搜尋 at the water 共找到 311 項結果

ABIATHAR
father of abundance, or my father excels, the son of Ahimelech the high priest. He was the tenth high priest, and the fourth in descent from Eli. When his father was slain with the priests of Nob, he escaped, and bearing with him the ephod, he joined David, who was then in the cave of Adullam (1-Sam 22:20;23:6). He remained with David, and became priest of the party of which he was the leader (1-S......

ABOMINATION
This word is used, (1.) To express the idea that the Egyptians considered themselves as defiled when they ate with strangers (Gen. 43:32). The Jews subsequently followed the same practice, holding it unlawful to eat or drink with foreigners (John 18:28; Acts 10:28;11:3). (2.) Every shepherd was "an abomination" unto the Egyptians (Gen. 46:34). This aversion to shepherds, such as the Hebrews, aro......

ADJURATION
a solemn appeal whereby one person imposes on another the obligation of speaking or acting as if under an oath (1-Sam 14:24; Josh. 6:26; 1-Kings 22:16). We have in the New Testament a striking example of this (Matt. 26:63; Mark 5:7), where the high priest calls upon Christ to avow his true character. It would seem that in such a case the person so adjured could not refuse to give an answer. Th......

ADVOCATE
(Gr. parakletos), one who pleads another's cause, who helps another by defending or comforting him. It is a name given by Christ three times to the Holy Ghost (John 14:16;15:26;16:7, 16: where the Greek word is rendered "Comforter," q.v.). It is applied to Christ in 1-John 2:1, 1-John 2: where the same Greek word is rendered "Advocate," the rendering which it should have in all the places where it......

AGATE
(Heb. shebo), a precious stone in the breast-plate of the high priest (Exo 28:19;39:12), the second in the third row. This may be the agate properly so called, a semi-transparent crystallized quartz, probably brought from Sheba, whence its name. In Isa. 54:12 and Ezek. 27:16, Ezek. 27: this word is the rendering of the Hebrew cadcod, which means "ruddy," and denotes a variety of minutely crystalli......

ALEXANDER THE GREAT
the king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented in Daniel by the "belly of brass" (Dan. 2:32), and the leopard and the he-goat (7:6;11:3, 11:4). He succeeded his father Philip, and died at the age of thirty-two from the effects of intemperance, B.C. 323. His empire was divided among his four generals.......

ANATH
an answer; i.e., to "prayer", the father of Shamgar, who was one of the judges of Israel (Judg. 3:31).......

ANATHEMA
anything laid up or suspended; hence anything laid up in a temple or set apart as sacred. In this sense the form of the word is _anath(ee)ma_, once in plural used in the Greek New Testament, in Luke 21:5, Luke 21: where it is rendered "gifts." In the LXX. the form _anathema_ is generally used as the rendering of the Hebrew word _herem_, derived from a verb which means (1) to consecrate or devote; ......

ANATHOTH
the name of one of the cities of refuge, in the tribe of Benjamin (Josh. 21:18). The Jews, as a rule, did not change the names of the towns they found in Palestine; hence this town may be regarded as deriving its name from the goddess Anat. It was the native place of Abiezer, one of David's "thirty" (2-Sam 23:27), and of Jehu, another of his mighty men (1-Chr 12:3). It is chiefly notable, however,......

ANTIPATRIS
a city built by Herod the Great, and called by this name in honour of his father, Antipater. It lay between Caesarea and Lydda, two miles inland, on the great Roman road from Caesarea to Jerusalem. To this place Paul was brought by night (Acts 23:31) on his way to Caesarea, from which it was distant 28 miles. It is identified with the modern, Ras-el-Ain, where rise the springs of Aujeh, the larges......

ARARAT
sacred land or high land, the name of a country on one of the mountains of which the ark rested after the Flood subsided (Gen. 8:4). The "mountains" mentioned were probably the Kurdish range of South Armenia. In 2-Kings 19:37, 2-Kings 19: Isa. 37:38, Isa. 37: the word is rendered "Armenia" in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version, "Land of Ararat." In Jer. 51:27, Jer. 51: the name den......

ARBATHITE
a name given to Abi-albon, or, as elsewhere called, Abiel, one of David's warriors (2-Sam 23:31; 1-Chr 11:32), probably as being an inhabitant of Arabah (Josh. 15:61), a town in the wilderness of Judah.......

ARIMATHEA
a "city of the Jews" (Luke 23:51), the birth-place of Joseph in whose sepulchre our Lord was laid (Matt. 27:57, Matt. 27: 60; John 19:38). It is probably the same place as Ramathaim in Ephraim, and the birth-place of Samuel (1-Sam 1:1, 1-Sam 1: 19). Others identify it with Ramleh in Dan, or Rama (q.v.) in Benjamin (Matt. 2:18).......

ASENATH
an Egyptian name, meaning "gift of the sun-god", daughter of Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife of Joseph (Gen. 41:45). She was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (50-52;46:20).......

ATAD
buckthorn, a place where Joseph and his brethren, when on their way from Egypt to Hebron with the remains of their father Jacob, made for seven days a "great and very sore lamentation." On this account the Canaanites called it "Abel-mizraim" (Gen. 50:10, Gen. 50: 11). It was probably near Hebron. The word is rendered "bramble" in Judg. 9:14, Judg. 9: 15, and "thorns" in Psa 58:9.......

ATAROTH
crowns. (1.) A city east of Jordan, not far from Gilead (Num. 32:3). (2.) A town on the border of Ephraim and Benjamin (Josh. 16:2, Josh. 16: 7), called also Ataroth-adar (16:5). Now ed-Da'rieh. (3.) "Ataroth, the house of Joab" (1-Chr 2:54), a town of Judah inhabited by the descendants of Caleb.......

ATER
shut; lame. (1.) Ezra 2:16. (2.) Neh. 10:17. (3.) Ezra 2:42.......

ATHALIAH
whom God afflicts. (1.) The daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah (2-Kings 8:18), who "walked in the ways of the house of Ahab" (2-Chr 21:6), called "daughter" of Omri (2-Kings 8:26). On the death of her husband and of her son Ahaziah, she resolved to seat herself on the vacant throne. She slew all Ahaziah's children except Joash, the youngest (2-Kings 11:1, 2-Kings ......

ATHENS
the capital of Attica, the most celebrated city of the ancient world, the seat of Greek literature and art during the golden period of Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of novelty (Acts 17:21), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship of the gods. It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist that it was "easier to find a god at Athens than a man." On his second missionary jo......

ATONEMENT
This word does not occur in the Authorized Version of the New Testament except in Rom. 5:11, Rom. 5: where in the Revised Version the word "reconciliation" is used. In the Old Testament it is of frequent occurrence. The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, i.e., the state of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is reconciliation. Thus it is used to denote the effect which fl......

ATONEMENT, DAY OF
the great annual day of humiliation and expiation for the sins of the nation, "the fast" (Acts 27:9), and the only one commanded in the law of Moses. The mode of its observance is described in Lev. 16:3;23:26; and Num. 29:7. It was kept on the tenth day of the month Tisri, i.e., five days before the feast of Tabernacles, and lasted from sunset to sunset. (See AZAZEL.)......

BAALATH
a town of the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:44). It was fortified by Solomon (1-Kings 9:18; 2-Chr 8:6). Some have identified it with Bel'ain, in Wady Deir Balut.......

BAALATH-BEER
Baalah of the well, (Josh. 19:8, Josh. 19: probably the same as Baal, mentioned in 1-Chr 4:33, 1-Chr 4: a city of Simeon.......

BAKE-MEATS
baked provisions (Gen. 40:17), literally "works of the baker," such as biscuits and cakes.......

BASHEMATH
sweet-smelling. (1.) The daughter of Ishmael, the last of Esau's three wives (Gen. 36:3, Gen. 36: 4, 13), from whose son Reuel four tribes of the Edomites sprung. She is also called Mahalath (Gen. 28:9). It is noticeable that Esau's three wives receive different names in the genealogical table of the Edomites (Gen. 36) from those given to them in the history (Gen. 26:34;28:9). (2.) A daughter of......

BAT
The Hebrew word (atalleph') so rendered (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18) implies "flying in the dark." The bat is reckoned among the birds in the list of unclean animals. To cast idols to the "moles and to the bats" means to carry them into dark caverns or desolate places to which these animals resort (Isa. 2:20), i.e., to consign them to desolation or ruin. ......

BATH
a Hebrew liquid measure, the tenth part of an homer (1-Kings 7:26, 1-Kings 7: 38; Ezek. 45:10, Ezek. 45: 14). It contained 8 gallons 3 quarts of our measure. "Ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath" (Isa. 5:10) denotes great unproductiveness. ......

BATH-RABBIM
daughter of many, the name of one of the gates of the city of Heshbon, near which were pools (7:4). ......

BATH-SHEBA
daughter of the oath, or of seven, called also Bath-shu'a (1-Chr 3:5), was the daughter of Eliam (2-Sam 11:3) or Ammiel (1-Chr 3:5), and wife of Uriah the Hittite. David committed adultery with her (2-Sam 11:4, 2-Sam 11: 5; Psa 51:1). The child born in adultery died (2-Sam 12:15). After her husband was slain (11:15) she was married to David (11:27), and became the mother of Solomon (12:24; 1-Kings......

BATHS
The use of the bath was very frequent among the Hebrews (Lev. 14:8; Num. 19:19, Num. 19: ect.). The high priest at his inauguration (Lev. 8:6), and on the day of atonement, was required to bathe himself (16:4, 16: 24). The "pools" mentioned in Neh. 3:15, Neh. 3: 16, 2-Kings 20:20, 2-Kings 20: Isa. 22:11, Isa. 22: John 9:7, John 9: were public bathing-places. ......

BATTERING-RAM
(Ezek. 4:2;21:22), a military engine, consisting of a long beam of wood hung upon a frame, for making breaches in walls. The end of it which was brought against the wall was shaped like a ram's head. ......

BATTLE-AXE
a mallet or heavy war-club. Applied metaphorically (Jer. 51:20) to Cyrus, God's instrument in destroying Babylon. ......

BATTLE-BOW
the war-bow used in fighting (Zech. 9:10;10:4). "Thy bow was made quite naked" (Hab. 3:9) means that it was made ready for use. By David's order (2-Sam 1:18) the young men were taught the use, or rather the song of the bow. (See ARMOUR, BOW.) ......

BATTLEMENT
a parapet wall or balustrade surrounding the flat roofs of the houses, required to be built by a special law (Deut. 22:8). In Jer. 5:10, Jer. 5: it denotes the parapet of a city wall. ......

BEATEN GOLD
in Num. 8:4, Num. 8: means "turned" or rounded work in gold. The Greek Version, however, renders the word "solid gold;" the Revised Version, "beaten work of gold." In 1-Kings 10:16, 1-Kings 10: 17, it probably means "mixed" gold, as the word ought to be rendered, i.e., not pure gold. Others render the word in these places "thin plates of gold." ......

BEATEN OIL
(Exo 27:20;29:40), obtained by pounding olives in a mortar, not by crushing them in a mill. It was reckoned the best. (See OLIVE.) ......

BEAUTIFUL GATE
the name of one of the gates of the temple (Acts 3:2). It is supposed to have been the door which led from the court of the Gentiles to the court of the women. It was of massive structure, and covered with plates of Corinthian brass. ......

BETH-ANATH
house of response, one of the fenced cities of Naphtali (Josh. 19:38). It is perhaps identical with the modern village 'Ainata, 6 miles west of Kedesh.......

BETH-DIBLATHAIM
house of two cakes of figs, a city of Moab, upon which Jeremiah (8:22) denounced destruction. It is called also Almon-diblathaim (Num. 33:46) and Diblath (Ezek. 6:14). (R.V., "Diblah.") ......

BLOODY SWEAT
the sign and token of our Lord's great agony (Luke 22:44). ......

BREASTPLATE
(1.) That piece of ancient armour that protected the breast. This word is used figuratively in Eph. 6:14 and Isa. 59:17. (See ARMOUR.) (2.) An ornament covering the breast of the high priest, first mentioned in Exo 25:7. It was made of embroidered cloth, set with four rows of precious stones, three in each row. On each stone was engraved the name of one of the twelve tribes (Exo 28:15;39:8). It ......

CATERPILLAR
the consumer. Used in the Old Testament (1-Kings 8:37; 2-Chr 6:28; Psa 78:46; Isa. 33:4) as the translation of a word (hasil) the root of which means "to devour" or "consume," and which is used also with reference to the locust in Deut. 28:38. It may have been a species of locust, or the name of one of the transformations through which the locust passes, locust-grub. It is also found (Psa 105:34; ......

CATHOLIC EPISTLES
the epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude; so called because they are addressed to Christians in general, and not to any church or person in particular.......

CATTLE
abounded in the Holy Land. To the rearing and management of them the inhabitants chiefly devoted themselves (Deut. 8:13;12:21; 1-Sam 11:5;12:3; Psa 144:14; Jer. 3:24). They may be classified as, (1.) Neat cattle. Many hundreds of these were yearly consumed in sacrifices or used for food. The finest herds were found in Bashan, beyond Jordan (Num. 32:4). Large herds also pastured on the wide ferti......

CHUSHAN-RISHATHAIM
Cush of double wickedness, or governor of two presidencies, the king of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel in the generation immediately following Joshua (Judg. 3:8). We learn from the Tell-el-Amarna tablets that Palestine had been invaded by the forces of Aram-naharaim (A.V., "Mesopotamia") more than once, long before the Exodus, and that at the time they were written the king of Aram-naharaim was ......

COAT
the tunic worn like the shirt next the skin (Lev. 16:4; 5:3; 2-Sam 15:32; Exo 28:4;29:5). The "coats of skins" prepared by God for Adam and Eve were probably nothing more than aprons (Gen. 3:21). This tunic was sometimes woven entire without a seam (John 19:23); it was also sometimes of "many colours" (Gen. 37:3; R.V. marg., "a long garment with sleeves"). The "fisher's coat" of John 21:7 was obvi......

COAT OF MAIL
the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning "glittering" (1-Sam 17:5, 1-Sam 17: 38). The same word in the plural form is translated "habergeons" in 2-Chr 26:14 and Neh. 4:16. The "harness" (1-Kings 22:34), "breastplate" (Isa. 59:17), and "brigandine" (Jer. 46:4), were probably also corselets or coats of mail. (See ARMOUR.) ......

COCKATRICE
the mediaeval name (a corruption of "crocodile") of a fabulous serpent supposed to be produced from a cock's egg. It is generally supposed to denote the cerastes, or "horned viper," a very poisonous serpent about a foot long. Others think it to be the yellow viper (Daboia xanthina), one of the most dangerous vipers, from its size and its nocturnal habits (Isa. 11:8;14:29;59:5; Jer. 8:17; in all wh......

COGITATIONS
(or "thoughts," as the Chaldee word in Dan. 7:28 literally means), earnest meditation. ......

CONGREGATION
(Heb. kahal), the Hebrew people collectively as a holy community (Num. 15:15). Every circumcised Hebrew from twenty years old and upward was a member of the congregation. Strangers resident in the land, if circumcised, were, with certain exceptions (Exo 12:19; Num. 9:14; Deut. 23:1), admitted to the privileges of citizenship, and spoken of as members of the congregation (Exo 12:19; Num. 9:14;15:15......

CONGREGATION, MOUNT OF THE
(Isa. 14:13), has been supposed to refer to the place where God promised to meet with his people (Exo 25:22;29:42, 29: 43) i.e., the mount of the Divine presence, Mount Zion. But here the king of Babylon must be taken as expressing himself according to his own heathen notions, and not according to those of the Jews. The "mount of the congregation" will therefore in this case mean the northern moun......

CONSECRATION
the devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or service of God. The race of Abraham and the tribe of Levi were thus consecrated (Exo 13:2, Exo 13: 12, 15; Num. 3:12). The Hebrews devoted their fields and cattle, and sometimes the spoils of war, to the Lord (Lev. 27:28, Lev. 27: 29). According to the Mosaic law the first-born both of man and beast were consecrated to God. In the New T......

CONSOLATION OF ISRAEL
a name for the Messiah in common use among the Jews, probably suggested by Isa. 12:1;49:13. The Greek word thus rendered (Luke 2:25, Luke 2: paraklesis) is kindred to that translated "Comforter" in John 14:16, John 14: etc., parakletos. ......

CONSTELLATION
a cluster of stars, or stars which appear to be near each other in the heavens, and which astronomers have reduced to certain figures (as the "Great Bear," the "Bull," etc.) for the sake of classification and of memory. In Isa. 13:10, Isa. 13: where this word only occurs, it is the rendering of the Hebrew _kesil_, i.e., "fool." This was the Hebrew name of the constellation Orion (Job 9:9;38:31), a......

CONVERSATION
generally the goings out and in of social intercourse (Eph. 2:3;4:22; R.V., "manner of life"); one's deportment or course of life. This word is never used in Scripture in the sense of verbal communication from one to another (Psa 50:23; Heb. 13:5). In Phil. 1:27 3:20, 3: a different Greek word is used. It there means one's relations to a community as a citizen, i.e., citizenship. ......

CONVOCATION
a meeting of a religious character as distinguished from congregation, which was more general, dealing with political and legal matters. Hence it is called an "holy convocation." Such convocations were the Sabbaths (Lev. 23:2, Lev. 23: 3), the Passover (Exo 12:16; Lev. 23:7, Lev. 23: 8; Num. 28:25), Pentecost (Lev. 23:21), the feast of Trumpets (Lev. 23:24; Num. 29:1), the feast of Weeks (Num. 28:......

CREATION
"In the beginning" God created, i.e., called into being, all things out of nothing. This creative act on the part of God was absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The cause of all things exists only in the will of God. The work of creation is attributed (1) to the Godhead (Gen. 1:1, Gen. 1: 26); (2) to the Father (1-Cor 8:6); (3) to the Son (John 1:3; Col. 1:16, Col. 1: 17); (4) to the......

CREATURE
denotes the whole creation in Rom. 8:39; Col. 1:15; Rev. 5:13; the whole human race in Mark 16:15; Rom. 8:19. The living creatures in Ezek. 10:15, Ezek. 10: 17, are imaginary beings, symbols of the Divine attributes and operations. ......

DABERATH
pasture, a Levitical town of Issachar (Josh. 19:12;21:28), near the border of Zebulum. It is the modern small village of Deburich, at the base of Mount Tabor. Tradition has incorrectly made it the scene of the miracle of the cure of the lunatic child (Matt. 17:14). ......

DALMATIA
a mountainous country on the eastern shore of the Adriatic, a part of the Roman province of Illyricum. It still bears its ancient name. During Paul's second imprisonment at Rome, Titus left him to visit Dalmatia (2-Tim 4:10) for some unknown purpose. Paul had himself formerly preached in that region (Rom. 15:19). The present Emperor of Austria bears, among his other titles, that of "King of Dalm......

DAMNATION
in Rom. 13:2, Rom. 13: means "condemnation," which comes on those who withstand God's ordinance of magistracy. This sentence of condemnation comes not from the magistrate, but from God, whose authority is thus resisted. In 1-Cor 11:29 (R.V., "judgment") this word means condemnation, in the sense of exposure to severe temporal judgements from God, as the following verse explains. In Rom. 14:23 ......

DATE
the fruit of a species of palm (q.v.), the Phoenix dactilifera. This was a common tree in Palestine (Joel 1:12; Neh. 8:15). Palm branches were carried by the Jews on festive occasions, and especially at the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:40; Neh. 8:15). ......

DATHAN
welled; belonging to a fountain, a son of Eliab, a Reubenite, who joined Korah (q.v.) in his conspiracy, and with his accomplices was swallowed up by an earthquake (Num. 16:1;26:9; Deut. 11:6; Psa 106:17). ......

DEATH
may be simply defined as the termination of life. It is represented under a variety of aspects in Scripture: (1.) "The dust shall return to the earth as it was" (Eccl. 12:7). (2.) "Thou takest away their breath, they die" (Psa 104:29). (3.) It is the dissolution of "our earthly house of this tabernacle" (2-Cor 5:1); the "putting off this tabernacle" (2-Pet 1:13, 2-Pet 1: 14). (4.) Being "unc......

DEDICATION, FEAST OF THE
(John 10:22, John 10: 42), i.e., the feast of the renewing. It was instituted B.C. 164 to commemorate the purging of the temple after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes (B.C. 167), and the rebuilding of the altar after the Syrian invaders had been driven out by Judas Maccabaeus. It lasted for eight days, beginning on the 25th of the month Chisleu (December), which was often a period of heavy rai......

DESIRE OF ALL NATIONS
(Hag. 2:7), usually interpreted as a title of the Messiah. The Revised Version, however, more correctly renders "the desirable things of all nations;" i.e., the choicest treasures of the Gentiles shall be consecrated to the Lord. ......

DESOLATION, ABOMINATION OF
(Matt. 24:15; Mark 13:14; comp. Luke 21:20), is interpreted of the eagles, the standards of the Roman army, which were an abomination to the Jews. These standards, rising over the site of the temple, were a sign that the holy place had fallen under the idolatrous Romans. The references are to Dan. 9:27. (See ABOMINATION.) ......

DIBLATHAIM
two cakes, a city of Moab, on the east of the Dead Sea (Num. 33:46; Jer. 48:22). ......

DISPENSATION
(Gr. oikonomia, "management," "economy"). (1.) The method or scheme according to which God carries out his purposes towards men is called a dispensation. There are usually reckoned three dispensations, the Patriarchal, the Mosaic or Jewish, and the Christian. (See COVENANT, Administration of.) These were so many stages in God's unfolding of his purpose of grace toward men. The word is not found wi......

DIVINATION
of false prophets (Deut. 18:10, Deut. 18: 14; Micah 3:6, Micah 3: 7, 11), of necromancers (1-Sam 28:8), of the Philistine priests and diviners (1-Sam 6:2), of Balaam (Josh. 13:22). Three kinds of divination are mentioned in Ezek. 21:21, Ezek. 21: by arrows, consulting with images (the teraphim), and by examining the entrails of animals sacrificed. The practice of this art seems to have been encour......

DOLEFUL CREATURES
(occurring only Isa. 13:21. Heb. ochim, i.e., "shrieks;" hence "howling animals"), a general name for screech owls (howlets), which occupy the desolate palaces of Babylon. Some render the word "hyaenas."......

DRAWER OF WATER
(Deut. 29:11; Josh. 9:21, Josh. 9: 23), a servile employment to which the Gibeonites were condemned.......

DUNG-GATE
(Neh. 2:13), a gate of ancient Jerusalem, on the south-west quarter. "The gate outside of which lay the piles of sweepings and offscourings of the streets," in the valley of Tophet.......

EAST GATE
(Jer. 19:2), properly the Potter's gate, the gate which led to the potter's field, in the valley of Hinnom. ......

EATING
The ancient Hebrews would not eat with the Egyptians (Gen. 43:32). In the time of our Lord they would not eat with Samaritans (John 4:9), and were astonished that he ate with publicans and sinners (Matt. 9:11). The Hebrews originally sat at table, but afterwards adopted the Persian and Chaldean practice of reclining (Luke 7:36). Their principal meal was at noon (Gen. 43:16; 1-Kings 20:16; Ruth 2:1......

ECBATANA
(Ezra 6:2 marg.). (See ACHMETHA.) ......

ELATH
grove; trees, (Deut. 2:8), also in plural form Eloth (1-Kings 9:26, 1-Kings 9: etc.); called by the Greeks and Romans Elana; a city of Idumea, on the east, i.e., the Elanitic, gulf, or the Gulf of Akabah, of the Red Sea. It is first mentioned in Deut. 2:8. It is also mentioned along with Ezion-geber in 1-Kings 9:26. It was within the limits of Solomon's dominion, but afterwards revolted. It was, h......

ELIATHAH
to whom God will come, one of the foureen sons of the Levite Heman, and musician of the temple in the time of David (1-Chr 25:4).......

ELISHAPHAT
whom God has judged, one of the "captains of hundreds" associated with Jehoiada in the league to overthrow the usurpation of Athaliah (2-Chr 23:1).......

ELNATHAN
whom God has given. (1.) An inhabitant of Jerusalem, the father of Nehushta, who was the mother of king Jehoiachin (2-Kings 24:8). Probably the same who tried to prevent Jehoiakim from burning the roll of Jeremiah's prophecies (Jer. 26:22;36:12). (2.) Ezra 8:16.......

EPHPHATHA
the Greek form of a Syro-Chaldaic or Aramaic word, meaning "Be opened," uttered by Christ when healing the man who was deaf and dumb (Mark 7:34). It is one of the characteristics of Mark that he uses the very Aramaic words which fell from our Lord's lips. (3:17;5:41;7:11;14:36;15:34.)......

EPHRAIM, GATE OF
one of the gates of Jerusalem (2-Kings 14:13; 2-Chr 25:23), on the side of the city looking toward Ephraim, the north side.......

EPHRATAH
fruitful. (1.) The second wife of Caleb, the son of Hezron, mother of Hur, and grandmother of Caleb, who was one of those that were sent to spy the land (1-Chr 2:19, 1-Chr 2: 50). (2.) The ancient name of Bethlehem in Judah (Gen. 35:16, Gen. 35: 19;48:7). In Ruth 1:2 it is called "Bethlehem-Judah," but the inhabitants are called "Ephrathites;" in Micah 5:2, Micah 5: "Bethlehem-Ephratah;" in Matt......

EPHRATHITE
a citizen of Ephratah, the old name of Bethlehem (Ruth 1:2; 1-Sam 17:12), or Bethlehem-Judah.......

ETERNAL DEATH
The miserable fate of the wicked in hell (Matt. 25:46; Mark 3:29; Heb. 6:2; 2-Thess 1:9; Matt. 18:8;25:41; Jude 1:7). The Scripture as clearly teaches the unending duration of the penal sufferings of the lost as the "everlasting life," the "eternal life" of the righteous. The same Greek words in the New Testament (aion, aionios, aidios) are used to express (1) the eternal existence of God (1-Tim 1......

EUPHRATES
Hebrew, Perath; Assyrian, Purat; Persian cuneiform, Ufratush, whence Greek Euphrates, meaning "sweet water." The Assyrian name means "the stream," or "the great stream." It is generally called in the Bible simply "the river" (Exo 23:31), or "the great river" (Deut. 1:7). The Euphrates is first mentioned in Gen. 2:14 as one of the rivers of Paradise. It is next mentioned in connection with the co......

EXPIATION
Guilt is said to be expiated when it is visited with punishment falling on a substitute. Expiation is made for our sins when they are punished not in ourselves but in another who consents to stand in our room. It is that by which reconciliation is effected. Sin is thus said to be "covered" by vicarious satisfaction. The cover or lid of the ark is termed in the LXX. hilasterion, that which covere......

FAT
(Heb. heleb) denotes the richest part of the animal, or the fattest of the flock, in the account of Abel's sacrifice (Gen. 4:4). It sometimes denotes the best of any production (Gen. 45:18; Num. 18:12; Psa 81:16;147:47). The fat of sacrifices was to be burned (Lev. 3:9;4:8;7:3;8:25; Num. 18:17. Comp. Exo 29:13; Lev. 3:3). It is used figuratively for a dull, stupid state of mind (Psa 17:10). In......

FATHER
a name applied (1) to any ancestor (Deut. 1:11; 1-Kings 15:11; Matt. 3:9;23:30, 23: etc.); and (2) as a title of respect to a chief, ruler, or elder, etc. (Judg. 17:10;18:19; 1-Sam 10:12; 2-Kings 2:12; Matt. 23:9, Matt. 23: etc.). (3) The author or beginner of anything is also so called; e.g., Jabal and Jubal (Gen. 4:20, Gen. 4: 21; comp. Job 38:28). Applied to God (Exo 4:22; Deut. 32:6; 2-Sam 7......

FATHOM
(Old A.S. faethm, "bosom," or the outstretched arms), a span of six feet (Acts 27:28). Gr. orguia (from orego, "I stretch"), the distance between the extremities of both arms fully stretched out. ......

FATLING
(1.) A fatted animal for slaughter (2-Sam 6:13; Isa. 11:6; Ezek. 39:18. Comp. Matt. 22:4, Matt. 22: where the word used in the original, sitistos, means literally "corn-fed;" i.e., installed, fat). (2.) Psa 66:15 (Heb. meah, meaning "marrowy," "fat," a species of sheep). (3.) 1-Sam 15:9 (Heb. mishneh, meaning "the second," and hence probably "cattle of a second quality," or lambs of the second bir......

FERRY BOAT
(2-Sam 19:18), some kind of boat for crossing the river which the men of Judah placed at the service of the king. Floats or rafts for this purpose were in use from remote times (Isa. 18:2). ......

FIRST-BORN, SANCTIFICATION OF THE
A peculiar sanctity was attached to the first-born both of man and of cattle. God claimed that the first-born males of man and of animals should be consecrated to him, the one as a priest (Exo 19:22, Exo 19: 24), representing the family to which he belonged, and the other to be offered up in sacrifice (Gen. 4:4). ......

FORNICATION
in every form of it was sternly condemned by the Mosaic law (Lev. 21:9;19:29; Deut. 22:20, Deut. 22: 21, 23-29;23:18; Exo 22:16). (See ADULTERY.) But this word is more frequently used in a symbolical than in its ordinary sense. It frequently means a forsaking of God or a following after idols (Isa. 1:2; Jer. 2:20; Ezek. 16; Hos. 1:2;2:1; Jer. 3:8, Jer. 3:9). ......

FORTUNATUS
fortunate, a disciple of Corinth who visited Paul at Ephesus, and returned with Stephanas and Achaicus, the bearers of the apostle's first letter to the Corinthians (1-Cor 16:17). ......

GABBATHA
Gab Baitha, i.e., "the ridge of the house" = "the temple-mound," on a part of which the fortress of Antonia was built. This "temple-mound" was covered with a tesselated "pavement" (Gr. lithostroton, i.e., "stone-paved"). A judgement-seat (bema) was placed on this "pavement" outside the hall of the "praetorium" (q.v.), the judgment-hall (John 18:28;19:13).......

GALATIA
has been called the "Gallia" of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli. They were an intermixture of Gauls and Greeks, and hence were called Gallo-Graeci, and the country Gallo-Graecia. The Galatians were in their origin a part of that great Celtic migration which invaded Macedonia about B.C. 280. They were invited by the king of Bithynia to cross over into Asia Minor to assist him ......

GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO
The genuineness of this epistle is not called in question. Its Pauline origin is universally acknowledged. Occasion of. The churches of Galatia were founded by Paul himself (Acts 16:6; Gal. 1:8;4:13, 4: 19). They seem to have been composed mainly of converts from heathenism (4:8), but partly also of Jewish converts, who probably, under the influence of Judaizing teachers, sought to incorporate t......

GATE
(1.) Of cities, as of Jerusalem (Jer. 37:13; Neh. 1:3;2:3;3:3), of Sodom (Gen. 19:1), of Gaza (Judg. 16:3). (2.) Of royal palaces (Neh. 2:8). (3.) Of the temple of Solomon (1-Kings 6:34, 1-Kings 6: 35; 2-Kings 18:16); of the holy place (1-Kings 6:31, 1-Kings 6: 32; Ezek. 41:23, Ezek. 41: 24); of the outer courts of the temple, the beautiful gate (Acts 3:2). (4.) Tombs (Matt. 27:60). (5.) P......

GATH
a wine-vat, one of the five royal cities of the Philistines (Josh. 13:3) on which the ark brought calamity (1-Sam 5:8, 1-Sam 5: 9;6:17). It was famous also as being the birthplace or residence of Goliath (1-Sam 17:4). David fled from Saul to Achish, king of Gath (1-Sam 21:10;27:2; Ps. 56), and his connection with it will account for the words in 2-Sam 1:20. It was afterwards conquered by David (2-......

GATH-HEPHER
wine-press of the well, a town of Lower Galilee, about 5 miles from Nazareth; the birthplace of Jonah (2-Kings 14:25); the same as Gittah-hepher (Josh. 19:13). It has been identified with the modern el-Meshed, a village on the top of a rocky hill. Here the supposed tomb of Jonah, Neby Yunas, is still pointed out.......

GATH-RIMMON
press of the pomegranate. (1.) A Levitical city in the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:45;21:24; 1-Chr 6:69). (2.) Another city of the same name in Manasseh, west of the Jordan (Josh. 21:25), called also Bileam (1-Chr 6:70).......

GEDERATHITE
an epithet applied to Josabad, one of David's warriors at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:4), a native of Gederah. ......

GENERATION
Gen. 2:4, Gen. 2: "These are the generations," means the "history."5:1, 5: "The book of the generations," means a family register, or history of 37:2, 37: "The generations of Jacob" = the history of Jacob and his 7:1, 7: "In this generation" = in this age. Psa 49:19, Psa 49: "The generation of his fathers" = the dwelling of his fathers, i.e., the grave. Psa 73:15, Psa 73: "The generation of thy ch......

GENUBATH
theft, the son of Hadad, of the Edomitish royal family. He was brought up in Pharaoh's household. His mother was a sister of Tahpenes, the king of Egypt's wife, mentioned in 1-Kings 11:20. ......

GNAT
only in Matt. 23:24, Matt. 23: a small two-winged stinging fly of the genus Culex, which includes mosquitoes. Our Lord alludes here to the gnat in a proverbial expression probably in common use, "who strain out the gnat;" the words in the Authorized Version, "strain at a gnat," being a mere typographical error, which has been corrected in the Revised Version. The custom of filtering wine for this ......

GOAT
(1.) Heb. 'ez, the she-goat (Gen. 15:9;30:35;31:38). This Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Exo 12:5; Lev. 4:23; Num. 28:15), and to denote a kid (Gen. 38:17, Gen. 38: 20). Hence it may be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated. It literally means "strength," and points to the superior strength of the goat as compared with the sheep. (2.) Heb. 'attud, only in plural; ......

GOATH
a lowing, a place near Jerusalem, mentioned only in Jer. 31:39. ......

GOLIATH
great. (1.) A famous giant of Gath, who for forty days openly defied the armies of Israel, but was at length slain by David with a stone from a sling (1-Sam 17:4). He was probably descended from the Rephaim who found refuge among the Philistines after they were dispersed by the Ammonites (Deut. 2:20, Deut. 2: 21). His height was "six cubits and a span," which, taking the cubit at 21 inches, is equ......

GRATE
a network of brass for the bottom of the great altar of sacrifice (Exo 27:4;35:16;38:4, 38: 5, 30). ......

HABITATION
God is the habitation of his people, who find rest and safety in him (Psa 71:3;91:9). Justice and judgment are the habitation of God's throne (Psa 89:14, Psa 89: Heb. mekhon, "foundation"), because all his acts are founded on justice and judgment. (See Psa 132:5, Psa 132: 13; Eph. 2:22, Eph. 2: of Canaan, Jerusalem, and the temple as God's habitation.) God inhabits eternity (Isa. 57:15), i.e., dwe......

HADATTAH
new, one of the towns in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:25).......

HAMATH
fortress, the capital of one of the kingdoms of Upper Syria of the same name, on the Orontes, in the valley of Lebanon, at the northern boundary of Palestine (Num. 13:21;34:8), at the foot of Hermon (Josh. 13:5) towards Damascus (Zech. 9:2; Jer. 49:23). It is called "Hamath the great" in Amos 6:2, Amos 6: and "Hamath-zobah" in 2-Chr 8:3. Hamath, now Hamah, had an Aramaean population, but Hittite......

HAMATH-ZOBAH
fortress of Zobah, (2-Chr 8:3) is supposed by some to be a different place from the foregoing; but this is quite uncertain.......

HAMMATH
warm springs, one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35). It is identified with the warm baths (the heat of the water ranging from 136 degrees to 144 degrees) still found on the shore a little to the south of Tiberias under the name of Hummam Tabariyeh ("Bath of Tiberias").......

HAMMEDATHA
father of Haman, designated usually "the Agagite" (Esther 3:1, Esther 3: 10;8:5).......

HAT
Chald. karb'ela, (Dan. 3:21), properly mantle or pallium. The Revised Version renders it "tunic."......

HATACH
verity, one of the eunuchs or chamberlains in the palace of Ahasuerus (Esther 4:5, Esther 4: 6, 9, 10).......

HATHATH
terror, son of Othniel (1-Chr 4:13).......

HATIPHA
captured, one of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:54).......

HATITA
exploration, one of the temple porters or janitors (Ezra 2:42). He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.......

HATRED
among the works of the flesh (Gal. 5:20). Altogether different is the meaning of the word in Deut. 21:15; Matt. 6:24; Luke 14:26; Rom. 9:13, Rom. 9: where it denotes only a less degree of love.......

HATTUSH
assembled. (1.) A priest who returned with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:2). (2.) Ezra 8:2. (3.) Neh. 3:10. (4.) Neh. 10:4. (5.) 1-Chr 3:22.......

HAZAR-HATTICON
village of the midway, a place near Hamath in the confines of Hauran (Ezek. 47:16), probably on the north brow of Hermon.......

HAZOR-HADATTAH
New Hazor, a city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:25). It is probably identified with the ruins of el-Hazzarah, near Beit Jebrin.......

HEATH
Heb. 'arar, (Jer. 17:6;48:6), a species of juniper called by the Arabs by the same name ('arar), the Juniperus sabina or savin. "Its gloomy, stunted appearance, with its scale-like leaves pressed close to its gnarled stem, and cropped close by the wild goats, as it clings to the rocks about Petra, gives great force to the contrast suggested by the prophet, between him that trusteth in man, naked a......

HEATHEN
(Heb. plural goyum). At first the word _goyim_ denoted generally all the nations of the world (Gen. 18:18; comp. Gal. 3:8). The Jews afterwards became a people distinguished in a marked manner from the other _goyim_. They were a separate people (Lev. 20:23;26:14; Deut. 28), and the other nations, the Amorites, Hittites, etc., were the _goyim_, the heathen, with whom the Jews were forbidden to be a......

HELKATH
smoothness, a town of Asher, on the east border (Josh. 19:25;21:31); called also Hukok (1-Chr 6:75). ......

HELKATH-HAZZURIM
plot of the sharp blades, or the field of heroes, (2-Sam 2:16). After the battle of Gilboa, so fatal to Saul and his house, David, as divinely directed, took up his residence in Hebron, and was there anointed king over Judah. Among the fugitives from Gilboa was Ish-bosheth, the only surviving son of Saul, whom Abner, Saul's uncle, took across the Jordan to Mahanaim, and there had him proclaimed ki......

HEMATH
a Kenite (1-Chr 2:55), the father of the house of Rechab. ......

HEROD THE GREAT
(Matt. 2:1; Luke 1:5; Acts 23:35), the son of Antipater, an Idumaean, and Cypros, an Arabian of noble descent. In the year B.C. 47 Julius Caesar made Antipater, a "wily Idumaean," procurator of Judea, who divided his territories between his four sons, Galilee falling to the lot of Herod, who was afterwards appointed tetrarch of Judea by Mark Antony (B.C. 40), and also king of Judea by the Roman se......

HORSE-GATE
a gate in the wall of Jerusalem, at the west end of the bridge, leading from Zion to the temple (Neh. 3:28; Jer. 31:40). ......

HUMILIATION OF CHRIST
(Phil. 2:8), seen in (1) his birth (Gal. 4:4; Luke 2:7; John 1:46; Heb. 2:9), (2) his circumstances, (3) his reputation (Isa. 53; Matt. 26:59, Matt. 26: 67; Psa 22:6; Matt. 26:68), (4) his soul (Psa 22:1; Matt. 4:1; Luke 22:44; Heb. 2:17, Heb. 2: 18;4:15), (5) his death (Luke 23; John 19; Mark 15:24, Mark 15: 25), (6) and his burial (Isa. 53:9; Matt. 27:57, Matt. 27: 58, 60). His humiliation was......

IDOLATRY
image-worship or divine honour paid to any created object. Paul describes the origin of idolatry in Rom. 1:21: men forsook God, and sank into ignorance and moral corruption (1:28). The forms of idolatry are, (1.) Fetishism, or the worship of trees, rivers, hills, stones, etc. (2.) Nature worship, the worship of the sun, moon, and stars, as the supposed powers of nature. (3.) Hero worship, th......

IMPUTATION
is used to designate any action or word or thing as reckoned to a person. Thus in doctrinal language (1) the sin of Adam is imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is reckoned as theirs, and they are dealt with therefore as guilty; (2) the righteousness of Christ is imputed to them that believe in him, or so attributed to them as to be considered their own; and (3) our sins are imputed to Christ,......

INCARNATION
that act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1-Cor 2:8; Heb. 2:11; 1-Tim 3:16; Gal. 4:4, Gal. 4: etc.). The union is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; t......

INSPIRATION
that extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings infallible. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God" (R.V., "Every scripture inspired of God"), 2-Tim 3:16. This is true of all the "sacred writings," not in the sense of their being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as "theopneustic," i.e., "breathed ......

IRRIGATION
As streams were few in Palestine, water was generally stored up in winter in reservoirs, and distributed through gardens in numerous rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the foot (Deut. 11:10). For purposes of irrigation, water was raised from streams or pools by water-wheels, or by a shaduf, commonly used on the banks of the Nile to the present day. ......

JAHATH
union. (1.) A son of Shimei, and grandson of Gershom (1-Chr 23:10). (2.) One of the sons of Shelomoth, of the family of Kohath (1-Chr 24:22). (3.) A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the overseers of the repairs of the temple under Josiah (2-Chr 34:12). ......

JATTIR
pre-eminent, a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:48;21:14). ......

JEALOUSY, WATERS OF
water which the suspected wife was required to drink, so that the result might prove her guilt or innocence (Num. 5:12, Num. 5: 27). We have no record of this form of trial having been actually resorted to. ......

JEHONATHAN
whom Jehovah gave. (1.) One of the stewards of David's store-houses (1-Chr 27:25). (2.) A Levite who taught the law to the people of Judah (2-Chr 17:8). (3.) Neh. 12:18. ......

JEHOSHAPHAT
Jehovah-judged. (1.) One of David's body-guard (1-Chr 11:43). (2.) One of the priests who accompanied the removal of the ark to Jerusalem (1-Chr 15:24). (3.) Son of Ahilud, "recorder" or annalist under David and Solomon (2-Sam 8:16), a state officer of high rank, chancellor or vizier of the kingdom. (4.) Solomon's purveyor in Issachar (1-Kings 4:17). (5.) The son and successor of Asa, king......

JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF
mentioned in Scripture only in Joel 3:2, Joel 3: 12. This is the name given in modern times to the valley between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, and the Kidron flows through it. Here Jehoshaphat overthrew the confederated enemies of Israel (Psa 83:6); and in this valley also God was to overthrow the Tyrians, Zidonians, etc. (Joel 3:4, Joel 3: 19), with an utter overthrow. This has been fulfill......

JONATH-ELEM-RECHOKIM
dove of the dumbness of the distance; i.e., "the silent dove in distant places", title of Ps. 56. This was probably the name of some well known tune or melody to which the psalm was to be sung.......

JONATHAN
whom Jehovah gave, the name of fifteen or more persons that are mentioned in Scripture. The chief of these are, (1.) A Levite descended from Gershom (Judg. 18:30). His history is recorded 17:7 18:30. The Rabbins changed this name into Manasseh "to screen the memory of the great lawgiver from the stain of having so unworthy an apostate among his near descendants." He became priest of the idol image......

JUDGMENT SEAT
(Matt. 27:19), a portable tribunal (Gr. bema) which was placed according as the magistrate might direct, and from which judgment was pronounced. In this case it was placed on a tesselated pavement, probably in front of the procurator's residence. (See GABBATHA.)......

JUSTIFICATION
a forensic term, opposed to condemnation. As regards its nature, it is the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as conformed to all its demands. In addition to the pardon (q.v.) of sin, justification declares that all the claims of the law are satisfied in respect of th......

KATTATH
(Josh. 19:15), a town of Asher, has been identified with Kana el Jelil. (See CANA.)......

KEHELATHAH
assembly, one of the stations of the Israelites in the desert (Num. 33:22, Num. 33: 23).......

KENATH
possession, a city of Gilead. It was captured by Nobah, who called it by his own name (Num. 32:42). It has been identified with Kunawat, on the slopes of Jebel Hauran (Mount Bashan), 60 miles east from the south end of the Sea of Galilee.......

KIBROTH-HATTAAVAH
the graves of the longing or of lust, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness. It was probably in the Wady Murrah, and has been identified with the Erweis el-Ebeirig, where the remains of an ancient encampment have been found, about 30 miles north-east of Sinai, and exactly a day's journey from 'Ain Hudherah. "Here began the troubles of the journey. First, complaints broke out am......

KIRJATH
city, a city belonging to Benjamin (Josh. 18:28), the modern Kuriet el-'Enab, i.e., "city of grapes", about 7 1/2 miles west-north-west of Jerusalem.......

KIRJATH-ARBA
city of Arba, the original name of Hebron (q.v.), so called from the name of its founder, one of the Anakim (Gen. 23:2;35:27; Josh. 15:13). It was given to Caleb by Joshua as his portion. The Jews interpret the name as meaning "the city of the four", i.e., of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Adam, who were all, as they allege, buried there. ......

KIRJATH-HUZOTH
city of streets, Num. 22:39, Num. 22: a Moabite city, which some identify with Kirjathaim. Balak here received and entertained Balaam, whom he had invited from Pethor, among the "mountains of the east," beyond the Euphrates, to lay his ban upon the Israelites, whose progress he had no hope otherwise of arresting. It was probably from the summit of Attarus, the high place near the city, that the so......

KIRJATH-JEARIM
city of jaars; i.e., of woods or forests, a Gibeonite town (Josh. 9:17) on the border of Benjamin, to which tribe it was assigned (18:15, 18: 28). The ark was brought to this place (1-Sam 7:1, 1-Sam 7: 2) from Beth-shemesh and put in charge of Abinadab, a Levite. Here it remained till it was removed by David to Jerusalem (2-Sam 6:2, 2-Sam 6: 3, 12; 1-Chr 15:1; comp. Ps. 132). It was also called Ba......

KIRJATH-SANNAH
city of the sannah; i.e., of the palm(?), Josh. 15:49; the same as Kirjath-sepher (15:16; Judg. 1:11) and Debir (q.v.), a Canaanitish royal city included in Judah (Josh. 10:38;15:49), and probably the chief seat of learning among the Hittites. It was about 12 miles to the south-west of Hebron. ......

KIRJATH-SEPHER
city of books, Josh. 15:15; same as Kirjath-sannah (q.v.), now represented by the valley of ed-Dhaberiyeh, south-west of Hebron. The name of this town is an evidence that the Canaanites were acquainted with writing and books. "The town probably contained a noted school, or was the site of an oracle and the residence of some learned priest." The "books" were probably engraved stones or bricks. ......

KIRJATHAIM
two cities; a double city. (1.) A city of refuge in Naphtali (1-Chr 6:76). (2.) A town on the east of Jordan (Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:9, Deut. 2: 10). It was assigned to the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:37). In the time of Ezekiel (25:9) it was one of the four cities which formed the "glory of Moab" (comp. Jer. 48:1, Jer. 48: 23). It has been identified with el-Kureiyat, 11 miles south-west of Medeba, on......

KOHATH
assembly, the second son of Levi, and father of Amram (Gen. 46:11). He came down to Egypt with Jacob, and lived to the age of one hundred and thirty-three years (Exo 6:18). ......

KOHATHITES
the descendants of Kohath. They formed the first of the three divisions of the Levites (Exo 6:16, Exo 6: 18; Num. 3:17). In the journeyings of the Israelites they had the charge of the most holy portion of the vessels of the tabernacle, including the ark (Num. 4). Their place in the marching and encampment was south of the tabernacle (Num. 3:29, Num. 3: 31). Their numbers at different times are sp......

LAMENTATION
(Heb. qinah), an elegy or dirge. The first example of this form of poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan (2-Sam 1:17). It was a frequent accompaniment of mourning (Amos 8:10). In 2-Sam 3:33, 2-Sam 3: 34 is recorded David's lament over Abner. Prophecy sometimes took the form of a lament when it predicted calamity (Ezek. 27:2, Ezek. 27: 32;28:12;32:2, 32: 16). ......

LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF
called in the Hebrew canon _'Ekhah_, meaning "How," being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing. It is the first word of the book (see 2-Sam 1:19). The LXX. adopted the name rendered "Lamentations" (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth) now in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the holy land by Chaldeans. I......

LATCHET
a thong (Acts 22:25), cord, or strap fastening the sandal on the foot (Isa. 5:27; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16). ......

LATIN
the vernacular language of the ancient Romans (John 19:20). ......

LATTICE
(1.) Heb. 'eshnabh, a latticed opening through which the cool breeze passes (Judg. 5:28). The flat roofs of the houses were sometimes enclosed with a parapet of lattice-work on wooden frames, to screen the women of the house from the gaze of the neighbourhood. (2.) Heb. harakim, the network or lattice of a window (2:9). (3.) Heb. sebakhah, the latticed balustrade before a window or balcony (2-......

LEATHER
a girdle of, worn by Elijah (2-Kings 1:8) and John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4). Leather was employed both for clothing (Num. 31:20; Heb. 11:37) and for writing upon. The trade of a tanner is mentioned (Acts 9:43;10:6, 10: 32). It was probably learned in Egypt. ......

LEVIATHAN
a transliterated Hebrew word (livyathan), meaning "twisted," "coiled." In Job 3:8, Job 3: Revised Version, and marg. of Authorized Version, it denotes the dragon which, according to Eastern tradition, is an enemy of light; 41:1 the crocodile is meant; in Psa 104:26 it "denotes any large animal that moves by writhing or wriggling the body, the whale, the monsters of the deep." This word is also use......

LEVIRATE LAW
from Latin levir, "a husband's brother," the name of an ancient custom ordained by Moses, by which, when an Israelite died without issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the widow, so as to continue his brother's family through the son that might be born of that marriage (Gen. 38:8; Deut. 25:5; comp. Ruth 3;4:10). Its object was "to raise up seed to the departed brother." ......

LIVING CREATURES
as represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev. 15:7); they join the elders in the "new song" (5:8, 5: 9); they warn of danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3), and deliver the commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, Ezek. 10: 7); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who ......

LUNATIC
probably the same as epileptic, the symptoms of which disease were supposed to be more aggravated as the moon increased. In Matt. 4:24 "lunatics" are distinguished from demoniacs. 17:15 the name "lunatic" is applied to one who is declared to have been possessed. (See DAEMONIAC.) ......

MAARATH
desolation, a place in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:59), probably the modern village Beit Ummar, 6 miles north of Hebron. ......

MAATH
small, a person named in our Lord's ancestry (Luke 3:26). ......

MAGISTRATE
a public civil officer invested with authority. The Hebrew shophetim, or judges, were magistrates having authority in the land (Deut. 1:16, Deut. 1: 17). In Judg. 18:7 the word "magistrate" (A.V.) is rendered in the Revised Version "possessing authority", i.e., having power to do them harm by invasion. In the time of Ezra (9:2) and Nehemiah (2:16;4:14;13:11) the Jewish magistrates were called _seg......

MAHALATH
a lute; lyre. (1.) The daughter of Ishmael, and third wife of Esau (Gen. 28:9); called also Bashemath (Gen. 36:3). (2.) The daughter of Jerimoth, who was one of David's sons. She was one of Rehoboam's wives (2-Chr 11:18). ......

MAHALATH LEANNOTH MASCHIL
This word leannoth seems to point to some kind of instrument unknown (Ps. 88, title). The whole phrase has by others been rendered, "On the sickness of affliction: a lesson;" or, "Concerning afflictive sickness: a didactic psalm." ......

MAHALATH MASCHIL
in the title of Ps. 53, denoting that this was a didactic psalm, to be sung to the accompaniment of the lute or guitar. Others regard this word "mahalath" as the name simply of an old air to which the psalm was to be sung. Others, again, take the word as meaning "sickness," and regard it as alluding to the contents of the psalm. ......

MAHATH
grasping. (1.) A Kohathite Levite, father of Elkanah (1-Chr 6:35). (2.) Another Kohathite Levite, of the time of Hezekiah (2-Chr 29:12). ......

MAIL, COAT OF
"a corselet of scales," a cuirass formed of pieces of metal overlapping each other, like fish-scales (1-Sam 17:5); also (38) a corselet or garment thus encased. ......

MARANATHA
(1-Cor 16:22) consists of two Aramean words, Maran'athah, meaning, "our Lord comes," or is "coming." If the latter interpretation is adopted, the meaning of the phrase is, "Our Lord is coming, and he will judge those who have set him at nought." (Comp. Phil. 4:5; James 5:8, James 5: 9.) ......

MATTAN
gift. (1.) A priest of Baal, slain before his altar during the reformation under Jehoiada (2-Kings 11:18). (2.) The son of Eleazar, and father of Jacob, who was the father of Joseph, the husband of the Virgin Mary (Matt. 1:15). (3.) The father of Shephatiah (Jer. 38:1). ......

MATTANAH
a gift, a station of the Israelites (Num. 21:18, Num. 21: 19) between the desert and the borders of Moab, in the Wady Waleh. ......

MATTANIAH
gift of Jehovah. (1.) A Levite, son of Heman, the chief of the ninth class of temple singers (1-Chr 25:4, 1-Chr 25: 16). (2.) A Levite who assisted in purifying the temple at the reformation under Hezekiah (2-Chr 29:13). (3.) The original name of Zedekiah (q.v.), the last of the kings of Judah (2-Kings 24:17). He was the third son of Josiah, who fell at Megiddo. He succeeded his nephew Jehoiak......

MATTATHIAS
ibid. (1.) The son of Amos, in the genealogy of our Lord (Luke 3:25). (2.) The son of Semei, in the same genealogy (Luke 3:26). ......

MATTHAN
gift, one of our Lord's ancestry (Matt. 1:15). ......

MATTHAT
gift of God. (1.) The son of Levi, and father of Heli (Luke 3:24). (2.) Son of another Levi (Luke 3:29). ......

MATTHEW
gift of God, a common Jewish name after the Exile. He was the son of Alphaeus, and was a publican or tax-gatherer at Capernaum. On one occasion Jesus, coming up from the side of the lake, passed the custom-house where Matthew was seated, and said to him, "Follow me." Matthew arose and followed him, and became his disciple (Matt. 9:9). Formerly the name by which he was known was Levi (Mark 2:14; Lu......

MATTHEW, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
The author of this book was beyond a doubt the Matthew, an apostle of our Lord, whose name it bears. He wrote the Gospel of Christ according to his own plans and aims, and from his own point of view, as did also the other "evangelists." As to the time of its composition, there is little in the Gospel itself to indicate. It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem (Matt. 24), and......

MATTHIAS
gift of God. Acts 1:23. ......

MATTITHIAH
gift of Jehovah. (1.) One of the sons of Jeduthun (1-Chr 25:3, 1-Chr 25: 21). (2.) The eldest son of Shallum, of the family of Korah (1-Chr 9:31). (3.) One who stood by Ezra while reading the law (Neh. 8:4). (4.) The son of Amos, and father of Joseph, in the genealogy of our Lord (Luke 3:25). ......

MATTOCK
(1.) Heb. ma'eder, an instrument for dressing or pruning a vineyard (Isa. 7:25); a weeding-hoe. (2.) Heb. mahareshah (1-Sam 13:1), perhaps the ploughshare or coulter. (3.) Heb. herebh, marg. of text (2-Chr 34:6). Authorized Version, "with their mattocks," marg. "mauls." The Revised Version renders "in their ruins," marg. "with their axes." The Hebrew text is probably corrupt. ......

MEAT-OFFERING
(Heb. minhah), originally a gift of any kind. This Hebrew word came latterly to denote an "unbloody" sacrifice, as opposed to a "bloody" sacrifice. A "drink-offering" generally accompanied it. The law regarding it is given in Lev. 2, 6:14. It was a recognition of the sovereignty of God and of his bounty in giving all earthly blessings (1-Chr 29:10; Deut. 26:5). It was an offering which took for gr......

MEDIATOR
one who intervenes between two persons who are at variance, with a view to reconcile them. This word is not found in the Old Testament; but the idea it expresses is found in Job 9:33, Job 9: in the word "daysman" (q.v.), marg., "umpire." This word is used in the New Testament to denote simply an internuncius, an ambassador, one who acts as a medium of communication between two contracting partie......

MEPHAATH
splendour, a Levitical city (Josh. 21:37) of the tribe of Reuben (13:18). ......

MERATHAIM
double rebellion, probably a symbolical name given to Babylon (Jer. 50:21), denoting rebellion exceeding that of other nations. ......

MERCY-SEAT
(Heb. kapporeth, a "covering;" LXX. and N.T., hilasterion; Vulg., propitiatorium), the covering or lid of the ark of the covenant (q.v.). It was of acacia wood, overlaid with gold, or perhaps rather a plate of solid gold, 2 1/2 cubits long and 1 1/2 broad (Exo 25:17;30:6;31:7). It is compared to the throne of grace (Heb. 9:5; Eph. 2:6). The holy of holies is called the "place of the mercy-seat" (1......

MITHREDATH
given by Mithra, or dedicated to Mithra, i.e., the sun, the Hebrew form of the Greek name Mithridates. (1.) The "treasurer" of King Cyrus (Ezra 1:8). (2.) Ezra 4:7, Ezra 4: a Persian officer in Samaria. ......

MORESHETH-GATH
possession of the wine-press, the birthplace of the prophet Micah (1:14), who is called the "Morasthite" (Jer. 26:18). This place was probably a suburb of Gath. ......

MOUNT OF BEATITUDES
See SERMON. ......

MOUNT OF THE CONGREGATION
only in Isa. 14:13, Isa. 14: a mythic mountain of the Babylonians, regarded by them as the seat of the gods. It was situated in the far north, and in Babylonian inscriptions is described as a mountain called Im-Kharasak, "the mighty mountain of Bel, whose head reaches heaven, whose root is the holy deep." In their geography they are said to have identified it with mount El-wend, near Ecbatana. ......

NAAMATHITE
the designation of Zophar, one of Job's three friends (Job 2:11;11:1), so called from some place in Arabia, called Naamah probably. ......

NAARATH
girl, a town on the boundary between Ephraim and Benjamin (Josh. 16:7), not far probably from Jericho, to the north (1-Chr 7:28). ......

NAHATH
rest. (1.) One of the four sons of Reuel, the son of Esau (Gen. 36:13, Gen. 36: 17). (2.) A Kohathite Levite (1-Chr 6:26). (3.) A Levite, one of the overseers of the sacred offerings of the temple (2-Chr 31:13).......

NATHAN
given. (1.) A prophet in the reigns of David and Solomon (2-Chr 9:29). He is first spoken of in connection with the arrangements David made for the building of the temple (2-Sam 7:2, 2-Sam 7: 3, 17), and next appears as the reprover of David on account of his sin with Bathsheba (12:1). He was charged with the education of Solomon (12:25), at whose inauguration to the throne he took a prominent par......

NATHANAEL
given or gift of God, one of our Lord's disciples, "of Cana in Galilee" (John 21:2). He was "an Israelite indeed, in whom was no guile" (1:47, 1: 48). His name occurs only in the Gospel of John, who in his list of the disciples never mentions Bartholomew, with whom he has consequently been identified. He was one of those to whom the Lord showed himself alive after his resurrection, at the Sea of T......

NATIVITY OF CHRIST
The birth of our Lord took place at the time and place predicted by the prophets (Gen. 49:10; Isa. 7:14; Jer. 31:15; Micah 5:2; Hag. 2:6; Dan. 9:24, Dan. 9: 25). Joseph and Mary were providentially led to go up to Bethlehem at this period, and there Christ was born (Matt. 2:1, Matt. 2: 6; Luke 2:1, Luke 2: 7). The exact year or month or day of his birth cannot, however, now be exactly ascertained.......

NEBALLAT
wickedness in secret, (Neh. 11:34), probably the village of Beit Nebala, about 4 miles north of Lydda.......

NEBAT
sight; aspect, the father of Jeroboam, the king of Israel (1-Kings 11:26, 1-Kings 11: etc.).......

NIMRIM, WATERS OF
the stream of the leopards, a stream in Moab (Isa. 15:6; Jer. 48:34); probably the modern Wady en-Nemeirah, a rich, verdant spot at the south-eastern end of the Dead Sea. ......

OATH
a solemn appeal to God, permitted on fitting occasions (Deut. 6:13; Jer. 4:2), in various forms (Gen. 16:5; 2-Sam 12:5; Ruth 1:17; Hos. 4:15; Rom. 1:9), and taken in different ways (Gen. 14:22;24:2; 2-Chr 6:22). God is represented as taking an oath (Heb. 6:16), so also Christ (Matt. 26:64), and Paul (Rom. 9:1; Gal. 1:20; Phil. 1:8). The precept, "Swear not at all," refers probably to ordinary conv......

OLD GATE
one of the gates in the north wall of Jerusalem, so called because built by the Jebusites (Neh. 3:6;12:39). ......

PAHATH-MOAB
governor of Moab, a person whose descendants returned from the Captivity and assisted in rebuilding Jerusalem (Ezra 2:6;8:4;10:30).......

PARSHANDATHA
an interpreter of the law, the eldest of Haman's sons, slain in Shushan (Esther 9:7).......

PATARA
a city on the south-west coast of Lycia at which Paul landed on his return from his third missionary journey (Acts 21:1, Acts 21: 2). Here he found a larger vessel, which was about to sail across the open sea to the coast of Phoenicia. In this vessel he set forth, and reached the city of Tyre in perhaps two or three days.......

PATHROS
the name generally given to Upper Egypt (the Thebaid of the Greeks), as distinguished from Matsor, or Lower Egypt (Isa. 11:11; Jer. 44:1, Jer. 44: 15; Ezek. 30:14), the two forming Mizraim. After the destruction of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, colonies of Jews settled "in the country of Pathros" and other parts of Egypt.......

PATMOS
a small rocky and barren island, one of the group called the "Sporades," in the AEgean Sea. It is mentioned in Scripture only in Rev. 1:9. It was on this island, to which John was banished by the emperor Domitian (A.D. 95), that he received from God the wondrous revelation recorded in his book. This has naturally invested it with the deepest interest for all time. It is now called Patmo. (See JOHN......

PATRIARCH
a name employed in the New Testament with reference to Abraham (Heb. 7:4), the sons of Jacob (Acts 7:8, Acts 7: 9), and to David (2:29). This name is generally applied to the progenitors of families or "heads of the fathers" (Josh. 14:1) mentioned in Scripture, and they are spoken of as antediluvian (from Adam to Noah) and post-diluvian (from Noah to Jacob) patriachs. But the expression "the patri......

PATROBAS
a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent salutations (Rom. 16:14).......

PELATIAH
deliverance of the Lord. (1.) A son of Hananiah and grandson of Zerubbabel (1-Chr 3:21). (2.) A captain of "the sons of Simeon" (4:42). (3.) Neh. 10:22. (4.) One of the twenty-five princes of the people against whom Ezekiel prophesied on account of their wicked counsel (Ezek. 11:1).......

PENTATEUCH
the five-fold volume, consisting of the first five books of the Old Testament. This word does not occur in Scripture, nor is it certainly known when the roll was thus divided into five portions Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. Probably that was done by the LXX. translators. Some modern critics speak of a Hexateuch, introducing the Book of Joshua as one of the group. But this book ......

PILATE, PONTIUS
probably connected with the Roman family of the Pontii, and called "Pilate" from the Latin pileatus, i.e., "wearing the pileus", which was the "cap or badge of a manumitted slave," as indicating that he was a "freedman," or the descendant of one. He was the sixth in the order of the Roman procurators of Judea (A.D. 26-36). His headquarters were at Caesarea, but he frequently went up to Jerusalem. ......

PIRATHON
prince, or summit, a place "in the land of Ephraim" (Judg. 12:15), now Fer'on, some 10 miles south-west of Shechem. This was the home of Abdon the judge. ......

PIRATHONITE
(1.) Abdon, the son of Hillel, so called, Judg. 12:13, Judg. 12: 15. (2.) Benaiah the Ephraimite (2-Sam 23:30), one of David's thirty heroes. ......

POMEGRANATE
i.e., "grained apple" (pomum granatum), Heb. rimmon. Common in Egypt (Num. 20:5) and Palestine (13:23; Deut. 8:8). The Romans called it Punicum malum, i.e., Carthaginian apple, because they received it from Carthage. It belongs to the myrtle family of trees. The withering of the pomegranate tree is mentioned among the judgments of God (Joel 1:12). It is frequently mentioned in the Song of Solomon ......

PONTIUS PILATE
See PILATE. ......

PREDESTINATION
This word is properly used only with reference to God's plan or purpose of salvation. The Greek word rendered "predestinate" is found only in these six passages, Acts 4:28; Rom. 8:29, Rom. 8: 30; 1-Cor 2:7; Eph. 1:5, Eph. 1: 11; and in all of them it has the same meaning. They teach that the eternal, sovereign, immutable, and unconditional decree or "determinate purpose" of God governs all events.......

PROPITIATION
that by which God is rendered propitious, i.e., by which it becomes consistent with his character and government to pardon and bless the sinner. The propitiation does not procure his love or make him loving; it only renders it consistent for him to execise his love towards sinners. In Rom. 3:25 and Heb. 9:5 (A.V., "mercy-seat") the Greek word _hilasterion_ is used. It is the word employed by the......

PURIFICATION
the process by which a person unclean, according to the Levitical law, and thereby cut off from the sanctuary and the festivals, was restored to the enjoyment of all these privileges. The great annual purification of the people was on the Day of Atonement (q.v.). But in the details of daily life there were special causes of cermonial uncleanness which were severally provided for by ceremonial ......

QUATERNION
a band of four soldiers. Peter was committed by Herod to the custody of four quaternions, i.e., one quaternion for each watch of the night (Acts 12:4). Thus every precaution was taken against his escape from prison. Two of each quaternion were in turn stationed at the door (12:6), and to two the apostle was chained according to Roman custom.......

QUOTATIONS
from the Old Testament in the New, which are very numerous, are not made according to any uniform method. When the New Testament was written, the Old was not divided, as it now is, into chapters and verses, and hence such peculiarities as these: When Luke (20:37) refers to Exo 3:6, Exo 3: he quotes from "Moses at the bush", i.e., the section containing the record of Moses at the bush. So also Mark......

RAKKATH
shore-town, a "fenced city" of the tribe of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35). The old name of Tiberias, according to the Rabbins.......

RAMATH OF THE SOUTH
(Heb. Ramath-negeb). The Heb. negeb is the general designation for south or south-west of Judah. This was one of the towns of Simeon (Josh. 19:8). It is the same as "south Ramoth" (1-Sam 30:27; R.V., "Ramoth of the south"). Its site is doubtful. Some have thought it another name for Baalath-beer.......

RAMATH-LEHI
elevation of Lehi, or the jawbone height; i.e., the Ramah of Lehi (Judg. 15:15). The phrase "in the jaw," ver. 19, Authorized Version, is in the margin, also in the Revised Version, "in Lehi." Here Samson slew a thousand Philistines with a jawbone.......

RAMATH-MIZPEH
the height of Mizpeh or of the watch-tower (Josh. 13:26), a place mentioned as one of the limits of Gad. There were two Mizpehs on the east of the Jordan. This was the Mizpeh where Jacob and Laban made a covenant, "Mizpeh of Gilead," called also Galeed and Jegar-sahadutha. It has been identified with the modern es-Salt, where the roads from Jericho and from Shechem to Damascus unite, about 25 mile......

RAMATHAIM-ZOPHIM
the two heights of the Zophites or of the watchers (only in 1-Sam 1:1), "in the land of Zuph" (9:5). Ramathaim is another name for Ramah (4). One of the Levitical families descended from Kohath, that of Zuph or Zophai (1-Chr 6:26, 1-Chr 6: 35), had a district assigned to them in Ephraim, which from this circumstance was called "the land of Zuph," and hence the name of the town, "Zophim." It was ......

RAMATHITE
the designation given to Shimei, the manager of David's vineyard (1-Chr 27:27).......

RECONCILATION
a change from enmity to friendship. It is mutual, i.e., it is a change wrought in both parties who have been at enmity. (1.) In Col. 1:21, Col. 1: 22, the word there used refers to a change wrought in the personal character of the sinner who ceases to be an enemy to God by wicked works, and yields up to him his full confidence and love. In 2-Cor 5:20 the apostle beseeches the Corinthians to be "......

REGENERATION
only found in Matt. 19:28 and Titus 3:5. This word literally means a "new birth." The Greek word so rendered (palingenesia) is used by classical writers with reference to the changes produced by the return of spring. In Matt. 19:28 the word is equivalent to the "restitution of all things" (Acts 3:21). In Titus 3:5 it denotes that change of heart elsewhere spoken of as a passing from death to life ......

REPROBATE
that which is rejected on account of its own worthlessness (Jer. 6:30; Heb. 6:8; Gr. adokimos, "rejected"). This word is also used with reference to persons cast away or rejected because they have failed to make use of opportunities offered them (1-Cor 9:27; 2-Cor 13:5). ......

REVELATION
an uncovering, a bringing to light of that which had been previously wholly hidden or only obscurely seen. God has been pleased in various ways and at different times (Heb. 1:1) to make a supernatural revelation of himself and his purposes and plans, which, under the guidance of his Spirit, has been committed to writing. (See WORD+OF+GOD.) The Scriptures are not merely the "record" of revelation; ......

REVELATION OF CHRIST
the second advent of Christ. Three different Greek words are used by the apostles to express this, (1) apokalupsis (1 Cor. 1;7; 2-Thess 1:7; 1-Pet 1:7, 1-Pet 1: 13); (2) parousia (Matt. 24:3, Matt. 24: 27; 1-Thess 2:19; James 5:7, James 5: 8); (3) epiphaneia (1-Tim 6:14; 2-Tim 1:10;4:1; Titus 2:13). There existed among Christians a wide expectation, founded on Matt. 24:29, Matt. 24: 30, 34, of the......

REVELATION, BOOK OF
=The Apocalypse, the closing book and the only prophetical book of the New Testament canon. The author of this book was undoubtedly John the apostle. His name occurs four times in the book itself (1:1, 1: 4, 9;22:8), and there is every reason to conclude that the "John" here mentioned was the apostle. In a manuscript of about the twelfth century he is called "John the divine," but no reason can be......

RIPHATH
a crusher, Gomer's second son (Gen. 10:3), supposed to have been the ancestor of the Paphlagonians. ......

SABBATH
(Heb. verb shabbath, meaning "to rest from labour"), the day of rest. It is first mentioned as having been instituted in Paradise, when man was in innocence (Gen. 2:2). "The sabbath was made for man," as a day of rest and refreshment for the body and of blessing to the soul. It is next referred to in connection with the gift of manna to the children of Israel in the wilderness (Exo 16:23); and a......

SABBATH DAY'S JOURNEY
supposed to be a distance of 2,000 cubits, or less than half-a-mile, the distance to which, according to Jewish tradition, it was allowable to travel on the Sabbath day without violating the law (Acts 1:12; comp. Exo 16:29; Num. 35:5; Josh. 3:4). ......

SABBATICAL YEAR
every seventh year, during which the land, according to the law of Moses, had to remain uncultivated (Lev. 25:2; comp. Exo 23:10, Exo 23: 11, 12; Lev. 26:34, Lev. 26: 35). Whatever grew of itself during that year was not for the owner of the land, but for the poor and the stranger and the beasts of the field. All debts, except those of foreigners, were to be remitted (Deut. 15:1). There is little ......

SALATHIEL
whom I asked of God, the son of Jeconiah (Matt. 1:12; 1-Chr 3:17); also called the son of Neri (Luke 3:27). The probable explanation of the apparent discrepancy is that he was the son of Neri, the descendant of Nathan, and thus heir to the throne of David on the death of Jeconiah (comp. Jer. 22:30). ......

SALUTATION
"Eastern modes of salutation are not unfrequently so prolonged as to become wearisome and a positive waste of time. The profusely polite Arab asks so many questions after your health, your happiness, your welfare, your house, and other things, that a person ignorant of the habits of the country would imagine there must be some secret ailment or mysterious sorrow oppressing you, which you wished to......

SALVATION
This word is used of the deliverance of the Israelites from the Egyptians (Exo 14:13), and of deliverance generally from evil or danger. In the New Testament it is specially used with reference to the great deliverance from the guilt and the pollution of sin wrought out by Jesus Christ, "the great salvation" (Heb. 2:3). (See REDEMPTION; REGENERATION.) ......

SAMARITAN PENTATEUCH
On the return from the Exile, the Jews refused the Samaritans participation with them in the worship at Jerusalem, and the latter separated from all fellowship with them, and built a temple for themselves on Mount Gerizim. This temple was razed to the ground more than one hundred years B.C. Then a system of worship was instituted similar to that of the temple at Jerusalem. It was founded on the La......

SANBALLAT
held some place of authority in Samaria when Nehemiah went up to Jerusalem to rebuild its ruined walls. He vainly attempted to hinder this work (Neh. 2:10, Neh. 2: 19;4:1; 6). His daughter became the wife of one of the sons of Joiada, a son of the high priest, much to the grief of Nehemiah (13:28). ......

SANCTIFICATION
involves more than a mere moral reformation of character, brought about by the power of the truth: it is the work of the Holy Spirit bringing the whole nature more and more under the influences of the new gracious principles implanted in the soul in regeneration. In other words, sanctification is the carrying on to perfection the work begun in regeneration, and it extends to the whole man (Rom. 6:......

SATAN
adversary; accuser. When used as a proper name, the Hebrew word so rendered has the article "the adversary" (Job 1:6;2:1). In the New Testament it is used as interchangeable with Diabolos, or the devil, and is so used more than thirty times. He is also called "the dragon," "the old serpent" (Rev. 12:9;20:2); "the prince of this world" (John 12:31;14:30); "the prince of the power of the air" (Eph......

SATYR
hairy one. Mentioned in Greek mythology as a creature composed of a man and a goat, supposed to inhabit wild and desolate regions. The Hebrew word is rendered also "goat" (Lev. 4:24) and "devil", i.e., an idol in the form of a goat (17:7; 2-Chr 11:15). When it is said (Isa. 13:21; 34:14) "the satyrs shall dance there," the meaning is that the place referred to shall become a desolate waste. Some r......

SCAPEGOAT
Lev. 16:8; R.V., "the goat for Azazel" (q.v.), the name given to the goat which was taken away into the wilderness on the day of Atonement (16:20). The priest made atonement over the scapegoat, laying Israel's guilt upon it, and then sent it away, the goat bearing "upon him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited." At a later period an evasion or modification of the law of Moses was intro......

SEBAT
the eleventh month of the Hebrew year, extending from the new moon of February to that of March (Zech. 1:7). Assyrian sabatu, "storm." (See MONTH.) ......

SEIRATH
woody district; shaggy, a place among the mountains of Ephraim, bordering on Benjamin, to which Ehud fled after he had assassinated Eglon at Jericho (Judg. 3:26, Judg. 3: 27). ......

SENATE
(Acts 5:21), the "elders of Israel" who formed a component part of the Sanhedrin. ......

SHALLECHETH, THE GATE OF
i.e., "the gate of casting out," hence supposed to be the refuse gate; one of the gates of the house of the Lord, "by the causeway of the going up" i.e., the causeway rising up from the Tyropoeon valley = valley of the cheesemakers (1-Chr 26:16).......

SHAPHAT
judge. (1.) One of the spies. He represented the tribe of Simeon (Num. 13:5). (2.) The father of Elisha (1-Kings 19:16). (3.) One of David's chief herdsmen (1-Chr 27:29).......

SHAVEH-KIRIATHAIM
plain of Kirja-thaim where Chedorlaomer defeated the Emims, the original inhabitants (Gen. 14:5). Now Kureiyat, north of Dibon, in the land of Moab.......

SHEEP-GATE
one of the gates of Jerusalem mentioned by Nehemiah (3:1, 3: 32;12:39). It was in the eastern wall of the city.......

SHEPHATIAH
judged of the Lord. (1.) A son of David by Abital (2-Sam 3:4). (2.) A Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:5). (3.) A Simeonite prince in David's time (1-Chr 27:16). (4.) One of Jehoshaphat's sons (2-Chr 21:2). (5.) Ezra 2:4. (6.) Ezra 2:57; Neh. 7:59. (7.) One of the princes who urged the putting of Jeremiah to death (Jer. 38:1).......

SHIHOR-LIBNATH
black-white, a stream on the borders of Asher, probably the modern Nahr Zerka, i.e., the "crocodile brook," or "blue river", which rises in the Carmel range and enters the Mediterranean a little to the north of Caesarea (Josh. 19:26). Crocodiles are still found in the Zerka. Thomson suspects "that long ages ago some Egyptians, accustomed to worship this ugly creature, settled here (viz., at Caesar......

SHILOAH, THE WATERS OF
=Siloah, (Neh. 3:15) and Siloam (q.v.)......

SHIMRATH
guardian, a Benjamite, one of Shimhi's sons (id.).......

SKIN, COATS MADE OF
(Gen. 3:21). Skins of rams and badgers were used as a covering for the tabernacle (Exo 25:5; Num. 4:8). ......

SOPATER
the father who saves, probably the same as Sosipater, a kinsman of Paul (Rom. 16:21), a Christian of the city of Berea who accompanied Paul into Asia (Acts 20:4). ......

SOSIPATER
(See SOPATER.) ......

STATER
Greek word rendered "piece of money" (Matt. 17:27, Matt. 17: A.V.; and "shekel" in R.V.). It was equal to two didrachmas ("tribute money,"17:24), or four drachmas, and to about 2s. 6d. of our money. (See SHEKEL.) ......

STRAIN AT
Simply a misprint for "strain out" (Matt. 23:24). ......

TAANATH-SHILOH
approach to Shiloh, a place on the border of Ephraim (Josh. 16:6), probably the modern T'ana, a ruin 7 miles south-east of Shechem, on the ridge east of the Mukhnah plain. ......

TABBATH
famous, a town in the tribe of Ephraim (Judg. 7:22), to the south of Bethshean, near the Jordan. ......

TATNAI
gift, a Persian governor (Heb. pehah, i.e., "satrap;" modern "pasha") "on this side the river", i.e., of the whole tract on the west of the Euphrates. This Hebrew title _pehah_ is given to governors of provinces generally. It is given to Nehemiah (5:14) and to Zerubbabel (Hag. 1:1). It is sometimes translated "captain" (1-Kings 20:24; Dan. 3:2, Dan. 3: 3), sometimes also "deputy" (Esther 8:9;9:3).......

TEMPTATION
(1.) Trial; a being put to the test. Thus God "tempted [Gen. 22:1; R.V., 'did prove'] Abraham;" and afflictions are said to tempt, i.e., to try, men (James 1:2, James 1: 12; comp. Deut. 8:2), putting their faith and patience to the test. (2.) Ordinarily, however, the word means solicitation to that which is evil, and hence Satan is called "the tempter" (Matt. 4:3). Our Lord was in this way tempted......

THEATRE
only mentioned in Acts 19:29, Acts 19: 31. The ruins of this theatre at Ephesus still exist, and they show that it was a magnificent structure, capable of accommodating some 56,700 persons. It was the largest structure of the kind that ever existed. Theatres, as places of amusement, were unknown to the Jews. ......

THYATIRA
a city of Asia Minor, on the borders of Lydia and Mysia. Its modern name is Ak-hissar, i.e., "white castle." Here was one of the seven churches (Rev. 1:11;2:18). Lydia, the seller of purple, or rather of cloth dyed with this colour, was from this city (Acts 16:14). It was and still is famous for its dyeing. Among the ruins, inscriptions have been found relating to the guild of dyers in that city i......

TIGLATH-PILESER I.
(not mentioned in Scripture) was the most famous of the monarchs of the first Assyrian empire (about B.C. 1110). After his death, for two hundred years the empire fell into decay. The history of David and Solomon falls within this period. He was succeeded by his son, Shalmaneser II. ......

TIGLATH-PILESER III.
or Tilgath-Pil-neser, the Assyrian throne-name of Pul (q.v.). He appears in the Assyrian records as gaining, in the fifth year of his reign (about B.C. 741), a victory over Azariah (= Uzziah in 2-Chr 26:1), king of Judah, whose achievements are described in 2-Chr 26:6. He is first mentioned in Scripture, however, as gaining a victory over Pekah, king of Israel, and Rezin of Damascus, who were conf......

TIMNATH
Gen. 38:12, Gen. 38:14. (1.) Heb. Timnathah, which is appropriately rendered in the Revised Version, Timnah, a town in Judah. (2.) The town where Samson sojourned, probably identical with "Timnah" (1) (Judg. 14:1). ......

TIMNATH-HERES
portion of the sun, where Joshua was buried (Judg. 2:9). It was "in the mount of Ephraim, in the north side of the hill Gaash," 10 miles south-west of Shechem. The same as the following. ......

TIMNATH-SERAH
remaining portion, the city of Joshua in the hill country of Ephraim, the same as Timnath-heres (Josh. 19:50;24:30). "Of all sites I have seen," says Lieut. Col. Conder, "none is so striking as that of Joshua's home, surrounded as it is with deep valleys and wild, rugged hills." Opposite the town is a hill, on the northern side of which there are many excavated sepulchres. Among these is the suppo......

TIRSHATHA
a word probably of Persian origin, meaning "severity," denoting a high civil dignity. The Persian governor of Judea is so called (Ezra 2:63; Neh. 7:65, Neh. 7: 70). Nehemiah is called by this name in Neh. 8:9;10:1, 10: and the "governor" (pehah) 5:18. Probably, therefore, tirshatha=pehah=the modern pasha. ......

TRANSFIGURATION, THE
of our Lord on a "high mountain apart," is described by each of the three evangelists (Matt. 17:1; Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28). The fullest account is given by Luke, who, no doubt, was informed by Peter, who was present on the occasion. What these evangelists record was an absolute historical reality, and not a mere vision. The concurrence between them in all the circumstances of the incident is exact. J......

TRIBULATION
trouble or affiction of any kind (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 13:21; 2-Cor 7:4). In Rom. 2:9 "tribulation and anguish" are the penal sufferings that shall overtake the wicked. In Matt. 24:21, Matt. 24: 29, the word denotes the calamities that were to attend the destruction of Jerusalem. ......

VAJEZATHA
purity; worthy of honour, one of Haman's sons, whom the Jews slew in the palace of Shushan (Esther 9:9). ......

VATICANUS, CODEX
is said to be the oldest extant vellum manuscript. It and the Codex Sinaiticus are the two oldest uncial manuscripts. They were probably written in the fourth century. The Vaticanus was placed in the Vatican Library at Rome by Pope Nicolas V. in 1448, its previous history being unknown. It originally consisted in all probability of a complete copy of the Septuagint and of the New Testament. It is ......

WATCHES
the periods into which the time between sunset and sunrise was divided. They are so called because watchmen relieved each other at each of these periods. There are frequent references in Scripture to the duties of watchmen who were appointed to give notice of the approach of an enemy (2-Sam 18:24; 2-Kings 9:17; Isa. 21:5). They were sometimes placed for this purpose on watch-towers (2-Kings 17:9;1......

WATCHINGS
(2-Cor 6:5), lit. "sleeplessnesses," the result of "manual labour, teaching, travelling, meditating, praying, cares, and the like" (Meyer's Com.). ......

WATER OF JEALOUSY
a phrase employed (not, however, in Scripture) to denote the water used in the solemn ordeal prescribed by the law of Moses (Num. 5:11) in cases of "jealousy." ......

WATER OF PURIFICATION
used in cases of ceremonial cleansings at the consecration of the Levites (Num. 8:7). It signified, figuratively, that purifying of the heart which must characterize the servants of God. ......

WATER OF SEPARATION
used along with the ashes of a red heifer for the ceremonial cleansing of persons defiled by contact with a dead body (Num. 19). ......

WATERSPOUTS
(Psa 42:7; marg. R.V., "cataracts"). If we regard this psalm as descriptive of David's feelings when banished from Jerusalem by the revolt of Absalom, this word may denote "waterfalls," inasmuch as Mahanaim, where he abode, was near the Jabbok, and the region abounded with rapids and falls. ......

WHEAT
one of the earliest cultivated grains. It bore the Hebrew name _hittah_, and was extensively cultivated in Palestine. There are various species of wheat. That which Pharaoh saw in his dream was the Triticum compositum, which bears several ears upon one stalk (Gen. 41:5). The "fat of the kidneys of wheat" (Deut. 32:14), and the "finest of the wheat" (Psa 81:16;147:14), denote the best of the kind. ......

WINEFAT
(Mark 12:1). The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs only here in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans, into which the juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is here used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage in Matt. 21:33 the Greek word _lenos_ is used. This properly denotes the upper one of ......

ZAPHNATH-PAANEAH
the name which Pharaoh gave to Joseph when he raised him to the rank of prime minister or grand vizier of the kingdom (Gen. 41:45). This is a pure Egyptian word, and has been variously explained. Some think it means "creator," or "preserver of life." Brugsch interprets it as "governor of the district of the place of life", i.e., of Goshen, the chief city of which was Pithom, "the place of life." O......

ZAREPHATH
smelting-shop, "a workshop for the refining and smelting of metals", a small Phoenician town, now Surafend, about a mile from the coast, almost midway on the road between Tyre and Sidon. Here Elijah sojourned with a poor widow during the "great famine," when the "heaven was shut up three years and six months" (Luke 4:26; 1-Kings 17:10). It is called Sarepta in the New Testament (Luke 4:26).......

ZATTHU
a sprout, Neh. 10:14.......

ZATTU
id., one whose descendants returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:8; Neh. 7:13); probably the same as Zatthu.......

ZEPHATH
beacon; watch-tower, a Canaanite town; called also Hormah (q.v.), Judg. 1:17. It has been identified with the pass of es-Sufah, but with greater probability with S'beita.......

ZEPHATHAH
a valley in the west of Judah, near Mareshah; the scene of Asa's conflict with Zerah the Ethiopian (2-Chr 14:9). Identified with the Wady Safieh.......

ZEREDATHAH
a place in the plain of Jordan; the same as Zarthan (2-Chr 4:17; 1-Kings 7:46). Here Solomon erected the foundries in which Hiram made the great castings of bronze for the temple.......

ZERERATH
(Judg. 7:22), perhaps identical with Zereda or Zeredathah. Some identify it with Zahrah, a place about 3 miles west of Beth-shean.......