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ASHER
happy, Jacob's eigth son; his mother was Zilpah, Leah's handmaid (Gen. 30:13). Of the tribe founded by him nothing is recorded beyond its holding a place in the list of the tribes (35:26;46:17; Exo 1:4, Exo 1: etc.) It increased in numbers twenty-nine percent, during the thirty-eight years' wanderings. The place of this tribe during the march through the desert was between Dan and Naphtali (Num. 2......

ASHERAH
and pl. Asherim in Revised Version, instead of "grove" and "groves" of the Authorized Version. This was the name of a sensual Canaanitish goddess Astarte, the feminine of the Assyrian Ishtar. Its symbol was the stem of a tree deprived of its boughs, and rudely shaped into an image, and planted in the ground. Such religious symbols ("groves") are frequently alluded to in Scripture (Exo 34:13; Judg.......

ASHES
The ashes of a red heifer burned entire (Num. 19:5) when sprinkled on the unclean made them ceremonially clean (Heb. 9:13). To cover the head with ashes was a token of self-abhorrence and humiliation (2-Sam 13:19; Esther 4:3; Jer. 6:26, Jer. 6: etc.). To feed on ashes (Isa. 44:20), means to seek that which will prove to be vain and unsatisfactory, and hence it denotes the unsatisfactory nature......

BASHEMATH
sweet-smelling. (1.) The daughter of Ishmael, the last of Esau's three wives (Gen. 36:3, Gen. 36: 4, 13), from whose son Reuel four tribes of the Edomites sprung. She is also called Mahalath (Gen. 28:9). It is noticeable that Esau's three wives receive different names in the genealogical table of the Edomites (Gen. 36) from those given to them in the history (Gen. 26:34;28:9). (2.) A daughter of......

BATH-SHEBA
daughter of the oath, or of seven, called also Bath-shu'a (1-Chr 3:5), was the daughter of Eliam (2-Sam 11:3) or Ammiel (1-Chr 3:5), and wife of Uriah the Hittite. David committed adultery with her (2-Sam 11:4, 2-Sam 11: 5; Psa 51:1). The child born in adultery died (2-Sam 12:15). After her husband was slain (11:15) she was married to David (11:27), and became the mother of Solomon (12:24; 1-Kings......

BEERSHEBA
well of the oath, or well of seven, a well dug by Abraham, and so named because he and Abimelech here entered into a compact (Gen. 21:31). On re-opening it, Isaac gave it the same name (Gen. 26:31). It was a favourite place of abode of both of these patriarchs (21:33:1, 19;26:33;28:10). It is mentioned among the "cities" given to the tribe of Simeon (Josh. 19:2; 1-Chr 4:28). From Dan to Beersheba,......

BETH-SHEAN
house of security or rest, a city which belonged to Manasseh (1-Chr 7:29), on the west of Jordan. The bodies of Saul and his sons were fastened to its walls. In Solomon's time it gave its name to a district (1-Kings 4:12). The name is found in an abridged form, Bethshan, in 1-Sam 31:10, 1-Sam 31: 12 and 2-Sam 21:12. It is on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus, about 5 miles from the Jordan, and 1......

BETH-SHEMESH
house of the sun. (1.) A sacerdotal city in the tribe of Dan (Josh. 21:16; 1-Sam 6:15), on the north border of Judah (Josh. 15:10). It was the scene of an encounter between Jehoash, king of Israel, and Amaziah, king of Judah, in which the latter was made prisoner (2-Kings 14:11, 2-Kings 14: 13). It was afterwards taken by the Philistines (2-Chr 28:18). It is the modern ruined Arabic village 'Ain-s......

ELISHEBA
God is her oath, the daughter of Amminadab and the wife of Aaron (Exo 6:23).......

EN-SHEMESH
fountain of the sun a spring which formed one of the landmarks on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin (Josh. 15:7;18:17). It was between the "ascent of Adummim" and the spring of En-rogel, and hence was on the east of Jerusalem and of the Mount of Olives. It is the modern 'Ain-Haud i.e., the "well of the apostles" about a mile east of Bethany, the only spring on the road to Jericho. The sun sh......

ESHEAN
a place in the mountains of Judah (5:52), supposed to be the ruin es-Simia, near Dumah, south of Hebron.......

FISHER
Besides its literal sense (Luke 5:2), this word is also applied by our Lord to his disciples in a figurative sense (Matt. 4:19; Mark 1:17). ......

GESHEM
or Gashmu, firmness, probably chief of the Arabs south of Palestine, one of the enemies of the Jews after the return from Babylon (Neh. 2:19;6:1, 6: 2). He united with Sanballat and Tobiah in opposing the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem. ......

GOSHEN
(1.) A district in Egypt where Jacob and his family settled, and in which they remained till the Exodus (Gen. 45:10;46:28, 46: 29, 31, etc.). It is called "the land of Goshen" (7:27), and also simply "Goshen" (6:28), and "the land of Rameses" (7:11; Exo 12:37), for the towns Pithom and Rameses lay within its borders; also Zoan or Tanis (Psa 78:12). It lay on the east of the Nile, and apparently no......

HAROSHETH OF THE GENTILES
(Judg. 4:2) or nations, a city near Hazor in Galilee of the Gentiles, or Upper Galilee, in the north of Palestine. It was here that Jabin's great army was marshalled before it went forth into the great battlefield of Esdraelon to encounter the army of Israel, by which it was routed and put to flight (Judg. 4). It was situated "at the entrance of the pass to Esdraelon from the plain of Acre" at the......

HOSHEA
salvation. (1.) The original name of the son of Nun, afterwards called Joshua (Num. 13:8, Num. 13: 16; Deut. 32:44). (2.) 1-Chr 27:20. The ruler of Ephraim in David's time. (3.) The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew his predecessor, Pekah (Isa. 7:16), but did not ascend the throne till after an interregnum of warfare of eight years (2-Kings 17:1, 2-Kings 17: 2). Soon after thi......

ISH-BOSHETH
man of shame or humiliation, the youngest of Saul's four sons, and the only one who survived him (2 Sam. 2-4). His name was originally Eshbaal (1-Chr 8:33;9:39). He was about forty years of age when his father and three brothers fell at the battle of Gilboa. Through the influence of Abner, Saul's cousin, he was acknowledged as successor to the throne of Saul, and ruled over all Israel, except the ......

JASHEN
sleeping, called also Hashem (1-Chr 11:34); a person, several of whose sons were in David's body-guard (2-Sam 23:32). ......

JASHER
upright. "The Book of Jasher," rendered in the LXX. "the Book of the Upright One," by the Vulgate "the Book of Just Ones," was probably a kind of national sacred song-book, a collection of songs in praise of the heroes of Israel, a "book of golden deeds," a national anthology. We have only two specimens from the book, (1) the words of Joshua which he spake to the Lord at the crisis of the battle o......

JEHOSHEBA
Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel. She is called Jehoshabeath in 2-Chr 22:11. She was the only princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest, Jehoiada (2-Chr 22:11). ......

JERUBBESHETH
contender with the shame; i.e., idol, a surname also of Gideon (2-Sam 11:21). ......

JESHEBEAB
seat of his father, the head of the fourteenth division of priests (1-Chr 24:13). ......

JESHER
uprightness, the first of the three sons of Caleb by Azubah (1-Chr 2:18). ......

MEPHIBOSHETH
exterminator of shame; i.e., of idols. (1.) The name of Saul's son by the concubine Rizpah (q.v.), the daughter of Aiah. He and his brother Armoni were with five others "hanged on a hill before the Lord" by the Gibeonites, and their bodies exposed in the sun for five months (2-Sam 21:8). (2.) The son of Jonathan, and grandson of Saul (2-Sam 4:4). He was but five years old when his father and grand......

MESHECH
drawing out, the sixth son of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), the founder of a tribe (1-Chr 1:5; Ezek. 27:13;38:2, 38:3). They were in all probability the Moschi, a people inhabiting the Moschian Mountains, between the Black and the Caspian Seas. In Psa 120:5 the name occurs as simply a synonym for foreigners or barbarians. "During the ascendency of the Babylonians and Persians in Western Asia, the Moschi we......

MESHELEMIAH
friendship of Jehovah, a Levite of the family of the Korhites, called also Shelemiah (1-Chr 9:21;26:1, 26: 2, 9, 14). He was a temple gate-keeper in the time of David. ......

MISHEAL
(Josh. 19:26), a town of Asher, probably the same as Mishal. ......

MORESHETH-GATH
possession of the wine-press, the birthplace of the prophet Micah (1:14), who is called the "Morasthite" (Jer. 26:18). This place was probably a suburb of Gath. ......

POTSHERD
a "shred", i.e., anything severed, as a fragment of earthenware (Job 2:8; Prov. 26:23; Isa. 45:9). ......

SHEALTIEL
asked for of God, father of Zerubbabel (Ezra 3:2, Ezra 3: 8; Neh. 12:1).......

SHEAR-JASHUB
a remnant shall escape or return (i.e., to God), a symbolical name which the prophet Isaiah gave to his son (Isa. 7:3), perhaps his eldest son.......

SHEARING-HOUSE
(2-Kings 10:12, 2-Kings 10: 14; marg., "house of shepherds binding sheep." R.V., "the shearing-house of the shepherds;" marg., "house of gathering"), some place between Samaria and Jezreel, where Jehu slew "two and forty men" of the royal family of Judah. The Heb. word Beth-eked so rendered is supposed by some to be a proper name.......

SHEBA
an oath, seven. (1.) Heb. shebha, the son of Raamah (Gen. 10:7), whose descendants settled with those of Dedan on the Persian Gulf. (2.) Heb. id. A son of Joktan (Gen. 10:28), probably the founder of the Sabeans. (3.) Heb. id. A son of Jokshan, who was a son of Abraham by Keturah (Gen. 25:3). (4.) Heb. id. A kingdom in Arabia Felix. Sheba, in fact, was Saba in Southern Arabia, the Sabaeans o......

SHEBANIAH
whom Jehovah hides, or has made grow up. (1.) A Levite appointed to blow the trumpet before the ark of God (1-Chr 15:24). (2.) Another Levite (Neh. 9:4, Neh. 9: 5). (3.) A priest (Neh. 10:12). (4.) A Levite (Neh. 10:4).......

SHEBARIM
breaks; ruins, a place near Ai (Josh. 7:5; R.V. marg., "the quarries").......

SHEBNA
tender youth, "treasurer" over the house in the reign of Hezekiah, i.e., comptroller or governor of the palace. On account of his pride he was ejected from his office, and Eliakim was promoted to it (Isa. 22:15). He appears to have been the leader of the party who favoured an alliance with Egypt against Assyria. It is conjectured that "Shebna the scribe," who was one of those whom the king sent to......

SHEBUEL
captive of God. (1.) One of the descendants of Gershom, who had charge of the temple treasures in the time of David (1-Chr 23:16;26:24). (2.) One of the sons of Heman; one of those whose duty it was to "lift up the horn" in the temple service (1-Chr 25:4, 1-Chr 25: 5); called also Shubael (ver. 20).......

SHECANIAH
one intimate with Jehovah. (1.) A priest to whom the tenth lot came forth when David divided the priests (1-Chr 24:11). (2.) One of the priests who were set "to give to their brethren by courses" of the daily portion (2-Chr 31:15). Shechani'ah, id. (1.) A priest whose sons are mentioned in 1-Chr 3:21, 1-Chr 3: 22. (2.) Ezra 8:5. (3.) Ezra 10:2. (4.) The father of Shemaiah, who repaired t......

SHECHEM
shoulder. (1.) The son of Hamor the Hivite (Gen. 33:19; 34). (2.) A descendant of Manasseh (Num. 26:31; Josh. 17:2). (3.) A city in Samaria (Gen. 33:18), called also Sichem (12:6), Sychem (Acts 7:16). It stood in the narrow sheltered valley between Ebal on the north and Gerizim on the south, these mountains at their base being only some 500 yards apart. Here Abraham pitched his tent and built ......

SHECHINAH
a Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them "in a pillar of a cloud." This was the symbol of his presence with his people. For references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Exo ......

SHEEP
are of different varieties. Probably the flocks of Abraham and Isaac were of the wild species found still in the mountain regions of Persia and Kurdistan. After the Exodus, and as a result of intercourse with surrounding nations, other species were no doubt introduced into the herds of the people of Israel. They are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The care of a shepherd over his flock is referr......

SHEEP-FOLD
a strong fenced enclosure for the protection of the sheep gathered within it (Num. 32:24; 1-Chr 17:7; Psa 50:9;78:70). In John 10:16 the Authorized Version renders by "fold" two distinct Greek words, aule and poimne, the latter of which properly means a "flock," and is so rendered in the Revised Version. (See also Matt. 26:31; Luke 2:8; 1-Cor 9:7.) (See FOLD.)......

SHEEP-GATE
one of the gates of Jerusalem mentioned by Nehemiah (3:1, 3: 32;12:39). It was in the eastern wall of the city.......

SHEEP-MARKET
occurs only in John 5:2 (marg., also R.V., "sheep-gate"). The word so rendered is an adjective, and it is uncertain whether the noun to be supplied should be "gate" or, following the Vulgate Version, "pool."......

SHEKEL
weight, the common standard both of weight and value among the Hebrews. It is estimated at 220 English grains, or a little more than half an ounce avoirdupois. The "shekel of the sanctuary" (Exo 30:13; Num. 3:47) was equal to twenty gerahs (Ezek. 45:12). There were shekels of gold (1-Chr 21:25), of silver (1-Sam 9:8), of brass (17:5), and of iron (7). When it became a coined piece of money, the sh......

SHELAH
petition. (1.) Judah's third son (Gen. 38:2, Gen. 38: 5, 11, 14). (2.) A son of Arphaxad (1-Chr 1:18).......

SHELEMIAH
whom Jehovah repays. (1.) Ezra 10:39. (2.) The father of Hananiah (Neh. 3:30). (3.) A priest in the time of Nehemiah (13:13). (4.) Father of one of those who accused Jeremiah to Zedekiah (Jer. 37:3;38:1). (5.) Father of a captain of the ward (Jer. 37:13). (6.) Jer. 36:14.......

SHEM
a name; renown, the first mentioned of the sons of Noah (Gen. 5:32;6:10). He was probably the eldest of Noah's sons. The words "brother of Japheth the elder" in Gen. 10:21 are more correctly rendered "the elder brother of Japheth," as in the Revised Version. Shem's name is generally mentioned first in the list of Noah's sons. He and his wife were saved in the ark (7:13). Noah foretold his preemine......

SHEMA
rumour. (1.) A Reubenite (1-Chr 5:8). (2.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 8:13). (3.) One who stood by Ezra when he read the law (Neh. 8:4). (4.) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:26); the same as Sheba (ver. 5).......

SHEMAAH
rumour, a Benjamite whose sons "came to David to Ziklag" (1-Chr 12:3).......

SHEMAIAH
whom Jehovah heard. (1.) A prophet in the reign of Rehoboam (1-Kings 12:22). (2.) Neh. 3:29. (3.) A Simeonite (1-Chr 4:37). (4.) A priest (Neh. 12:42). (5.) A Levite (1-Chr 9:16). (6.) 1-Chr 9:14; Neh. 11:15. (7.) A Levite in the time of David, who with 200 of his brethren took part in the bringing up of the ark from Obed-edom to Hebron (1-Chr 15:8). (8.) A Levite (1-Chr 24:6). (9.......

SHEMARIAH
whom Jehovah guards. (1.) One who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:5). (2.) Ezra 10:32, Ezra 10: 41.......

SHEMEBER
soaring on high, the king of Zeboiim, who joined with the other kings in casting off the yoke of Chedorlaomer. After having been reconquered by him, he was rescued by Abraham (Gen. 14:2).......

SHEMINITH
eight; octave, a musical term, supposed to denote the lowest note sung by men's voices (1-Chr 15:21; Ps. 6; 12, title).......

SHEMIRAMOTH
most high name. (1.) A Levite in the reign of Jehoshaphat (2-Chr 17:8). (2.) A Levite in David's time (1-Chr 15:18, 1-Chr 15: 20).......

SHEMUEL
heard of God. (1.) The son of Ammihud. He represented Simeon in the division of the land (Num. 34:20). (2.) Used for "Samuel" (1-Chr 6:33, 1-Chr 6: R.V.). (3.) A prince of the tribe of Issachar (1-Chr 7:2).......

SHEN
a tooth, probably some conspicuous tooth-shaped rock or crag (1-Sam 7:12), a place between which and Mizpeh Samuel set up his "Ebenezer." In the Hebrew the word has the article prefixed, "the Shen." The site is unknown.......

SHENIR
=Senir, (Deut. 3:9; 4:8), the name given to Mount Hermon (q.v.) by the Sidonians.......

SHEOL
(Heb., "the all-demanding world" = Gr. Hades, "the unknown region"), the invisible world of departed souls. (See HELL.)......

SHEPHAM
a treeless place, Num. 34:10, Num. 34: 11: "The coast shall go down from Shepham to Riblah."......

SHEPHATIAH
judged of the Lord. (1.) A son of David by Abital (2-Sam 3:4). (2.) A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:5). (3.) A Simeonite prince in David's time (1-Chr 27:16). (4.) One of Jehoshaphat's sons (2-Chr 21:2). (5.) Ezra 2:4. (6.) Ezra 2:57; Neh. 7:59. (7.) One of the princes who urged the putting of Jeremiah to death (Jer. 38:1).......

SHEPHERD
a word naturally of frequent occurence in Scripture. Sometimes the word "pastor" is used instead (Jer. 2:8;3:15;10:21;12:10;17:16). This word is used figuratively to represent the relation of rulers to their subjects and of God to his people (Psa 23:1;80:1; Isa. 40:11;44:28; Jer. 25:34, Jer. 25: 35; Nahum 3:18; John 10:11, John 10: 14; Heb. 13:20; 1-Pet 2:25;5:4). The duties of a shepherd in an ......

SHEREBIAH
flame of the Lord, a priest whose name is prominent in connection with the work carried on by Ezra and Nehemiah at Jerusalem (Ezra 8:17, Ezra 8: 18, 24-30; Neh. 8:7;9:4, 9: 5;10:12).......

SHERESH
root, a descendant of Manasseh (1-Chr 7:16).......

SHEREZER
one of the messengers whom the children of the Captivity sent to Jerusalem "to pray for them before the Lord" (Zech. 7:2).......

SHERIFFS
(Dan. 3:2), Babylonian officers.......

SHESHACH
(Jer. 25:26), supposed to be equivalent to Babel (Babylon), according to a secret (cabalistic) mode of writing among the Jews of unknown antiquity, which consisted in substituting the last letter of the Hebrew alphabet for the first, the last but one for the second, and so on. Thus the letters sh, sh, ch become b, b, l, i.e., Babel. This is supposed to be confirmed by a reference to Jer. 51:41, Je......

SHESHAI
whitish, one of the sons of Anak (Num. 13:22). When the Israelites obtained possession of the country the sons of Anak were expelled and slain (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10).......

SHESHBAZZAR
O sun-god, defend the lord! (Ezra 1:8, Ezra 1: 11), probably another name for Zerubbabel (q.v.), Ezra 2:2; Hag. 1:12, Hag. 1: 14; Zech. 4:6, Zech. 4: 10.......

SHETH
tumult. (1.) "The children of Sheth" (Num. 24:17); R.V., "the sons of tumult," which is probably the correct rendering, as there is no evidence that this is a proper name here. (2.) The antediluvian patriarch (1-Chr 1:1).......

SHETHAR
a star, a prince at the court of Ahasuerus (Esther 1:14).......

SHETHAR-BOZNAI
star of splendour, a Persian officer who vainly attempted to hinder the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 5:3, Ezra 5: 6;6:6, 6: 13).......

SHEVA
Heb. Shebher. (1.) The son of Caleb (1-Chr 2:49). (2.) Heb. Sheva', one of David's scribes (2-Sam 20:25).......

SHEWBREAD
Exo 25:30 (R.V. marg., "presence bread"); 1-Chr 9:32 (marg., "bread of ordering"); Num. 4:7: called "hallowed bread" (R.V., "holy bread") in 1-Sam 21:1. This bread consisted of twelve loaves made of the finest flour. They were flat and thin, and were placed in two rows of six each on a table in the holy place before the Lord. They were renewed every Sabbath (Lev. 24:5), and those that were remov......

UZZEN-SHERAH
a town probably near Beth-horon. It derived its name from the daughter of Ephraim (1-Chr 7:24). ......

YESHEBI
the Hebrew word rendered "inhabitants" in Josh. 17:7, Josh. 17: but probably rather the name of the village Yeshepheh, probably Yassuf, 8 miles south of Shechem. ......