel. "They were the graziers, farmers, and peasants of the time." They were to be driven out of the land by the descendants of Abraham (Gen. 15:20; Exo 3:8, Exo 3: 17;23:23;33:2;34:11). They are afterwards named among the conquered tribes (Josh. 24:11). Still lingering in the l......

PIRATHONITE
(1.) Abdon, the son of Hillel, so called, Judg. 12:13, Judg. 12: 15. (2.) Benaiah the Ephraimite (2-Sam 23:30), one of David's thirty heroes. ......

PIT
a hole in the ground (Exo 21:33, Exo 21: 34), a cistern for water (Gen. 37:24; Jer. 14:3), a vault (1:9), a grave (Psa 30:3). It is used as a figure for mischief (Psa 9:15), and is the name given to the unseen place of woe (Rev. 20:1, Rev. 20: 3). The slime-pits in the vale of Siddim were wells which yielded asphalt (Gen. 14:10). ......

PITCH
(Gen. 6:14), asphalt or bitumen in its soft state, called "slime" (Gen. 11:3;14:10; Exo 2:3), found in pits near the Dead Sea (q.v.). It was used for various purposes, as the coating of the outside of vessels and in building. Allusion is made in Isa. 34:9 to its inflammable character. (See SLIME.) ......

PITCHER
a vessel for containing liquids. In the East pitchers were usually carried on the head or shoulders (Gen. 24:15; Judg. 7:16, Judg. 7: 19; Mark 14:13). ......

PITHOM
Egyptian, Pa-Tum, "house of Tum," the sun-god, one of the "treasure" cities built for Pharaoh Rameses II. by the Israelites (Exo 1:11). It was probably the Patumos of the Greek historian Herodotus. It has now been satisfactorily identified with Tell-el-Maskhuta, about 12 miles west of Ismailia, and 20 east of Tel-el-Kebir, on the southern bank of the present Suez Canal. Here have recently (1883) b......

PROPITIATION
that by which God is rendered propitious, i.e., by which it becomes consistent with his character and government to pardon and bless the sinner. The propitiation does not procure his love or make him loving; it only renders it consistent for him to execise his love towards sinners. In Rom. 3:25 and Heb. 9:5 (A.V., "mercy-seat") the Greek word _hilasterion_ is used. It is the word employed by the......

PROPORTION OF FAITH
(Rom. 12:6). Paul says here that each one was to exercise his gift of prophecy, i.e., of teaching, "according to the proportion of faith." The meaning is, that the utterances of the "prophet" were not to fluctuate according to his own impulses or independent thoughts, but were to be adjusted to the truth revealed to him as a beliver, i.e., were to be in accordance with it. In post-Reformation ti......

PULPIT
(Neh. 8:4). (See EZRA.)......

RAMATHITE
the designation given to Shimei, the manager of David's vineyard (1-Chr 27:27).......

RECHABITES
the descendants of Rechab through Jonadab or Jehonadab. They belonged to the Kenites, who accompanied the children of Israel into Palestine, and dwelt among them. Moses married a Kenite wife (Judg. 1:16), and Jael was the wife of "Heber the Kenite" (4:17). Saul also showed kindness to the Kenites (1-Sam 15:6). The main body of the Kenites dwelt in cities, and adopted settled habits of life (30:29)......

REFUGE, CITIES OF
were six in number (Num. 35). 1. On the west of Jordan were (1) Kadesh, in Naphtali; (2) Shechem, in Mount Ephraim; (3) Hebron, in Judah. 2. On the east of Jordan were, (1) Golan, in Bashan; (2) Ramoth-Gilead, in Gad; and (3) Bezer, in Reuben. (See under each of these names.)......

RITHMAH
wild broom, a station in the wilderness (Num. 33:18, Num. 33: 19), the "broom valley," or "valley of broombushes," the place apparently of the original encampment of Israel, near Kadesh. ......

SALT, THE CITY OF
one of the cities of Judah (Josh. 15:62), probably in the Valley of Salt, at the southern end of the Dead Sea. ......

SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH
On the return from the Exile, the Jews refused the Samaritans participation with them in the worship at Jerusalem, and the latter separated from all fellowship with them, and built a temple for themselves on Mount Gerizim. This temple was razed to the ground more than one hundred years B.C. Then a system of worship was instituted similar to that of the temple at Jerusalem. It was founded on the La......

SAMARITANS
the name given to the new and mixed inhabitants whom Esarhaddon (B.C. 677), the king of Assyria, brought from Babylon and other places and settled in the cities of Samaria, instead of the original inhabitants whom Sargon (B.C. 721) had removed into captivity (2-Kings 17:24; comp. Ezra 4:2, Ezra 4: 9, 10). These strangers (comp. Luke 17:18) amalgamated with the Jews still remaining in the land, and......

SERVITOR
occurs only in 2-Kings 4:43, 2-Kings 4: Authorized Version (R.V., "servant"). The Hebrew word there rendered "servitor" is elsewhere rendered "minister," "servant" (Exo 24:13;33:11). Probably Gehazi, the personal attendant on Elisha, is here meant. ......

SHEMINITH
eight; octave, a musical term, supposed to denote the lowest note sung by men's voices (1-Chr 15:21; Ps. 6; 12, title).......

SHILONITE
Ahijah the prophet, whose home was in Shiloh, is so designated (1-Kings 11:29;15:29). The plural form occurs (1-Chr 9:5), denoting the descendants of Shelah, Judah's youngest son.......

SHIPHMITE
probably the designation of Zabdi, who has charge of David's vineyards (1-Chr 27:27).......

SHITTAH-TREE
(Isa. 41:19; R.V., "acacia tree"). Shittah wood was employed in making the various parts of the tabernacle in the wilderness, and must therefore have been indigenous in the desert in which the Israelites wandered. It was the acacia or mimosa (Acacia Nilotica and A. seyal). "The wild acacia (Mimosa Nilotica), under the name of _sunt_, everywhere represents the seneh, or senna, of the burning bush. ......

SHITTIM
acacias, also called "Abel-shittim" (Num. 33:49), a plain or valley in the land of Moab where the Israelites were encamped after their two victories over Sihon and Og, at the close of their desert wanderings, and from which Joshua sent forth two spies (q.v.) "secretly" to "view" the land and Jericho (Josh. 2:1).......

SHUHITE
a designation of Bildad (Job 2:11), probably because he was a descendant of Shuah. ......

SHULAMITE
the same, as some think, with "Shunammite," from "Shunem:" otherwise, the import of the word is uncertain (6:13; R.V., "Shulammite"). ......

SHUNAMMITE
a person of Shunem (1-Kings 1:3; 2-Kings 4:12). The Syr. and Arab. read "Sulamite." ......

SINAITICUS CODEX
usually designated by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, is one of the most valuable of ancient MSS. of the Greek New Testament. On the occasion of a third visit to the convent of St. Catherine, on Mount Sinai, in 1859, it was discovered by Dr. Tischendorf. He had on a previous visit in 1844 obtained forty-three parchment leaves of the LXX., which he deposited in the university library of Le......

SINITE
an inhabitant of Sin, near Arka (Gen. 10:17; 1-Chr 1:15). (See ARKITE.) ......

SITNAH
strife, the second of the two wells dug by Isaac, whose servants here contended with the Philistines (Gen. 26:21). It has been identified with the modern Shutneh, in the valley of Gerar, to the west of Rehoboth, about 20 miles south of Beersheba. ......

SITTING
the attitude generally assumed in Palestine by those who were engaged in any kind of work. "The carpenter saws, planes, and hews with his hand-adze, sitting on the ground or upon the plank he is planning. The washerwoman sits by the tub; and, in a word, no one stands when it is possible to sit. Shopkeepers always sit, and Levi sitting at the receipt of custom (Matt. 9:9) is the exact way to state ......

SMITH
The Hebrews were not permitted by the Philistines in the days of Samuel to have a smith amongst them, lest they should make them swords and spears (1-Sam 13:19). Thus the Philistines sought to make their conquest permanent (comp. 2-Kings 24:16). ......

SODOMITES
those who imitated the licentious wickedness of Sodom (Deut. 23:17; 1-Kings 14:24; Rom. 1:26, Rom. 1: 27). Asa destroyed them "out of the land" (1-Kings 15:12), as did also his son Jehoshaphat (22:46). ......

SPIRIT
(Heb. ruah; Gr. pneuma), properly wind or breath. In 2-Thess 2:8 it means "breath," and in Eccl. 8:8 the vital principle in man. It also denotes the rational, immortal soul by which man is distinguished (Acts 7:59; 1-Cor 5:5;6:20;7:34), and the soul in its separate state (Heb. 12:23), and hence also an apparition (Job 4:15; Luke 24:37, Luke 24: 39), an angel (Heb. 1:14), and a demon (Luke 4:36;10:......

SPIRIT, HOLY
See HOLY+GHOST. ......

SUSANCHITES
the inhabitants of Shushan, who joined the other adversaries of the Jews in the attempt to prevent the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:9). ......

TABITHA
(in Greek called Dorcas), gazelle, a disciple at Joppa. She was distinguished for her alms-deeds and good works. Peter, who was sent for from Lydda on the occasion of her death, prayed over the dead body, and said, "Tabitha, arise." And she opened her eyes and sat up; and Peter "gave her his hand, and raised her up; and calling the saints and widows, he presented her alive" (Acts 9:36). ......

TACHMONITE
=Hach'monite, a name given to Jashobeam (2-Sam 23:8; comp. 1-Chr 11:11). ......

TALITHA CUMI
(Mark 5:41), a Syriac or Aramaic expression, meaning, "Little maid, arise." Peter, who was present when the miracle was wrought, recalled the actual words used by our Lord, and told them to Mark. ......

TEMANITE
a man of Teman, the designation of Eliphaz, one of Job's three friends (Job 2:11;22:1). ......

TIMNITE
a man of Timnah. Samson's father-in-law is so styled (Judg. 15:6). ......

TISHBITE
Elijah the prophet was thus named (1-Kings 17:1;21:17, 21: 28, etc.). In 1-Kings 17:1 the word rendered "inhabitants" is in the original the same as that rendered "Tishbite," hence that verse may be read as in the LXX., "Elijah the Tishbite of Tishbi in Gilead." Some interpret this word as meaning "stranger," and read the verse, "Elijah the stranger from among the strangers in Gilead." This design......

TITHE
a tenth of the produce of the earth consecrated and set apart for special purposes. The dedication of a tenth to God was recognized as a duty before the time of Moses. Abraham paid tithes to Melchizedek (Gen. 14:20; Heb. 7:6); and Jacob vowed unto the Lord and said, "Of all that thou shalt give me I will surely give the tenth unto thee." The first Mosaic law on this subject is recorded in Lev. 2......

TITTLE
a point, (Matt. 5:18; Luke 16:17), the minute point or stroke added to some letters of the Hebrew alphabet to distinguish them from others which they resemble; hence, the very least point. ......

TITUS
honourable, was with Paul and Barnabas at Antioch, and accompanied them to the council at Jerusalem (Gal. 2:1; Acts 15:2), although his name nowhere occurs in the Acts of the Apostles. He appears to have been a Gentile, and to have been chiefly engaged in ministering to Gentiles; for Paul sternly refused to have him circumcised, inasmuch as in his case the cause of gospel liberty was at stake. We ......

TITUS, EPISTLE TO
was probably written about the same time as the first epistle to Timothy, with which it has many affinities. "Both letters were addressed to persons left by the writer to preside in their respective churches during his absence. Both letters are principally occupied in describing the qualifications to be sought for in those whom they should appoint to offices in the church; and the ingredients of t......

TOLAITES
descendants of Tola (Num. 26:23; 1-Chr 7:1, 1-Chr 7: 2). ......

TRACHONITIS
a rugged region, corresponds to the Heb. Argob (q.v.), the Greek name of a region on the east of Jordan (Luke 3:1); one of the five Roman provinces into which that district was divided. It was in the tetrarchy of Philip, and is now called the Lejah. ......

TRADITION
any kind of teaching, written or spoken, handed down from generation to generation. In Mark 7:3, Mark 7: 9, 13, Col. 2:8, Col. 2: this word refers to the arbitrary interpretations of the Jews. In 2-Thess 2:15;3:6, 3: it is used in a good sense. Peter (1-Pet 1:18) uses this word with reference to the degenerate Judaism of the "strangers scattered" whom he addresses (comp. Acts 15:10; Matt. 15:2; Ga......

TREASURE CITIES
store cities which the Israelites built for the Egyptians (Exo 1:11). (See PITHOM.) Towns in which the treasures of the kings of Judah were kept were so designated (1-Chr 27:25). ......

TRINITY
a word not found in Scripture, but used to express the doctrine of the unity of God as subsisting in three distinct Persons. This word is derived from the Gr. trias, first used by Theophilus (A.D. 168-183), or from the Lat. trinitas, first used by Tertullian (A.D. 220), to express this doctrine. The propositions involved in the doctrine are these: 1. That God is one, and that there is but one God ......

WHITE
a symbol of purity (2-Chr 5:12; Psa 51:7; Isa. 1:18; Rev. 3:18;7:14). Our Lord, at his transfiguration, appeared in raiment "white as the light" (Matt. 17:2, Matt. 17: etc.). ......

WITCH
Occurs only in Exo 22:18, Exo 22: as the rendering of _mekhashshepheh_, the feminine form of the word, meaning "enchantress" (R.V., "sorceress"), and in Deut. 18:10, Deut. 18: as the rendering of _mekhashshepheth_, the masculine form of the word, meaning "enchanter." ......

WITCHCRAFT
(1-Sam 15:23; 2-Kings 9:22; 2-Chr 33:6; Micah 5:12; Nahum 3:4; Gal. 5:20). In the popular sense of the word no mention is made either of witches or of witchcraft in Scripture. The "witch of En-dor" (1 Sam. 28) was a necromancer, i.e., one who feigned to hold converse with the dead. The damsel with "a spirit of divination" (Acts 16:16) was possessed by an evil spirit, or, as the words are literal......

WITNESS
More than one witness was required in criminal cases (Deut. 17:6;19:15). They were the first to execute the sentence on the condemned (Deut. 13:9;17:7; 1-Kings 21:13; Matt. 27:1; Acts 7:57, Acts 7: 58). False witnesses were liable to punishment (Deut. 19:16). It was also an offence to refuse to bear witness (Lev. 5:1). ......

WITNESS OF THE SPIRIT
(Rom. 8:16), the consciousness of the gracious operation of the Spirit on the mind, "a certitude of the Spirit's presence and work continually asserted within us", manifested "in his comforting us, his stirring us up to prayer, his reproof of our sins, his drawing us to works of love, to bear testimony before the world," etc. ......

WRITING
The art of writing must have been known in the time of the early Pharaohs. Moses is commanded "to write for a memorial in a book" (Exo 17:14) a record of the attack of Amalek. Frequent mention is afterwards made of writing (28:11, 28: 21, 29, 36;31:18;32:15, 32: 16;34:1, 34: 28;39:6, 39: 14, 30). The origin of this art is unknown, but there is reason to conclude that in the age of Moses it was wel......

ZEBULONITE
the designation of Elon, the judge who belonged to the tribe of Zebulun (Judg. 12:11, Judg. 12: 12).......

ZEMARITE
the designation of one of the Phoenician tribes (Gen. 10:18) who inhabited the town of Sumra, at the western base of the Lebanon range. In the Amarna tablets (B.C. 1400) Zemar, or Zumur, was one of the most important of the Phoenician cities, but it afterwards almost disappears from history.......

ZITHRI
the Lord protects, a Levite, son of Uzziel (Exo 6:22).......