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ALLEGORY
used only in Gal. 4:24, Gal. 4: where the apostle refers to the history of Isaac the free-born, and Ishmael the slave-born, and makes use of it allegorically. Every parable is an allegory. Nathan (2-Sam 12:1) addresses David in an allegorical narrative. In the eightieth Psalm there is a beautiful allegory: "Thou broughtest a vine out of Egypt," etc. In Eccl. 12:2, Eccl. 12: there is a striking a......

ALLELUIA
the Greek form (Rev. 19:1, Rev. 19: 3, 4, 6) of the Hebrew Hallelujah = Praise ye Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the psalms (106, 111, 112, 113, etc.).......

ALLIANCE
a treaty between nations, or between individuals, for their mutual advantage. Abraham formed an alliance with some of the Canaanitish princes (Gen. 14:13), also with Abimelech (21:22). Joshua and the elders of Israel entered into an alliance with the Gibeonites (Josh. 9:3). When the Israelites entered Palestine they were forbidden to enter into alliances with the inhabitants of the country (Lev.......

ALLON
oak. (1.) The expression in the Authorized Version of Josh. 19:33, Josh. 19: "from Allon to Zaanannim," is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version, "from the oak in Zaanannim." The word denotes some remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim, and which served as a landmark. (2.) The son of Jedaiah, of the family of the Simeonites, who expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (1-Chr 4......

ALLON-BACHUTH
oak of weeping, a tree near Bethel, at the spot where Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried (Gen. 35:8). Large trees, from their rarity in the plains of Palestine, were frequently designated as landmarks. This particular tree was probably the same as the "palm tree of Deborah" (Judg. 4:5).......

BACA, VALLEY OF
(Psa 84:6; R.V., "valley of weeping," marg., "or balsam trees"), probably a valley in some part of Palestine, or generally some one of the valleys through which pilgrims had to pass on their way to the sanctuary of Jehovah on Zion; or it may be figuratively "a valley of weeping."......

CALL
(1.) To cry for help, hence to pray (Gen. 4:26). Thus men are said to "call upon the name of the Lord" (Acts 2:21;7:59;9:14; Rom. 10:12; 1-Cor 1:2). (2.) God calls with respect to men when he designates them to some special office (Exo 31:2; Isa. 22:20; Acts 13:2), and when he invites them to accept his offered grace (Matt. 9:13;11:28;22:4). In the message of the gospel his call is addressed t......

CALLING
a profession, or as we usually say, a vocation (1-Cor 7:20). The "hope of your calling" in Eph. 4:4 is the hope resulting from your being called into the kingdom of God.......

DECISION, VALLEY OF
a name given to the valley of Jehoshaphat (q.v.) as the vale of the sentence. The scene of Jehovah's signal inflictions on Zion's enemies (Joel 3:14; marg., "valley of concision or threshing"). ......

DESIRE OF ALL NATIONS
(Hag. 2:7), usually interpreted as a title of the Messiah. The Revised Version, however, more correctly renders "the desirable things of all nations;" i.e., the choicest treasures of the Gentiles shall be consecrated to the Lord. ......

EFFECTUAL CALL
See CALL. ......

FALL OF MAN
an expression probably borrowed from the Apocryphal Book of Wisdom, to express the fact of the revolt of our first parents from God, and the consequent sin and misery in which they and all their posterity were involved. The history of the Fall is recorded in Gen. 2 and 3. That history is to be literally interpreted. It records facts which underlie the whole system of revealed truth. It is referr......

FALLOW-DEER
Deut. 14:5 (R.V., "Wild goat"); 1-Kings 4:23 (R.V., "roebucks"). This animal, called in Hebrew _yahmur_, from a word meaning "to be red," is regarded by some as the common fallow-deer, the Cervus dama, which is said to be found very generally over Western and Southern Asia. It is called "fallow" from its pale-red or yellow colour. Some interpreters, however, regard the name as designating the buba......

FALLOW-GROUND
The expression, "Break up your fallow ground" (Hos. 10:12; Jer. 4:3) means, "Do not sow your seed among thorns", i.e., break off all your evil habits; clear your hearts of weeds, in order that they may be prepared for the seed of righteousness. Land was allowed to lie fallow that it might become more fruitful; but when in this condition, it soon became overgrown with thorns and weeds. The cultivat......

GALL
(1) Heb. mererah, meaning "bitterness" (Job 16:13); i.e., the bile secreted in the liver. This word is also used of the poison of asps (20:14), and of the vitals, the seat of life (25). (2.) Heb. rosh. In Deut. 32:33 and Job 20:16 it denotes the poison of serpents. In Hos. 10:4 the Hebrew word is rendered "hemlock." The original probably denotes some bitter, poisonous plant, most probably the po......

GALLERY
(1.) Heb. 'attik (Ezek. 41:15, Ezek. 41: 16), a terrace; a projection; ledge. (2.) Heb. rahit (1:17), translated "rafters," marg. "galleries;" probably panel-work or fretted ceiling.......

GALLIM
heaps, (1-Sam 25:44; Isa. 10:30). The native place of Phalti, to whom Michal was given by Saul. It was probably in Benjamin, to the north of Jerusalem.......

GALLIO
the elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and for some time minister of the emperor Nero. He was "deputy", i.e., proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the emperor Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth (Acts 18:12). The word used here by Luke in describing the rank of Gallio shows his accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Claudius, and the governor of such a p......

GALLOWS
Heb. 'ets, meaning "a tree" (Esther 6:4), a post or gibbet. In Gen. 40:19 and Deut. 21:22 the word is rendered "tree."......

HALL
(Gr. aule, Luke 22:55; R.V., "court"), the open court or quadrangle belonging to the high priest's house. In Matt. 26:69 and Mark 14:66 this word is incorrectly rendered "palace" in the Authorized Version, but correctly "court" in the Revised Version. In John 10:1, John 10:16 it means a "sheep-fold." In Matt. 27:27 and Mark 15:16 (A.V., "common hall;" R.V., "palace") it refers to the proetorium or......

HALLEL
praise, the name given to the group of Psalms 113-118, which are preeminently psalms of praise. It is called "The Egyptian Hallel," because it was chanted in the temple whilst the Passover lambs were being slain. It was chanted also on other festival occasions, as at Pentecost, the feast of Tabernacles, and the feast of Dedication. The Levites, standing before the altar, chanted it verse by verse,......

HALLELUJAH
praise ye Jehovah, frequently rendered "Praise ye the LORD," stands at the beginning of ten of the psalms (106, 111-113, 135, 146-150), hence called "hallelujah psalms." From its frequent occurrence it grew into a formula of praise. The Greek form of the word (alleluia) is found in Rev. 19:1, Rev. 19: 3, 4, 6.......

HALLOW
to render sacred, to consecrate (Exo 28:38;29:1). This word is from the Saxon, and properly means "to make holy." The name of God is "hallowed", i.e., is reverenced as holy (Matt. 6:9).......

JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF
mentioned in Scripture only in Joel 3:2, Joel 3: 12. This is the name given in modern times to the valley between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, and the Kidron flows through it. Here Jehoshaphat overthrew the confederated enemies of Israel (Psa 83:6); and in this valley also God was to overthrow the Tyrians, Zidonians, etc. (Joel 3:4, Joel 3: 19), with an utter overthrow. This has been fulfill......

JEZREEL, VALLEY OF
lying on the northern side of the city, between the ridges of Gilboa and Moreh, an offshoot of Esdraelon, running east to the Jordan (Josh. 17:16; Judg. 6:33; Hos. 1:5). It was the scene of the signal victory gained by the Israelites under Gideon over the Midianites, the Amalekites, and the "children of the east" (Judg. 6:3). Two centuries after this the Israelites were here defeated by the Philis......

JUDGMENT HALL
Gr. praitorion (John 18:28, John 18: 33;19:9; Matt. 27:27), "common hall." In all these passages the Revised Version renders "palace." In Mark 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium" (q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word "praitorion" has this meaning (comp. A......

MALLOTHI
my fulness, a Kohathite Levite, one of the sons of Heman the Levite (1-Chr 25:4), and chief of the nineteenth division of the temple musicians (26). ......

MALLOWS
occurs only in Job 30:4 (R.V., "saltwort"). The word so rendered (malluah, from melah, "salt") most probably denotes the Atriplex halimus of Linnaeus, a species of sea purslane found on the shores of the Dead Sea, as also of the Mediterranean, and in salt marshes. It is a tall shrubby orach, growing to the height sometimes of 10 feet. Its buds and leaves, with those of other saline plants, are eat......

MALLUCH
reigned over, or reigning. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1-Chr 6:44). (2.) A priest who returned from Babylon (Neh. 12:2). (3.) Ezra 10:29. (4.) Ezra 10:32 ......

MOUNT OF THE VALLEY
(Josh. 13:19), a district in the east of Jordan, in the territory of Reuben. The "valley" here was probably the Ghor or valley of the Jordan, and hence the "mount" would be the hilly region in the north end of the Dead Sea. (See ZARETH-SHAHAR.) ......

NAHALLAL
pasture, a city in Zebulun on the border of Issachar (Josh. 19:15), the same as Nahalol (Judg. 1:30). It was given to the Levites. It has been by some identified with Malul in the plain of Esdraelon, 4 miles from Nazareth.......

NEBALLAT
wickedness in secret, (Neh. 11:34), probably the village of Beit Nebala, about 4 miles north of Lydda.......

PALLU
separated, the second son of Reuben (1-Chr 5:3); called Phallu, Gen. 46:9. He was the father of the Phalluites (Exo 6:14; Num. 26:5, Num. 26: 8).......

PHALLU
separated, the second son of Reuben (Gen. 46:9). ......

REPHAIM, VALLEY OF
(Josh. 15:8;18:16, 18: R.V.). When David became king over all Israel, the Philistines, judging that he would now become their uncompromising enemy, made a sudden attack upon Hebron, compelling David to retire from it. He sought refuge in "the hold" at Adullam (2-Sam 5:17), and the Philistines took up their position in the valley of Rephaim, on the west and south-west of Jerusalem. Thus all communi......

SALLAI
basket-maker. (1.) A Benjamite (Neh. 11:8). (2.) A priest in the days of Joshua and Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:20). ......

SALLU
weighed. (1.) A priest (Neh. 12:7). (2.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 9:7; Neh. 11:7). ......

SALT, VALLEY OF
a place where it is said David smote the Syrians (2-Sam 8:13). This valley (the' Arabah) is between Judah and Edom on the south of the Dead Sea. Hence some interpreters would insert the words, "and he smote Edom," after the words, "Syrians" in the above text. It is conjectured that while David was leading his army against the Ammonites and Syrians, the Edomites invaded the south of Judah, and that......

SANBALLAT
held some place of authority in Samaria when Nehemiah went up to Jerusalem to rebuild its ruined walls. He vainly attempted to hinder this work (Neh. 2:10, Neh. 2: 19;4:1; 6). His daughter became the wife of one of the sons of Joiada, a son of the high priest, much to the grief of Nehemiah (13:28). ......

SHALLECHETH, THE GATE OF
i.e., "the gate of casting out," hence supposed to be the refuse gate; one of the gates of the house of the Lord, "by the causeway of the going up" i.e., the causeway rising up from the Tyropoeon valley = valley of the cheesemakers (1-Chr 26:16).......

SHALLUM
retribution. (1.) The son of Jabesh, otherwise unknown. He "conspired against Zachariah, and smote him before the people, and slew him, and reigned in his stead" (2-Kings 15:10). He reigned only "a month of days in Samaria" (15:13, 15: marg.). Menahem rose up against Shallum and put him to death (2-Kings 15:14, 2-Kings 15: 15, 17), and became king in his stead. (2.) Keeper of the temple vestment......

SHAVEH, VALLEY OF
valley of the plain the ancient name of the "king's dale" (q.v.), or Kidron, on the north side of Jerusalem (Gen. 14:17).......

SWALLOW
(1.) Heb. sis (Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7), the Arabic for the swift, which "is a regular migrant, returning in myriads every spring, and so suddenly that while one day not a swift can be seen in the country, on the next they have overspread the whole land, and fill the air with their shrill cry." The swift (cypselus) is ordinarily classed with the swallow, which it resembles in its flight, habits, and ......

TYROPOEON VALLEY
(i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemongers"), the name given by Josephus the historian to the valley or rugged ravine which in ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion. This valley, now filled up with a vast accumulation of rubbish, and almost a plain, was spanned by bridges, the most noted of which was Zion Bridge, which was probably the ordinary means of communication between the royal pala......

VALLEY
(1.) Heb. bik'ah, a "cleft" of the mountains (Deut. 8:7;11:11; Psa 104:8; Isa. 41:18); also a low plain bounded by mountains, as the plain of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon around the sources of the Jordan (Josh. 11:17;12:7), and the valley of Megiddo (2-Chr 35:22). (2.) 'Emek, "deep;" "a long, low plain" (Job 39:10, Job 39: 21; Psa 65:13; 2:1), such as the plain of Esdraelon; the "valley of gian......

WALL
Cities were surrounded by walls, as distinguished from "unwalled villages" (Ezek. 38:11; Lev. 25:29). They were made thick and strong (Num. 13:28; Deut. 3:5). Among the Jews walls were built of stone, some of those in the temple being of great size (1-Kings 6:7;7:9;20:30; Mark 13:1, Mark 13: 2). The term is used metaphorically of security and safety (Isa. 26:1;60:18; Rev. 21:12). (See FENCE.) ......

ABIASAPH
father of gathering; the gatherer, the youngest of the three sons of Korah the Levite, head of a family of Korhites (Exo 6:24); called Ebisaph (1-Chr 6:37).......

AHASUERUS
There are three kings designated by this name in Scripture. (1.) The father of Darius the Mede, mentioned in Dan. 9:1. This was probably the Cyaxares I. known by this name in profane history, the king of Media and the conqueror of Nineveh. (2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 4:6, Ezra 4: probably the Cambyses of profane history, the son and successor of Cyrus (B.C. 529). (3.) The son of Darius Hys......

ALABASTER
occurs only in the New Testament in connection with the box of "ointment of spikenard very precious," with the contents of which a woman anointed the head of Jesus as he sat at supper in the house of Simon the leper (Matt. 26:7; Mark 14:3; Luke 7:37). These boxes were made from a stone found near Alabastron in Egypt, and from this circumstance the Greeks gave them the name of the city where they w......

ALTASCHITH
destroy not, the title of Ps. 57, 58, 59, and 75. It was probably the name of some song to the melody of which these psalms were to be chanted.......

AMASA
burden. (1.) The son of Abigail, a sister of king David (1-Chr 2:17; 2-Sam 17:25). He was appointed by David to command the army in room of his cousin Joab (2-Sam 19:13), who afterwards treacherously put him to death as a dangerous rival (2-Sam 20:4). (2.) A son of Hadlai, and chief of Ephraim (2-Chr 28:12) in the reign of Ahaz.......

AMASAI
burdensome. (1.) A Levite, son of Elkanah, of the ancestry of Samuel (1-Chr 6:25, 1-Chr 6: 35). (2.) The leader of a body of men who joined David in the "stronghold," probably of Adullam (1-Chr 12:18). (3.) One of the priests appointed to precede the ark with blowing of trumpets on its removal from the house of Obed-edom (1-Chr 15:24). (4.) The father of a Levite, one of the two Kohathites w......

AMASHAI
the son of Azareel, appointed by Nehemiah to reside at Jerusalem and do the work of the temple (Neh. 11:13).......

AMASIAH
burden of (i.e., "sustained by") Jehovah, the "son of Zichri, who willingly offered himself unto the Lord," a captain over thousands under Jehoshaphat (2-Chr 17:16; comp. Judg. 5:9).......

AMBASSADOR
In the Old Testament the Hebrew word _tsir_, meaning "one who goes on an errand," is rendered thus (Josh. 9:4; Prov. 13:17; Isa. 18:2; Jer. 49:14; Obad. 1:1). This is also the rendering of _melits_, meaning "an interpreter," in 2-Chr 32:31; and of _malak_, a "messenger," in 2-Chr 35:21; Isa. 30:4;33:7; Ezek. 17:15. This is the name used by the apostle as designating those who are appointed by God ......

AMPLIAS
a Roman Christian saluted by Paul (Rom. 16:8).......

ANANIAS
a common Jewish name, the same as Hananiah. (1.) One of the members of the church at Jerusalem, who conspired with his wife Sapphira to deceive the brethren, and who fell down and immediately expired after he had uttered the falsehood (Acts 5:5). By common agreement the members of the early Christian community devoted their property to the work of furthering the gospel and of assisting the poor an......

ANNAS
was high priest A.D. 7-14. In A.D. 25 Caiaphas, who had married the daughter of Annas (John 18:13), was raised to that office, and probably Annas was now made president of the Sanhedrim, or deputy or coadjutor of the high priest, and thus was also called high priest along with Caiaphas (Luke 3:2). By the Mosaic law the high-priesthood was held for life (Num. 3:10); and although Annas had been depo......

ANTIPAS
(1.) Herod Antipas, a son of Herod the Great by his Samaritan wife Malthace. He was tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea during the whole period of our Lord's life on earth (Luke 23:7). He was a frivolous and vain prince, and was chargeable with many infamous crimes (Mark 8:15; Luke 3:19;13:31, 13: 32). He beheaded John the Baptist (Matt. 14:1) at the instigation of Herodias, the wife of his half-brothe......

ARETAS
the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, and king of Arabia Petraea. His daughter returned to him on the occasion of her husband's entering into an adulterous alliance with Herodias, the wife of Herod-Philip, his half-brother (Luke 3:19, Luke 3: 20; Mark 6:17; Matt. 14:3). This led to a war between Aretas and Herod Antipas. Herod's army was wholly destroyed (A.D. 36). Aretas, taking advantage of the co......

ASA
physician, son of Abijah and grandson of Rehoboam, was the third king of Judah. He was zealous in maintaining the true worship of God, and in rooting all idolatry, with its accompanying immoralities, out of the land (1-Kings 15:8). The Lord gave him and his land rest and prosperity. It is recorded of him, however, that in his old age, when afflicted, he "sought not to the Lord, but to the physicia......

ASAHEL
made by God, the youngest son of Zeruiah, David's sister. He was celebrated for his swiftness of foot. When fighting against Ish-bosheth at Gibeon, in the army of his brother Joab, he was put to death by Abner, whom he pursued from the field of battle (2-Sam 2:18, 2-Sam 2: 19). He is mentioned among David's thirty mighty men (2-Sam 23:24; 1-Chr 11:26). Others of the same name are mentioned (2-Chr ......

ASAPH
convener, or collector. (1.) A Levite; one of the leaders of David's choir (1-Chr 6:39). Psalms 50 and 73-83 inclusive are attributed to him. He is mentioned along with David as skilled in music, and a "seer" (2-Chr 29:30). The "sons of Asaph," mentioned in 1-Chr 25:1, 1-Chr 25: 2-Chr 20:14, 2-Chr 20: and Ezra 2:41, Ezra 2: were his descendants, or more probably a class of poets or singers who rec......

ASCENSION
See CHRIST.......

ASENATH
an Egyptian name, meaning "gift of the sun-god", daughter of Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife of Joseph (Gen. 41:45). She was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (50-52;46:20).......

ASH
(Heb. o'ren, "tremulous"), mentioned only Isa. 44:14 (R.V., "fir tree"). It is rendered "pine tree" both in the LXX. and Vulgate versions. There is a tree called by the Arabs _aran_, found still in the valleys of Arabia Petraea, whose leaf resembles that of the mountain ash. This may be the tree meant. Our ash tree is not known in Syria.......

ASHDOD
stronghold, a Philistine city (Josh. 15:47), about midway between Gaza and Joppa, and 3 miles from the Mediterranean. It was one of the chief seats of the worship of Dagon (1-Sam 5:5). It belonged to the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:47), but it never came into their actual possession. It was an important city, as it stood on the highroad from Egypt to Palestine, and hence was strongly fortified (2-Chr......

ASHDOTH-PISGAH
(Deut. 3:17; Josh. 12:3;13:20) in Authorized Version, but in Revised Version translated "slopes of Pisgah." In Deut. 4:49 it is translated in the Authorized Version "springs of Pisgah." The name Ashdoth is translated "springs" in the Authorized Version, but "slopes" in the Revised Version, of Josh. 10:40 12:8. It has been identified with the springs under Mount Nebo, now called 'Ayun Musa.......

ASHER
happy, Jacob's eigth son; his mother was Zilpah, Leah's handmaid (Gen. 30:13). Of the tribe founded by him nothing is recorded beyond its holding a place in the list of the tribes (35:26;46:17; Exo 1:4, Exo 1: etc.) It increased in numbers twenty-nine percent, during the thirty-eight years' wanderings. The place of this tribe during the march through the desert was between Dan and Naphtali (Num. 2......

ASHERAH
and pl. Asherim in Revised Version, instead of "grove" and "groves" of the Authorized Version. This was the name of a sensual Canaanitish goddess Astarte, the feminine of the Assyrian Ishtar. Its symbol was the stem of a tree deprived of its boughs, and rudely shaped into an image, and planted in the ground. Such religious symbols ("groves") are frequently alluded to in Scripture (Exo 34:13; Judg.......

ASHES
The ashes of a red heifer burned entire (Num. 19:5) when sprinkled on the unclean made them ceremonially clean (Heb. 9:13). To cover the head with ashes was a token of self-abhorrence and humiliation (2-Sam 13:19; Esther 4:3; Jer. 6:26, Jer. 6: etc.). To feed on ashes (Isa. 44:20), means to seek that which will prove to be vain and unsatisfactory, and hence it denotes the unsatisfactory nature......

ASHKELON
=Askelon=Ascalon, was one of the five cities of the Philistines (Josh. 13:3; 1-Sam 6:17). It stood on the shore of the Mediterranean, 12 miles north of Gaza. It is mentioned on an inscription at Karnak in Egypt as having been taken by king Rameses II., the oppressor of the Hebrews. In the time of the judges (Judg. 1:18) it fell into the possession of the tribe of Judah; but it was soon after retak......

ASHKENAZ
one of the three sons of Gomer (Gen. 10:3), and founder of one of the tribes of the Japhetic race. They are mentioned in connection with Minni and Ararat, and hence their original seat must have been in Armenia (Jer. 51:27), probably near the Black Sea, which, from their founder, was first called Axenus, and afterwards the Euxine.......

ASHPENAZ
the master of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:3), the "Rabsaris" of the court. His position was similar to that of the Kislar-aga of the modern Turkish sultans.......

ASHTAROTH
a city of Bashan, in the kingdom of Og (Deut. 1:4; Josh. 12:4;13:12;9:10). It was in the half-tribe of Manasseh (Josh. 13:12), and as a Levitical city was given to the Gershonites (1-Chr 6:71). Uzzia, one of David's valiant men (1-Chr 11:44), is named as of this city. It is identified with Tell Ashterah, in the Hauran, and is noticed on monuments B.C. 1700-1500. The name Beesh-terah (Josh. 21:27) ......

ASHTEROTH KARNAIM
Ashteroth of the two horns, the abode of the Rephaim (Gen. 14:5). It may be identified with Ashtaroth preceding; called "Karnaim", i.e., the "two-horned" (the crescent moon). The Samaritan version renders the word by "Sunamein," the present es-Sunamein, 28 miles south of Damascus.......

ASHTORETH
the moon goddess of the Phoenicians, representing the passive principle in nature, their principal female deity; frequently associated with the name of Baal, the sun-god, their chief male deity (Judg. 10:6; 1-Sam 7:4;12:10). These names often occur in the plural (Ashtaroth, Baalim), probably as indicating either different statues or different modifications of the deities. This deity is spoken of a......

ASHURITES
mentioned among those over whom Ish-bosheth was made king (2-Sam 2:9).......

ASIA
is used to denote Proconsular Asia, a Roman province which embraced the western parts of Asia Minor, and of which Ephesus was the capital, in Acts 2:9;6:9;16:6;19:10, 19:22;20:4, 20: 16, 18, etc., and probably Asia Minor in Acts 19:26, Acts 19: 27;21:27;24:18;27:2. Proconsular Asia contained the seven churches of the Apocalypse (Rev. 1:11). The "chiefs of Asia" (Acts 19:31) were certain wealthy ci......

ASNAPPER
probably the same as Assur-bani-pal (Sardanapalos of the Greeks), styled the "great and noble" (Ezra 4:10), was the son and successor (B.C. 668) of Esar-haddon (q.v.). He was "luxurious, ambitious, and cruel, but a magnificent patron of literature." He formed at Nineveh a library of clay tablets, numbering about 10,000. These are now mostly in the British Museum. They throw much light on the histo......

ASP
(Heb. pethen), Deut. 32:33; Job 20:14, Job 20: 16; Isa. 11:8. It was probably the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje), which was very poisonous (Rom. 3:13; Gr. aspis). The Egyptians worshipped it as the _uraeus_, and it was found in the desert and in the fields. The peace and security of Messiah's reign is represented by the figure of a child playing on the hole of the asp. (See ADDER.)......

ASS
frequently mentioned throughout Scripture. Of the domesticated species we read of, (1.) The she ass (Heb. 'athon), so named from its slowness (Gen. 12:16;45:23; Num. 22:23; 1-Sam 9:3). (2.) The male ass (Heb. hamor), the common working ass of Western Asia, so called from its red colour. Issachar is compared to a strong ass (Gen. 49:14). It was forbidden to yoke together an ass and an ox in the plo......

ASSHUR
second son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1-Chr 1:17). He went from the land of Shinar and built Nineveh, etc. (Gen. 10:11, Gen. 10:12). He probably gave his name to Assyria, which is the usual translation of the word, although the form Asshur is sometimes retained (Num. 24:22, Num. 24: 24; Ezek. 27:23, Ezek. 27: etc.). In Gen. 2:14 "Assyria" ought to be "Asshur," which was the original capital of Assyria, ......

ASSOS
a sea-port town of Proconsular Asia, in the district of Mysia, on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium. Paul came hither on foot along the Roman road from Troas (Acts 20:13, Acts 20: 14), a distance of 20 miles. It was about 30 miles distant from Troas by sea. The island of Lesbos lay opposite it, about 7 miles distant.......

ASSURANCE
The resurrection of Jesus (Acts 17:31) is the "assurance" (Gr. pistis, generally rendered "faith") or pledge God has given that his revelation is true and worthy of acceptance. The "full assurance [Gr. plerophoria, 'full bearing'] of faith" (Heb. 10:22) is a fulness of faith in God which leaves no room for doubt. The "full assurance of understanding" (Col. 2:2) is an entire unwavering conviction o......

ASSYRIA
the name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia, extending along the Tigris as far as to the high mountain range of Armenia, the Gordiaean or Carduchian mountains. It was founded in B.C. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu, a......

ASTROLOGER
(Dan. 1:20;2:2, 2: 10, 27, etc.) Heb. 'ashshaph', an enchanter, one who professes to divine future events by the appearance of the stars. This science flourished among the Chaldeans. It was positively forbidden to the Jews (Deut. 4:19;18:10; Isa. 47:13).......

ASTRONOMY
The Hebrews were devout students of the wonders of the starry firmanent (Amos 5:8; Ps. 19). In the Book of Job, which is the oldest book of the Bible in all probability, the constellations are distinguished and named. Mention is made of the "morning star" (Rev. 2:28; comp. Isa. 14:12), the "seven stars" and "Pleiades," "Orion," "Arcturus," the "Great Bear" (Amos 5:8; Job 9:9;38:31), "the crooked s......

ASUPPIM
(1-Chr 26:15, 1-Chr 26: 17, Authorized Version; but in Revised Version, "storehouse"), properly the house of stores for the priests. In Neh. 12:25 the Authorized Version has "thresholds," marg. "treasuries" or "assemblies;" Revised Version, "storehouses."......

BAASHA
bravery, the third king of the separate kingdom of Israel, and founder of its second dynasty (1 Kings 15; 16; 2-Chr 16:1). He was the son of Ahijah of the tribe of Issachar. The city of Tirzah he made the capital of his kingdom, and there he was buried, after an eventful reign of twenty-four years (1-Kings 15:33). On account of his idolatries his family was exterminated, according to the word of t......

BARABBAS
i.e., son of Abba or of a father, a notorious robber whom Pilate proposed to condemn to death instead of Jesus, whom he wished to release, in accordance with the Roman custom (John 18:40; Mark 15:7; Luke 23:19). But the Jews were so bent on the death of Jesus that they demanded that Barabbas should be pardoned (Matt. 27:16; Acts 3:14). This Pilate did.......

BARACHIAS, BERECHIAH
4 (q.v.), whom Jehovah hath blessed, father of the prophet Zechariah (Zech. 1:1, Zech. 1:7; Matt. 23:35).......

BARNABAS
son of consolation, the surname of Joses, a Levite (Acts 4:36). His name stands first on the list of prophets and teachers of the church at Antioch (13:1). Luke speaks of him as a "good man" (11:24). He was born of Jewish parents of the tribe of Levi. He was a native of Cyprus, where he had a possession of land (Acts 4:36, Acts 4: 37), which he sold. His personal appearance is supposed to have bee......

BARSABAS
son of Saba, the surname (1) of Joseph, also called Justus (Acts 1:23), some identify him with Barnabas; (2) of Judas, who was a "prophet." Nothing more is known of him than what is mentioned in Acts 15:32. ......

BASHAN
light soil, first mentioned in Gen. 14:5, Gen. 14: where it is said that Chedorlaomer and his confederates "smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth," where Og the king of Bashan had his residence. At the time of Israel's entrance into the Promised Land, Og came out against them, but was utterly routed (Num. 21:33; Deut. 3:1). This country extended from Gilead in the south to Hermon in the north, and from t......

BASHAN, HILL OF
(Psa 68:15), probably another name for Hermon, which lies to the north of Bashan. ......

BASHAN-HAVOTH-JAIR
the Bashan of the villages of Jair, the general name given to Argob by Jair, the son of Manasseh (Deut. 3:14), containing sixty cities with walls and brazen gates (Josh. 13:30; 1-Kings 4:13). (See ARGOB.) ......

BASHEMATH
sweet-smelling. (1.) The daughter of Ishmael, the last of Esau's three wives (Gen. 36:3, Gen. 36: 4, 13), from whose son Reuel four tribes of the Edomites sprung. She is also called Mahalath (Gen. 28:9). It is noticeable that Esau's three wives receive different names in the genealogical table of the Edomites (Gen. 36) from those given to them in the history (Gen. 26:34;28:9). (2.) A daughter of......

BASILISK
(in R.V., Isa. 11:8;14:29;59:5; Jer. 8:17), the "king serpent," as the name imports; a fabulous serpent said to be three spans long, with a spot on its head like a crown. Probably the yellow snake is intended. (See COCKATRICE.) ......

BASIN
or Bason. (1.) A trough or laver (Heb. aggan') for washing (Exo 24:6); rendered also "goblet" (7:2) and "cups" (Isa. 22:24). (2.) A covered dish or urn (Heb. k'for) among the vessels of the temple (1-Chr 28:17; Ezra 1:10;8:27). (3.) A vase (Heb. mizrak) from which to sprinkle anything. A metallic vessel; sometimes rendered "bowl" (Amos 6:6; Zech. 9:15). The vessels of the tabernacle were of br......

BASKET
There are five different Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version: (1.) A basket (Heb. sal, a twig or osier) for holding bread (Gen. 40:16; Exo 29:3, Exo 29: 23; Lev. 8:2, Lev. 8: 26, 31; Num. 6:15, Num. 6: 17, 19). Sometimes baskets were made of twigs peeled; their manufacture was a recognized trade among the Hebrews. (2.) That used (Heb. salsilloth') in gathering grapes (Jer. 6:9). ......

BASTARD
In the Old Testament the rendering of the Hebrew word _mamzer'_, which means "polluted." In Deut. 23:2, Deut. 23: it occurs in the ordinary sense of illegitimate offspring. In Zech. 9:6, Zech. 9: the word is used in the sense of foreigner. From the history of Jephthah we learn that there were bastard offspring among the Jews (Judg. 11:1). In Heb. 12:8, Heb. 12: the word (Gr. nothoi) is used in its......

BASTINADO
beating, a mode of punishment common in the East. It is referred to by "the rod of correction" (Prov. 22:15), "scourging" (Lev. 19:20), "chastising" (Deut. 22:18). The number of blows could not exceed forty (Deut. 25:2, Deut. 25: 3). ......

BEAST
This word is used of flocks or herds of grazing animals (Exo 22:5; Num. 20:4, Num. 20: 8, 11; Psa 78:48); of beasts of burden (Gen. 45:17); of eatable beasts (Prov. 9:2); and of swift beasts or dromedaries (Isa. 60:6). In the New Testament it is used of a domestic animal as property (Rev. 18:13); as used for food (1-Cor 15:39), for service (Luke 10:34; Acts 23:24), and for sacrifice (Acts 7:42). ......

BLASPHEMY
In the sense of speaking evil of God this word is found in Psa 74:18; Isa. 52:5; Rom. 2:24; Rev. 13:1, Rev. 13: 6;16:9, 16: 11, 21. It denotes also any kind of calumny, or evil-speaking, or abuse (1-Kings 21:10; Acts 13:45;18:6, 18: etc.). Our Lord was accused of blasphemy when he claimed to be the Son of God (Matt. 26:65; comp. Matt. 9:3; Mark 2:7). They who deny his Messiahship blaspheme Jesus (......

BLASTUS
chamberlain to king Herod Agrippa I. (Acts 12:20). Such persons generally had great influence with their masters. ......

BRASS
which is an alloy of copper and zinc, was not known till the thirteenth century. What is designated by this word in Scripture is properly copper (Deut. 8:9). It was used for fetters (Judg. 16:21; 2-Kings 25:7), for pieces of armour (1-Sam 17:5, 1-Sam 17: 6), for musical instruments (1-Chr 15:19; 1-Cor 13:1), and for money (Matt. 10:9). It is a symbol of insensibility and obstinacy in sin (Isa. 4......

BREASTPLATE
(1.) That piece of ancient armour that protected the breast. This word is used figuratively in Eph. 6:14 and Isa. 59:17. (See ARMOUR.) (2.) An ornament covering the breast of the high priest, first mentioned in Exo 25:7. It was made of embroidered cloth, set with four rows of precious stones, three in each row. On each stone was engraved the name of one of the twelve tribes (Exo 28:15;39:8). It ......

CAIAPHAS
the Jewish high priest (A.D. 27-36) at the beginning of our Lord's public ministry, in the reign of Tiberius (Luke 3:2), and also at the time of his condemnation and crucifixion (Matt. 26:3, Matt. 26:57; John 11:49;18:13, 18: 14). He held this office during the whole of Pilate's administration. His wife was the daughter of Annas, who had formerly been high priest, and was probably the vicar or dep......

CARCASE
contact with a, made an Israelite ceremonially unclean, and made whatever he touched also unclean, according to the Mosaic law (Hag. 2:13; comp. Num. 19:16, Num. 19: 22; Lev. 11:39).......

CASEMENT
a barrier of open-work placed before windows (Prov. 7:6). In Judg. 5:28 the Hebrew word is rendered "lattice," in the LXX. "network," an opening through which cool air is admitted.......

CASIPHIA
silver, a place between Babylon and Jerusalem, where Iddo resided (Ezra 8:17); otherwise unknown.......

CASLUHIM
fortified, a people descended from Mizraim (Gen. 10:14; 1-Chr 1:12). Their original seat was probably somewhere in Lower Egypt, along the sea-coast to the south border of Palestine.......

CASSIA
(1.) Hebrew _kiddah'_, i.e., "split." One of the principal spices of the holy anointing oil (Exo 30:24), and an article of commerce (Ezek. 27:19). It is the inner bark of a tree resembling the cinnamon (q.v.), the Cinnamomum cassia of botanists, and was probably imported from India. (2.) Hebrew pl. _ketzi'oth_ (Psa 45:8). Mentioned in connection with myrrh and aloes as being used to scent garmen......

CASTAWAY
Gr. adokimos, (1-Cor 9:27), one regarded as unworthy (R.V., "rejected"); elsewhere rendered "reprobate" (2-Tim 3:8, 2-Tim 3: etc.); "rejected" (Heb. 6:8, Heb. 6: etc.).......

CASTLE
a military fortress (1-Chr 11:7), also probably a kind of tower used by the priests for making known anything discovered at a distance (1-Chr 6:54). Castles are also mentioned (Gen. 25:16) as a kind of watch-tower, from which shepherds kept watch over their flocks by night. The "castle" into which the chief captain commanded Paul to be brought was the quarters of the Roman soldiers in the fortress......

CASTOR AND POLLUX
the "Dioscuri", two heroes of Greek and Roman mythology. Their figures were probably painted or sculptured on the prow of the ship which Luke refers to (Acts 28:11). They were regarded as the tutelary divinities of sailors. They appeared in the heavens as the constellation Gemini.......

CEPHAS
a Syriac surname given by Christ to Simon (John 1:42), meaning "rock." The Greeks translated it by Petros, and the Latins by Petrus. ......

CHARASHIM
craftsmen, a valley named in 1-Chr 4:14. In Neh. 11:35 the Hebrew word is rendered "valley of craftsmen" (R.V. marg., Geha-rashim). Nothing is known of it. ......

CHIEFS OF ASIA
"Asiarchs," the title given to certain wealthy persons annually appointed to preside over the religious festivals and games in the various cities of proconsular Asia (Acts 19:31). Some of these officials appear to have been Paul's friends. ......

CHOR-ASHAN
smoking furnace, one of the places where "David himself and his men were wont to haunt" (1-Sam 30:30, 1-Sam 30: 31). It is probably identical with Ashan (Josh. 15:42;19:7), a Simeonite city in the Negeb, i.e., the south, belonging to Judah. The word ought, according to another reading, to be "Bor-ashan." ......

CHRYSOPRASUS
golden leek, a precious stone of the colour of leek's juice, a greenish-golden colour (Rev. 21:20). ......

CLEOPAS
(abbreviation of Cleopatros), one of the two disciples with whom Jesus conversed on the way to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection (Luke 24:18). We know nothing definitely regarding him. It is not certain that he was the Clopas of John 19:25, John 19: or the Alphaeus of Matt. 10:3, Matt. 10: although he may have been so. ......

CLEOPHAS
(in the spelling of this word _h_ is inserted by mistake from Latin MSS.), rather Cleopas, which is the Greek form of the word, while Clopas is the Aramaic form. In John 19:25 the Authorized Version reads, "Mary, the wife of Clopas." The word "wife" is conjecturally inserted here. If "wife" is rightly inserted, then Mary was the mother of James the Less, and Clopas is the same as Alphaeus (Matt. 1......

DAMASCUS
activity, the most ancient of Oriental cities; the capital of Syria (Isa. 7:8;17:3); situated about 133 miles to the north of Jerusalem. Its modern name is Esh-Sham; i.e., "the East." The situation of this city is said to be the most beautiful of all Western Asia. It is mentioned among the conquests of the Egyptian king Thothmes III. (B.C. 1500), and in the Amarna tablets (B.C. 1400). It is fi......

DEDICATION, FEAST OF THE
(John 10:22, John 10: 42), i.e., the feast of the renewing. It was instituted B.C. 164 to commemorate the purging of the temple after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes (B.C. 167), and the rebuilding of the altar after the Syrian invaders had been driven out by Judas Maccabaeus. It lasted for eight days, beginning on the 25th of the month Chisleu (December), which was often a period of heavy rai......

DEMAS
a companion and fellow-labourer of Paul during his first imprisonment at Rome (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). It appears, however, that the love of the world afterwards mastered him, and he deserted the apostle (2-Tim 4:10). ......

DORCAS
a female antelope, or gazelle, a pious Christian widow at Joppa whom Peter restored to life (Acts 9:36). She was a Hellenistic Jewess, called Tabitha by the Jews and Dorcas by the Greeks.......

EAST
(1.) The orient (mizrah); the rising of the sun. Thus "the east country" is the country lying to the east of Syria, the Elymais (Zech. 8:7). (2). Properly what is in front of one, or a country that is before or in front of another; the rendering of the word _kedem_. In pointing out the quarters, a Hebrew always looked with his face toward the east. The word _kedem_ is used when the four quarters......

EAST GATE
(Jer. 19:2), properly the Potter's gate, the gate which led to the potter's field, in the valley of Hinnom. ......

EAST SEA
(Joel 2:20; Ezek. 47:18), the Dead Sea, which lay on the east side of the Holy Land. The Mediterranean, which lay on the west, was hence called the "great sea for the west border" (Num. 34:6). ......

EAST WIND
the wind coming from the east (Job 27:21; Isa. 27:8, Isa. 27: etc.). Blight caused by this wind, "thin ears" (Gen. 41:6); the withered "gourd" (Jonah 4:8). It was the cause and also the emblem of evil (Ezek. 17:10;19:12; Hos. 13:15). In Palestine this wind blows from a burning desert, and hence is destitute of moisture necessary for vegetation. ......

EAST, CHILDREN OF THE
the Arabs as a whole, known as the Nabateans or Kedarenes, nomad tribes (Judg. 6:3, Judg. 6:33;7:12;8:10). ......

EASTER
originally a Saxon word (Eostre), denoting a goddess of the Saxons, in honour of whom sacrifices were offered about the time of the Passover. Hence the name came to be given to the festival of the Resurrection of Christ, which occured at the time of the Passover. In the early English versions this word was frequently used as the translation of the Greek pascha (the Passover). When the Authorized V......

ECCLESIASTES
the Greek rendering of the Hebrew _Koheleth_, which means "Preacher." The old and traditional view of the authorship of this book attributes it to Solomon. This view can be satisfactorily maintained, though others date it from the Captivity. The writer represents himself implicitly as Solomon (1:12). It has been appropriately styled The Confession of King Solomon. "The writer is a man who has sinn......

ELASAH
God made. (1.) One of the descendants of Judah, of the family of Hezron (1-Chr 2:39, 1-Chr 2: "Eleasah"). (2.) A descendant of king Saul (1-Chr 8:37;9:43). (3.) The son of Shaphan, one of the two who were sent by Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar, and also took charge of Jeremiah's letter to the captives in Babylon (Jer. 29:3). ......

ELIAS
the Greek form of Elijah (Matt. 11:14;16:14, 16: etc.), which the Revised Version has uniformly adopted in the New Testament. (See ELIJAH.)......

ELIASHIB
whom God will restore. (1.) A priest, head of one of the courses of the priests of the time of David (1-Chr 24:12). (2.) A high priest in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh. 12:22, Neh. 12: 23). He rebuilt the eastern city wall (3:1), his own mansion being in that quarter, on the ridge Ophel (3:20, 3: 21). His indulgence of Tobiah the Ammonite provoked the indignation of Nehemiah (13:4, 13: 7).......

ELLASAR
the oak or heap of Assyria, a territory in Asia of which Arioch was king (Gen. 14:1, Gen. 14: 9). It is supposed that the old Chaldean town of Larsa was the metropolis of this kingdom, situated nearly half-way between Ur (now Mugheir) and Erech, on the left bank of the Euphrates. This town is represented by the mounds of Senkereh, a little to the east of Erech.......

ELYMAS
magician or sorcerer, the Arabic name of the Jew Bar-jesus, who withstood Paul and Barnabas in Cyprus. He was miraculously struck with blindness (Acts 13:11).......

EPAPHRAS
lovely, spoken of by Paul (Col. 1:7;4:12) as "his dear fellow-servant," and "a faithful minister of Christ." He was thus evidently with him at Rome when he wrote to the Colossians. He was a distinguished disciple, and probably the founder of the Colossian church. He is also mentioned in the Epistle to Philemon (1:23), where he is called by Paul his "fellow-prisoner."......

ERASTUS
beloved. (1.) The "chamberlain" of the city of Corinth (Rom. 16:23), and one of Paul's disciples. As treasurer of such a city he was a public officer of great dignity, and his conversion to the gospel was accordingly a proof of the wonderful success of the apostle's labours. (2.) A companion of Paul at Ephesus, who was sent by him along with Timothy into Macedonia (Acts 19:22). Corinth was his u......

ESAIAS
the Greek form for Isaiah, constantly used in the Authorized Version of the New Testament (Matt. 3:3;4:14), but in the Revised Version always "Isaiah."......

EUODIAS
a good journey, a female member of the church at Philippi. She was one who laboured much with Paul in the gospel. He exhorts her to be of one mind with Syntyche (Phil. 4:2). From this it seems they had been at variance with each other. ......

EVERLASTING
eternal, applied to God (Gen. 21:33; Deut. 33:27; Psa 41:13;90:2). We also read of the "everlasting hills" (Gen. 49:26); an "everlasting priesthood" (Exo 40:15; Num. 25:13). (See ETERNAL.) ......

EZEKIAS
Grecized form of Hezekiah (Matt. 1:9, Matt. 1: 10). ......

FAST
The sole fast required by the law of Moses was that of the great Day of Atonement (q.v.), Lev. 23:26. It is called "the fast" (Acts 27:9). The only other mention of a periodical fast in the Old Testament is in Zech. 7:1;8:19, 8: from which it appears that during their captivity the Jews observed four annual fasts. (1.) The fast of the fourth month, kept on the seventeenth day of Tammuz, the an......

FEAST
as a mark of hospitality (Gen. 19:3; 2-Sam 3:20; 2-Kings 6:23); on occasions of domestic joy (Luke 15:23; Gen. 21:8); on birthdays (Gen. 40:20; Job 1:4; Matt. 14:6); and on the occasion of a marriage (Judg. 14:10; Gen. 29:22). Feasting was a part of the observances connected with the offering up of sacrifices (Deut. 12:6, Deut. 12: 7; 1-Sam 9:19;16:3, 16: 5), and with the annual festivals (Deut.......

GAASH
a shaking, a hill, on the north side of which Joshua was buried (Josh. 24:30; Judg. 2:9), in the territory of Ephraim. (See TIMNATH-SERAH.)......

GIBEAH OF PHINEHAS
(Josh. 15:57, Josh. 15: R.V. marg.), a city on Mount Ephraim which had been given to Phinehas (24:33 "hill," A.V.; R.V. marg. and Heb., "Gibeah."). Here Eleazar the son of Aaron was buried. It has been identified with the modern Khurbet Jibia, 5 miles north of Guphna towards Shechem. ......

GIRGASHITE
dwelling in clayey soil, the descendants of the fifth son of Canaan (Gen. 10:16), one of the original tribes inhabiting the land of Canaan before the time of the Israelites (Gen. 15:21; Deut. 7:1). They were a branch of the great family of the Hivites. Of their geographical position nothing is certainly known. Probably they lived somewhere in the central part of Western Palestine. ......

GLASS
was known to the Egyptians at a very early period of their national history, at least B.C. 1500. Various articles both useful and ornamental were made of it, as bottles, vases, etc. A glass bottle with the name of Sargon on it was found among the ruins of the north-west palace of Nimroud. The Hebrew word _zekukith_ (Job 28:17), rendered in the Authorized Version "crystal," is rightly rendered in t......

GNASH
Heb. harak, meaning "to grate the teeth", (Job 16:9; Psa 112:10; Lam. 2:16), denotes rage or sorrow. (See also Acts 7:54; Mark 9:18.) ......

GRASS
(1.) Heb. hatsir, ripe grass fit for mowing (1-Kings 18:5; Job 40:15; Psa 104:14). As the herbage rapidly fades under the scorching sun, it is used as an image of the brevity of human life (Isa. 40:6, Isa. 40: 7; Psa 90:5). In Num. 11:5 this word is rendered "leeks." (2.) Heb. deshe', green grass (Gen. 1:11, Gen. 1: 12; Isa. 66:14; Deut. 32:2). "The sickly and forced blades of grass which spring......

GRASSHOPPER
belongs to the class of neuropterous insects called Gryllidae. This insect is not unknown in Palestine. In Judg. 6:5;7:12; Job 39:30; Jer. 46:23, Jer. 46: where the Authorized Version has "grasshopper," the Revised Version more correctly renders the Hebrew word ('arbeh) by "locust." This is the case also in Amos 7:1; Nah. 3:17, Nah. 3: where the Hebrew word _gob_ is used; and in Lev. 11:22; Num.......

HADASHAH
new, a city in the valley of Judah (Josh. 15:37).......

HADASSAH
myrtle, the Jewish name of Esther (q.v.), Esther 2:7.......

HASADIAH
favoured by Jehovah, one of the sons of Pedaiah (1-Chr 3:20), of the royal line of David.......

HASENUAH
bristling or hated, a Benjamite (1-Chr 9:7).......

HASHABIAH
regarded by Jehovah. (1.) Merarite Levite (1-Chr 6:45;9:14). (2.) A son of Jeduthun (25:3, 25: 19). (3.) Son of Kemuel (26:30). (4.) One of the chief Levites (2-Chr 35:9). (5.) A Levite (Neh. 11:22). (6.) One of the chief priests in the time of Ezra (Ezra 8:24). (7.) A chief of the Levites (Neh. 12:24). (8.) Ezra 8:19. (9.) Neh. 3:17.......

HASHABNIAH
(1.) Neh. 3:10. (2.) One of the Levites whom Ezra appointed to interpret the law to the people (Neh. 9:5).......

HASHBADANA
consideration in judging, stood at Ezra's left hand when he read the law (Neh. 8:4).......

HASHMONAH
fatness, the thirtieth halting-place of the Israelites during their wanderings in the wilderness, not far from Mount Hor (Num. 33:29, Num. 33: 30).......

HASHUB
intelligent. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (Neh. 11:15; 1-Chr 9:14). (2.) Neh. 3:233:11.......

HASHUBAH
ibid., a descendant of David (1-Chr 3:20).......

HASHUM
opulent. (1.) Ezra 2:19; Neh. 7:22. (2.) Stood on Ezra's left hand while he read the law (Neh. 8:4).......

HASRAH
poverty, "keeper of the wardrobe," i.e., of the sacerdotal vestments (2-Chr 34:22); called Harhas 2-Kings 22:14. He was husband of the prophetess Huldah.......

HASUPHA
uncovered, one of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:43; Neh. 7:46).......

HE-ASS
Heb. hamor, (Gen. 12:16), the general designation of the donkey used for carrying burdens (Gen. 42:26) and for ploughing (Isa. 30:24). It is described in Gen. 49:14, Gen. 49: 2-Sam 19:26. (See ASS.) ......

HERMAS
Mercury, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sends greetings (Rom. 16:14). Some suppose him to have been the author of the celebrated religious romance called The Shepherd, but it is very probable that that work is the production of a later generation.......

HEROD ANTIPAS
Herod's son by Malthace (Matt. 14:1; Luke 3:1, Luke 3: 19;9:7; Acts 13:1). (See ANTIPAS.)......

HERODIAS
(Matt. 14:3; Mark 6:17; Luke 3:19), the daughter of Aristobulus and Bernice. While residing at Rome with her husband Herod Philip I. and her daughter, Herod Antipas fell in with her during one of his journeys to that city. She consented to leave her husband and become his wife. Some time after, Herod met John the Baptist, who boldly declared the marriage to be unlawful. For this he was "cast into ......

JAASAU
fabricator, an Israelite who renounced his Gentile wife after the Return (Ezra 10:37). ......

JAASIEL
made by God, one of David's body-guard, the son of Abner (1-Chr 27:21), called Jasiel in 1-Chr 11:47. ......

JASHEN
sleeping, called also Hashem (1-Chr 11:34); a person, several of whose sons were in David's body-guard (2-Sam 23:32). ......

JASHER
upright. "The Book of Jasher," rendered in the LXX. "the Book of the Upright One," by the Vulgate "the Book of Just Ones," was probably a kind of national sacred song-book, a collection of songs in praise of the heroes of Israel, a "book of golden deeds," a national anthology. We have only two specimens from the book, (1) the words of Joshua which he spake to the Lord at the crisis of the battle o......

JASHOBEAM
dweller among the people; or to whom the people turn, the Hachmonite (1-Chr 11:11), one of David's chief heroes who joined him at Ziklag (12:6). He was the first of the three who broke through the host of the Philistines to fetch water to David from the well of Bethlehem (2-Sam 23:13). He is also called Adino the Eznite (8). ......

JASHUB
returner. (1.) The third of Issachar's four sons (1-Chr 7:1); called also Job (Gen. 46:13). (2.) Ezra 10:29. ......

JASON
he that will cure, the host of Paul and Silas in Thessalonica. The Jews assaulted his house in order to seize Paul, but failing to find him, they dragged Jason before the ruler of the city (Acts 17:5). He was apparently one of the kinsmen of Paul (Rom. 16:21), and accompanied him from Thessalonica to Corinth. ......

JASPER
(Heb. yashpheh, "glittering"), a gem of various colours, one of the twelve inserted in the high priest's breast-plate (Exo 28:20). It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:18, Rev. 21: 19). It was "most precious," "clear as crystal" (21:11). It was emblematic of the glory of God (4:3). ......

JEHOASH
Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of King Ahaziah. While yet an infant, he was saved from the general massacre of the family by his aunt Jehosheba, and was apparently the only surviving descendant of Solomon (2-Chr 21:4, 2-Chr 21: 17). His uncle, the high priest Jehoiada, brought him forth to public notice when he was eight years of age, and crowned and anointed him king of Judah with the usual ceremoni......

JOASH
whom Jehovah bestowed. (1.) A contracted form of Jehoash, the father of Gideon (Judg. 6:11, Judg. 6: 29;8:13, 8: 29, 32). (2.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:3). (3.) One of King Ahab's sons (1-Kings 22:26). (4.) King of Judah (2-Kings 11:2;12:19, 12: 20). (See JEHOASH [1].) (5.) King of Israel (2-Kings 13:9, 2-Kings 13: 12, 13, 25). (See JEHOASH [2].) ......

JONAS
(1.) Greek form of Jonah (Matt. 12:39, Matt. 12: 40, 41, etc.). (2.) The father of the apostles Peter (John 21:15) and Andrew; but the reading should be (also 1:42), as in the Revised Version, "John," instead of Jonas.......

JUDAS
the Graecized form of Judah. (1.) The patriarch (Matt. 1:2, Matt. 1: 3). (2.) Son of Simon (John 6:71;13:2, 13: 26), surnamed Iscariot, i.e., a man of Kerioth (Josh. 15:25). His name is uniformly the last in the list of the apostles, as given in the synoptic (i.e., the first three) Gospels. The evil of his nature probably gradually unfolded itself till "Satan entered into him" (John 13:27), and ......

KIR-HARASETH
built fortress, a city and fortress of Moab, the modern Kerak, a small town on the brow of a steep hill about 6 miles from Rabbath-Moab and 10 miles from the Dead Sea; called also Kir-haresh, Kir-hareseth, Kir-heres (Isa. 16:7, Isa. 16: 11; Jer. 48:31, Jer. 48: 36). After the death of Ahab, Mesha, king of Moab (see MOABITE+STONE), threw off allegiance to the king of Israel, and fought successfully......

LASAEA
a city in the island of Crete (Acts 27:8). Its ruins are still found near Cape Leonda, about 5 miles east of "Fair Havens." ......

LASHA
fissure, a place apparently east of the Dead Sea (Gen. 10:19). It was afterwards known as Callirhoe, a place famous for its hot springs. ......

LEASING
(Psa 4:2;5:6) an Old English word meaning lies, or lying, as the Hebrew word _kazabh_ is generally rendered. ......

LUCAS
a friend and companion of Paul during his imprisonment at Rome; Luke (q.v.), the beloved physician (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). ......

LYSANIAS
tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1), on the eastern slope of Anti-Lebanon, near the city of Damascus. ......

LYSIAS, CLAUDIUS
the chief captain (chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops in Jerusalem, and sent Paul under guard to the procurator Felix at Caesarea (Acts 21:31;22:24). His letter to his superior officer is an interesting specimen of Roman military correspondence (23:26). He obtained his Roman citizenship by purchase, and was therefore probably a Greek. (See CLAUDIUS.) ......

MAASEIAH
the work of Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levites whom David appointed as porter for the ark (1-Chr 15:18, 1-Chr 15: 20). (2.) One of the "captains of hundreds" associated with Jehoiada in restoring king Jehoash to the throne (2-Chr 23:1). (3.) The "king's son," probably one of the sons of king Ahaz, killed by Zichri in the invasion of Judah by Pekah, king of Israel (2-Chr 28:7). (4.) One who was......

MAASIAI
work of Jehovah, one of the priests resident at Jerusalem at the Captivity (1-Chr 9:12). ......

MAHALATH LEANNOTH MASCHIL
This word leannoth seems to point to some kind of instrument unknown (Ps. 88, title). The whole phrase has by others been rendered, "On the sickness of affliction: a lesson;" or, "Concerning afflictive sickness: a didactic psalm." ......

MAHALATH MASCHIL
in the title of Ps. 53, denoting that this was a didactic psalm, to be sung to the accompaniment of the lute or guitar. Others regard this word "mahalath" as the name simply of an old air to which the psalm was to be sung. Others, again, take the word as meaning "sickness," and regard it as alluding to the contents of the psalm. ......

MAHER-SHALAL-HASH-BAZ
plunder speedeth; spoil hasteth, (Isa. 8:1; comp. Zeph. 1:14), a name Isaiah was commanded first to write in large characters on a tablet, and afterwards to give as a symbolical name to a son that was to be born to him (Isa. 8:1, Isa. 8: 3), as denoting the sudden attack on Damascus and Syria by the Assyrian army. ......

MANASSEH
who makes to forget. "God hath made me forget" (Heb. nashshani), Gen. 41:51. (1.) The elder of the two sons of Joseph. He and his brother Ephraim were afterwards adopted by Jacob as his own sons (8:1). There is an account of his marriage to a Syrian (1-Chr 7:14); and the only thing afterwards recorded of him is, that his grandchildren were "brought up upon Joseph's knees" (Gen. 50:23; R.V., "born ......

MARRIAGE-FEASTS
(John 2:1) "lasted usually for a whole week; but the cost of such prolonged rejoicing is very small in the East. The guests sit round the great bowl or bowls on the floor, the meal usually consisting of a lamb or kid stewed in rice or barley. The most honoured guests sit nearest, others behind; and all in eating dip their hand into the one smoking mound, pieces of the thin bread, bent together, se......

MASCHIL
instructing, occurs in the title of thirteen Psalms (32, 42, 44, etc.). It denotes a song enforcing some lesson of wisdom or piety, a didactic song. In Psa 47:7 it is rendered, Authorized Version, "with understanding;" Revised Version, marg., "in a skilful psalm." ......

MASH
(= Meshech 1-Chr 1:17), one of the four sons of Aram, and the name of a tribe descended from him (Gen. 10:23) inhabiting some part probably of Mesopotamia. Some have supposed that they were the inhabitants of Mount Masius, the present Karja Baghlar, which forms part of the chain of Taurus. ......

MASHAL
entreaty, a levitical town in the tribe of Asher (1-Chr 6:74); called Mishal (Josh. 21:30). ......

MASON
an artificer in stone. The Tyrians seem to have been specially skilled in architecture (1-Kings 5:17, 1-Kings 5: 18; 2-Sam 5:11). This art the Hebrews no doubt learned in Egypt (Exo 1:11, Exo 1: 14), where ruins of temples and palaces fill the traveller with wonder at the present day. ......

MASREKAH
vineyard of noble vines, a place in Idumea, the native place of Samlah, one of the Edomitish kings (Gen. 36:36; 1-Chr 1:47). ......

MASSA
a lifting up, gift, one of the sons of Ishmael, the founder of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 25:14); a nomad tribe inhabiting the Arabian desert toward Babylonia. ......

MASSAH
trial, temptation, a name given to the place where the Israelites, by their murmuring for want of water, provoked Jehovah to anger against them. It is also called Meribah (Exo 17:7; Deut. 6:16; Psa 95:8, Psa 95: 9; Heb. 3:8). ......

MATTATHIAS
ibid. (1.) The son of Amos, in the genealogy of our Lord (Luke 3:25). (2.) The son of Semei, in the same genealogy (Luke 3:26). ......

MATTHIAS
gift of God. Acts 1:23. ......

MEASURE
Several words are so rendered in the Authorized Version. (1.) Those which are indefinite. (a) Hok, Isa. 5:14, Isa. 5: elsewhere "statute." (b) Mad, Job 11:9; Jer. 13:25, Jer. 13: elsewhere "garment." (c) Middah, the word most frequently thus translated, Exo 26:2, Exo 26: 8, etc. (d) Mesurah, Lev. 19:35; 1-Chr 23:29. (e) Mishpat, Jer. 30:11, Jer. 30: elsewhere "judgment." (f) Mithkoneth and token, ......

MICHMASH
something hidden, a town of Benjamin (Ezra 2:27), east of Bethel and south of Migron, on the road to Jerusalem (Isa. 10:28). It lay on the line of march of an invading army from the north, on the north side of the steep and precipitous Wady es-Suweinit ("valley of the little thorn-tree" or "the acacia"), and now bears the name of Mukhmas. This wady is called "the passage of Michmash" (1-Sam 13:23)......

MNASON
reminding, or remembrancer, a Christian of Jerusalem with whom Paul lodged (Acts 21:16). He was apparently a native of Cyprus, like Barnabas (11:19, 11: 20), and was well known to the Christians of Caesarea (4:36). He was an "old disciple" (R.V., "early disciple"), i.e., he had become a Christian in the beginning of the formation of the Church in Jerusalem. ......

NAHASH
serpent. (1.) King of the Ammonites in the time of Saul. The inhabitants of Jabesh-Gilead having been exposed to great danger from Nahash, sent messengers to Gibeah to inform Saul of their extremity. He promptly responded to the call, and gathering together an army he marched against Nahash. "And it came to pass that they which remained were scattered, so that two of them [the Ammonites] were not ......

NEBUSHASBAN
adorer of Nebo, or Nebo saves me, the "Rabsaris," or chief chamberlain, of the court of Babylon. He was one of those whom the king sent to release Jeremiah from prison in Jerusalem (Jer. 39:13).......

NEW MOON, FEAST OF
Special services were appointed for the commencement of a month (Num. 28:11;10:10). (See FESTIVALS.) ......

NICOLAS
the victory of the people, a proselyte of Antioch, one of the seven deacons (Acts 6:5). ......

NYMPHAS
nymph, saluted by Paul in his Epistle to the Colossians as a member of the church of Laodicea (Col. 4:15). ......

OLYMPAS
a Roman Christian whom Paul salutes (Rom. 16:15). ......

OZIAS
son of Joram (Matt. 1:8); called also Uzziah (2-Kings 15:32, 2-Kings 15: 34).......

PARMASHTA
strong-fisted, a son of Haman, slain in Shushan (Esther 9:9).......

PARMENAS
constant, one of the seven "deacons" (Acts 6:5).......

PAS-DAMMIM
the border of blood = Ephes-dammim (q.v.), between Shochoh and Azekah (1-Sam 17:1; 1-Chr 11:13).......

PASACH
clearing, one of the sons of Japhlet, of the tribe of Asher (1-Chr 7:33).......

PASHUR
release. (1.) The son of Immer (probably the same as Amariah, Neh. 10:3;12:2), the head of one of the priestly courses, was "chief governor [Heb. paqid nagid, meaning "deputy governor"] of the temple" (Jer. 20:1, Jer. 20: 2). At this time the _nagid_, or "governor," of the temple was Seraiah the high priest (1-Chr 6:14), and Pashur was his _paqid_, or "deputy." Enraged at the plainness with which ......

PASSAGE
denotes in Josh. 22:11, Josh. 22: as is generally understood, the place where the children of Israel passed over Jordan. The words "the passage of" are, however, more correctly rendered "by the side of," or "at the other side of," thus designating the position of the great altar erected by the eastern tribes on their return home. This word also designates the fords of the Jordan to the south of th......

PASSION
Only once found, in Acts 1:3, Acts 1: meaning suffering, referring to the sufferings of our Lord.......

PASSOVER
the name given to the chief of the three great historical annual festivals of the Jews. It was kept in remembrance of the Lord's passing over the houses of the Israelites (Exo 12:13) when the first born of all the Egyptians were destroyed. It is called also the "feast of unleavened bread" (Exo 23:15; Mark 14:1; Acts 12:3), because during its celebration no leavened bread was to be eaten or even ke......

PATROBAS
a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent salutations (Rom. 16:14).......

PHINEHAS
mouth of brass, or from old Egypt, the negro. (1.) Son of Eleazar, the high priest (Exo 6:25). While yet a youth he distinguished himself at Shittim by his zeal against the immorality into which the Moabites had tempted the people (Num. 25:1), and thus "stayed the plague" that had broken out among the people, and by which twenty-four thousand of them perished. For his faithfulness on that occasion......

RED SEA, PASSAGE OF
The account of the march of the Israelites through the Red Sea is given in Exo 14:22. There has been great diversity of opinion as to the precise place where this occurred. The difficulty of arriving at any definite conclusion on the matter is much increased by the consideration that the head of the Gulf of Suez, which was the branch of the sea that was crossed, must have extended at the time of t......

RIVERS OF DAMASCUS
the Abana and Pharpar (2-Kings 5:12). ......

SCHOOLMASTER
the law so designated by Paul (Gal. 3:24, Gal. 3: 25). As so used, the word does not mean teacher, but pedagogue (shortened into the modern page), i.e., one who was intrusted with the supervision of a family, taking them to and from the school, being responsible for their safety and manners. Hence the pedagogue was stern and severe in his discipline. Thus the law was a pedagogue to the Jews, with ......

SEA OF GLASS
a figurative expression used in Rev. 4:6 15:2. According to the interpretation of some, "this calm, glass-like sea, which is never in storm, but only interfused with flame, represents the counsels of God, those purposes of righteousness and love which are often fathomless but never obscure, always the same, though sometimes glowing with holy anger." (Comp. Psa 36:6;77:19; Rom. 11:33.) ......

SEASONS
(Gen. 8:22). See AGRICULTURE; MONTH. ......

SHAASHGAZ
servant of the beautiful, a chief eunuch in the second house of the harem of king Ahasuerus (Esther 2:14). ......

SHEAR-JASHUB
a remnant shall escape or return (i.e., to God), a symbolical name which the prophet Isaiah gave to his son (Isa. 7:3), perhaps his eldest son.......

SILAS
wood, a prominent member of the church at Jerusalem; also called Silvanus. He and Judas, surnamed Barsabas, were chosen by the church there to accompany Paul and Barnabas on their return to Antioch from the council of the apostles and elders (Acts 15:22), as bearers of the decree adopted by the council. He assisted Paul there in his evangelistic labours, and was also chosen by him to be his compan......

STEPHANAS
crown, a member of the church at Corinth, whose family were among those the apostle had baptized (1-Cor 1:16;16:15, 16: 17). He has been supposed by some to have been the "jailer of Philippi" (comp. Acts 16:33). The First Epistle to the Corinthians was written from Philippi some six years after the jailer's conversion, and he was with the apostle there at that time. ......

TABERNACLES, FEAST OF
the third of the great annual festivals of the Jews (Lev. 23:33). It is also called the "feast of ingathering" (Exo 23:16; Deut. 16:13). It was celebrated immediately after the harvest, in the month Tisri, and the celebration lasted for eight days (Lev. 23:33). During that period the people left their homes and lived in booths formed of the branches of trees. The sacrifices offered at this time ar......

TELASSAR
or Thelasar, (Isa. 37:12; 2-Kings 19:12), a province in the south-east of Assyria, probably in Babylonia. Some have identified it with Tel Afer, a place in Mesopotamia, some 30 miles from Sinjar. ......

THAHASH
a badger, a son of Nahor, Abraham's brother (Gen. 22:24). ......

THEUDAS
thanksgiving, referred to by Gamaliel in his speech before the council at Jerusalem (Acts 5:36). He headed an insurrection against the Roman authority. Beyond this nothing is known of him. ......

THOMAS
twin, one of the twelve (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18, Mark 3: etc.). He was also called Didymus (John 11:16;20:24), which is the Greek equivalent of the Hebrew name. All we know regarding him is recorded in the fourth Gospel (John 11:15, John 11: 16;14:4, 14: 5;20:24, 20: 25, 26-29). From the circumstance that in the lists of the apostles he is always mentioned along with Matthew, who was the son of Alp......

TIBERIAS
a city, the modern Tubarich, on the western shore of the Sea of Tiberias. It is said to have been founded by Herod Antipas (A.D. 16), on the site of the ruins of an older city called Rakkath, and to have been thus named by him after the Emperor Tiberius. It is mentioned only three times in the history of our Lord (John 6:1, John 6:23;21:1). In 1837 about one-half of the inhabitants perished by a......

TIBERIAS, SEA OF
called also the Sea of Galilee (q.v.) and of Gennesaret. In the Old Testament it is called the Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth. John (21:1) is the only evangelist who so designates this lake. His doing so incidentally confirms the opinion that he wrote after the other evangelists, and at a period subsequent to the taking of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). Tiberias had by this time become an important city, h......

TIRAS
the youngest of the sons of Japheth (Gen. 10:2; 1-Chr 1:5). ......

TREASURE CITIES
store cities which the Israelites built for the Egyptians (Exo 1:11). (See PITHOM.) Towns in which the treasures of the kings of Judah were kept were so designated (1-Chr 27:25). ......

TREASURE HOUSES
the houses or magazines built for the safe keeping of treasure and valuable articles of any kind (Ezra 5:17;7:20; Neh. 10:38; Dan. 1:2). ......

TREASURY
(Matt. 27:6; Mark 12:41; John 8:20). It does not appear that there was a separate building so called. The name was given to the thirteen brazen chests, called "trumpets," from the form of the opening into which the offerings of the temple worshippers were put. These stood in the outer "court of the women." "Nine chests were for the appointed money-tribute and for the sacrifice-tribute, i.e., money......

TRESPASS OFFERING
(Heb. 'asham, "debt"), the law concerning, given in Lev. 5:14:7; also in Num. 5:5. The idea of sin as a "debt" pervades this legislation. The _asham_, which was always a ram, was offered in cases where sins were more private. (See OFFERING.) ......

TROAS
a city on the coast of Mysia, in the north-west of Asia Minor, named after ancient Troy, which was at some little distance from it (about 4 miles) to the north. Here Paul, on his second missionary journey, saw the vision of a "man of Macedonia," who appeared to him, saying, "Come over, and help us" (Acts 16:8). He visited this place also on other occasions, and on one of these visits he left his c......

TRUMPETS, FEAST OF
was celebrated at the beginning of the month Tisri, the first month of the civil year. It received its name from the circumstances that the trumpets usually blown at the commencement of each month were on that occasion blown with unusual solemnity (Lev. 23:23; Num. 10:10;29:1). It was one of the seven days of holy convocation. The special design of this feast, which is described in these verses, i......

VASHTI
beautiful, the queen of Ahasuerus, who was deposed from her royal dignity because she refused to obey the king when he desired her to appear in the banqueting hall of Shushan the palace (Esther 1:10). (See ESTHER.) ......

WASHING
(Mark 7:1). The Jews, like other Orientals, used their fingers when taking food, and therefore washed their hands before doing so, for the sake of cleanliness. Here the reference is to the ablutions prescribed by tradition, according to which "the disciples ought to have gone down to the side of the lake, washed their hands thoroughly, 'rubbing the fist of one hand in the hollow of the other, then......

WEASEL
(Heb. holedh), enumerated among unclean animals (Lev. 11:29). Some think that this Hebrew word rather denotes the mole (Spalax typhlus) common in Palestine. There is no sufficient reason, however, to depart from the usual translation. The weasel tribe are common also in Palestine. ......

WEEKS, FEAST OF
See PENTECOST. ......

ZACHARIAS
(1.) A priest of the course of Abia, the eighth of the twenty-four courses into which the priests had been originally divided by David (1-Chr 23:1). Only four of these courses or "families" of the priests returned from the Exile (Ezra 2:36); but they were then re-distributed under the old designations. The priests served at the temple twice each year, and only for a week each time. Zacharias's tim......

ZENAS
a disciple called "the lawyer," whom Paul wished Titus to bring with him (Titus 3:13). Nothing more is known of him.......