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ABINADAB
father of nobleness; i.e., "noble." (1.) A Levite of Kirjath-jearim, in whose house the ark of the covenant was deposited after having been brought back from the land of the Philistines (1-Sam 7:1). It remained there twenty years, till it was at length removed by David (1-Sam 7:1, 1-Sam 7:2; 1-Chr 13:7). (2.) The second of the eight sons of Jesse (1-Sam 16:8). He was with Saul in the campaign ag......

ABINOAM
father of kindness, the father of Barak (Judg. 4:6;5:1).......

ABOMINATION
This word is used, (1.) To express the idea that the Egyptians considered themselves as defiled when they ate with strangers (Gen. 43:32). The Jews subsequently followed the same practice, holding it unlawful to eat or drink with foreigners (John 18:28; Acts 10:28;11:3). (2.) Every shepherd was "an abomination" unto the Egyptians (Gen. 46:34). This aversion to shepherds, such as the Hebrews, aro......

ADIN
effeminate. (1.) Ezra 8:6. (2.) Neh. 10:16. ......

ADINA
slender, one of David's warriors (1-Chr 11:42), a Reubenite. ......

ADINO
the Eznite, one of David's mighty men (2-Sam 23:8). (See JASHOBEAM.) ......

AFFINITY
relationship by alliance (2-Chr 18:1) or by marriage (1-Kings 3:1). Marriages are prohibited within certain degrees of affinity, enumerated Lev. 18:6. Consanguinity is relationship by blood.......

AHINADAB
brother of liberality = liberal, one of the twelve commissariat officers appointed by Solomon in so many districts of his kingdom to raise supplies by monthly rotation for his household. He was appointed to the district of Mahanaim (1-Kings 4:14), east of Jordan.......

AHINOAM
brother of pleasantness = pleasant. (1.) The daughter of Ahimaaz, and wife of Saul (1-Sam 14:50). (2.) A Jezreelitess, the first wife of David (1-Sam 25:43;27:3). She was the mother of Amnon (2-Sam 3:2). (See 1-Sam 30:5, 1-Sam 30: 18; 2-Sam 2:2.)......

AMMINADAB
kindred of the prince. (1.) The father of Nahshon, who was chief of the tribe of Judah (Num. 1:7;2:3;7:12, 7: 17;10:14). His daughter Elisheba was married to Aaron (Exo 6:23). (2.) A son of Kohath, the second son of Levi (1-Chr 6:22), called also Izhar (2, 18). (3.) Chief of the 112 descendants of Uzziel the Levite (1-Chr 15:10, 1-Chr 15: 11).......

AMMINADIB
a person mentioned in 6:12, 6: whose chariots were famed for their swiftness. It is rendered in the margin "my willing people," and in the Revised Version "my princely people."......

ANOINT
The practice of anointing with perfumed oil was common among the Hebrews. (1.) The act of anointing was significant of consecration to a holy or sacred use; hence the anointing of the high priest (Exo 29:29; Lev. 4:3) and of the sacred vessels (Exo 30:26). The high priest and the king are thus called "the anointed" (Lev. 4:3, Lev. 4: 5, 16;6:20; Psa 132:10). Anointing a king was equivalent to crow......

BABYLON, KINGDOM OF
called "the land of the Chaldeans" (Jer. 24:5; Ezek,12:13), was an extensive province in Central Asia along the valley of the Tigris from the Persian Gulf northward for some 300 miles. It was famed for its fertility and its riches. Its capital was the city of Babylon, a great commercial centre (Ezek. 17:4; Isa. 43:14). Babylonia was divided into the two districts of Accad in the north, and Summer ......

BASIN
or Bason. (1.) A trough or laver (Heb. aggan') for washing (Exo 24:6); rendered also "goblet" (7:2) and "cups" (Isa. 22:24). (2.) A covered dish or urn (Heb. k'for) among the vessels of the temple (1-Chr 28:17; Ezra 1:10;8:27). (3.) A vase (Heb. mizrak) from which to sprinkle anything. A metallic vessel; sometimes rendered "bowl" (Amos 6:6; Zech. 9:15). The vessels of the tabernacle were of br......

BASTINADO
beating, a mode of punishment common in the East. It is referred to by "the rod of correction" (Prov. 22:15), "scourging" (Lev. 19:20), "chastising" (Deut. 22:18). The number of blows could not exceed forty (Deut. 25:2, Deut. 25: 3). ......

BATTERING-RAM
(Ezek. 4:2;21:22), a military engine, consisting of a long beam of wood hung upon a frame, for making breaches in walls. The end of it which was brought against the wall was shaped like a ram's head. ......

BENJAMIN
son of my right hand. (1.) The younger son of Jacob by Rachel (Gen. 35:18). His birth took place at Ephrath, on the road between Bethel and Bethlehem, at a short distance from the latter place. His mother died in giving him birth, and with her last breath named him Ben-oni, son of my pain, a name which was changed by his father into Benjamin. His posterity are called Benjamites (Gen. 49:27; Deut. ......

BLAINS
occurs only in connection with the sixth plague of Egypt (Exo 9:9, Exo 9: 10). In Deut. 28:27, Deut. 28: 35, it is called "the botch of Egypt." It seems to have been the fearful disease of black leprosy, a kind of elephantiasis, producing burning ulcers. ......

BLIND
Blind beggars are frequently mentioned (Matt. 9:27;12:22;20:30; John 5:3). The blind are to be treated with compassion (Lev. 19:14; Deut. 27:18). Blindness was sometimes a punishment for disobedience (1-Sam 11:2; Jer. 39:7), sometimes the effect of old age (Gen. 27:1; 1-Kings 14:4; 1-Sam 4:15). Conquerors sometimes blinded their captives (2-Kings 25:7; 1-Sam 11:2). Blindness denotes ignorance as t......

BOWING
a mode of showing respect. Abraham "bowed himself to the people of the land" (Gen. 23:7); so Jacob to Esau (Gen. 33:3); and the brethren of Joseph before him as the governor of the land (Gen. 43:28). Bowing is also frequently mentioned as an act of adoration to idols (Josh. 23:7; 2-Kings 5:18; Judg. 2:19; Isa. 44:15), and to God (Josh. 5:14; Psa 22:29;72:9; Micah 6:6; Psa 95:6; Eph. 3:14). ......

BRIGANDINE
(Jer. 46:4;51:3), an obsolete English word denoting a scale coat of armour, or habergeon, worn by light-armed "brigands." The Revised Version has "coat of mail."......

BUILDING
among the Jews was suited to the climate and conditions of the country. They probably adopted the kind of architecture for their dwellings which they found already existing when they entered Canaan (Deut. 6:10; Num. 13:19). Phoenician artists (2-Sam 5:11; 1-Kings 5:6, 1-Kings 5: 18) assisted at the erection of the royal palace and the temple at Jerusalem. Foreigners also assisted at the restoratio......

BURNT OFFERING
Hebrew _olah_; i.e., "ascending," the whole being consumed by fire, and regarded as ascending to God while being consumed. Part of every offering was burnt in the sacred fire, but this was wholly burnt, a "whole burnt offering." It was the most frequent form of sacrifice, and apparently the only one mentioned in the book of Genesis. Such were the sacrifices offered by Abel (Gen. 4:3, Gen. 4: 4, he......

CABINS
only in Jer. 37:16 (R.V., "cells"), arched vaults or recesses off a passage or room; cells for the closer confinement of prisoners.......

CAIN
a possession; a spear. (1.) The first-born son of Adam and Eve (Gen. 4). He became a tiller of the ground, as his brother Abel followed the pursuits of pastoral life. He was "a sullen, self-willed, haughty, vindictive man; wanting the religious element in his character, and defiant even in his attitude towards God." It came to pass "in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days"), i.e., probably ......

CAINAN
possession; smith. (1.) The fourth antediluvian patriarch, the eldest son of Enos. He was 70 years old at the birth of his eldest son Mahalaleel, after which he lived 840 years (Gen. 5:9), and was 910 years old when he died. He is also called Kenan (1-Chr 1:2). (2.) The son of Arphaxad (Luke 3:36). He is nowhere named in the Old Testament. He is usually called the "second Cainan."......

CALLING
a profession, or as we usually say, a vocation (1-Cor 7:20). The "hope of your calling" in Eph. 4:4 is the hope resulting from your being called into the kingdom of God.......

CAPTAIN
(1.) Heb. sar (1-Sam 22:2; 2-Sam 23:19). Rendered "chief," Gen. 40:2;41:9; rendered also "prince," Dan. 1:7; "ruler," Judg. 9:30; "governor,' 1-Kings 22:26. This same Hebrew word denotes a military captain (Exo 18:21; 2-Kings 1:9; Deut. 1:15; 1-Sam 18:13, 1-Sam 18: etc.), the "captain of the body-guard" (Gen. 37:36;39:1;41:10; Jer. 40:1), or, as the word may be rendered, "chief of the executioners......

CEILING
the covering (1-Kings 7:3, 1-Kings 7:7) of the inside roof and walls of a house with planks of wood (2-Chr 3:5; Jer. 22:14). Ceilings were sometimes adorned with various ornaments in stucco, gold, silver, gems, and ivory. The ceilings of the temple and of Solomon's palace are described 1-Kings 6:9, 1-Kings 6: 15;7:3; 2-Chr 3:5, 2-Chr 3:9.......

CHAIN
(1.) A part of the insignia of office. A chain of gold was placed about Joseph's neck (Gen. 41:42); and one was promised to Daniel (5:7). It is used as a symbol of sovereignty (Ezek. 16:11). The breast-plate of the high-priest was fastened to the ephod by golden chains (Exo 39:17, Exo 39: 21). (2.) It was used as an ornament (Prov. 1:9; 1:10). The Midianites adorned the necks of their camels wit......

CHAMBERING
(Rom. 13:13), wantonness, impurity. ......

CHAMBERLAIN
a confidential servant of the king (Gen. 37:36;39:1). In Rom. 16:23 mention is made of "Erastus the chamberlain." Here the word denotes the treasurer of the city, or the quaestor, as the Romans styled him. He is almost the only convert from the higher ranks of whom mention is made (comp. Acts 17:34). Blastus, Herod's "chamberlain" (Acts 12:20), was his personal attendant or valet-de-chambre. The H......

CHINNERETH
lyre, the singular form of the word (Deut. 3:17; Josh. 19:35), which is also used in the plural form, Chinneroth, the name of a fenced city which stood near the shore of the lake of Galilee, a little to the south of Tiberias. The town seems to have given its name to a district, as appears from 1-Kings 15:20, 1-Kings 15: where the plural form of the word is used. The Sea of Chinnereth (Num. 34:11......

CHORAZIN
named along with Bethsaida and Capernaum as one of the cities in which our Lord's "mighty works" were done, and which was doomed to woe because of signal privileges neglected (Matt. 11:21; Luke 10:13). It has been identified by general consent with the modern Kerazeh, about 2 1/2 miles up the Wady Kerazeh from Capernaum; i.e., Tell Hum. ......

CHRONICLES OF KING DAVID
(1-Chr 27:24) were statistical state records; one of the public sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles derived information on various public matters. ......

CINNAMON
Heb. kinamon, the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of botanists, a tree of the Laurel family, which grows only in India on the Malabar coast, in Ceylon, and China. There is no trace of it in Egypt, and it was unknown in Syria. The inner rind when dried and rolled into cylinders forms the cinnamon of commerce. The fruit and coarser pieces of bark when boiled yield a fragrant oil. It was one of the principal i......

CINNERETH
a harp, one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35; comp. Deut. 3:17). It also denotes, apparently, a district which may have taken its name from the adjacent city or lake of Gennesaret, anciently called "the sea of Chinnereth" (q.v.), and was probably that enclosed district north of Tiberias afterwards called "the plain of Gennesaret." Called Chinneroth (R.V., Chinnereth) Josh. 11:2. The......

COCK-CROWING
In our Lord's time the Jews had adopted the Greek and Roman division of the night into four watches, each consisting of three hours, the first beginning at six o'clock in the evening (Luke 12:38; Matt. 14:25; Mark 6:48). But the ancient division, known as the first and second cock-crowing, was still retained. The cock usually crows several times soon after midnight (this is the first crowing), and......

COFFIN
used in Gen. 50:26 with reference to the burial of Joseph. Here, it means a mummy-chest. The same Hebrew word is rendered "chest" in 2-Kings 12:9, 2-Kings 12: 10. ......

COIN
Before the Exile the Jews had no regularly stamped money. They made use of uncoined shekels or talents of silver, which they weighed out (Gen. 23:16; Exo 38:24; 2-Sam 18:12). Probably the silver ingots used in the time of Abraham may have been of a fixed weight, which was in some way indicated on them. The "pieces of silver" paid by Abimelech to Abraham (Gen. 20:16), and those also for which Josep......

COMING OF CHRIST
(1) with reference to his first advent "in the fulness of the time" (1-John 5:20; 2-John 1:7), or (2) with reference to his coming again the second time at the last day (Acts 1:11;3:20, 3: 21; 1-Thess 4:15; 2-Tim 4:1; Heb. 9:28). The expression is used metaphorically of the introduction of the gospel into any place (John 15:22; Eph. 2:17), the visible establishment of his kingdom in the world (M......

CONCUBINE
in the Bible denotes a female conjugally united to a man, but in a relation inferior to that of a wife. Among the early Jews, from various causes, the difference between a wife and a concubine was less marked than it would be amongst us. The concubine was a wife of secondary rank. There are various laws recorded providing for their protection (Exo 21:7; Deut. 21:10), and setting limits to the rela......

CORINTH
a Grecian city, on the isthmus which joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. It is about 48 miles west of Athens. The ancient city was destroyed by the Romans (B.C. 146), and that mentioned in the New Testament was quite a new city, having been rebuilt about a century afterwards and peopled by a colony of freedmen from Rome. It became under the Romans the seat of government for Southern ......

CORINTHIANS, FIRST EPISTLE TO THE
was written from Ephesus (1-Cor 16:8) about the time of the Passover in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there (Acts 19:10;20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57). The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had arisen among them, first from A......

CORINTHIANS, SECOND EPISTLE TO THE
Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the chu......

COVERING OF THE EYES
occurs only in Gen. 20:16. In the Revised Version the rendering is "it (i.e., Abimelech's present of 1,000 pieces of silver to Abraham) is for thee a covering of the eyes." This has been regarded as an implied advice to Sarah to conform to the custom of married women, and wear a complete veil, covering the eyes as well as the rest of the face. ......

CRISPING-PIN
(Isa. 3:22; R.V., "satchel"), some kind of female ornament, probably like the modern reticule. The Hebrew word _harit_ properly signifies pouch or casket or purse. It is rendered "bag" in 2-Kings 5:23. ......

CUMMIN
(Heb. kammon; i.e., a "condiment"), the fruit or seed of an umbelliferous plant, the Cuminum sativum, still extensively cultivated in the East. Its fruit is mentioned in Isa. 28:25, Isa. 28: 27. In the New Testament it is mentioned in Matt. 23:23, Matt. 23: where our Lord pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who were zealous in paying tithes of "mint and anise and cummin," while they o......

CURTAIN
(1.) Ten curtains, each twenty-eight cubits long and four wide, made of fine linen, also eleven made of goat's hair, covered the tabernacle (Exo 26:1;36:8). (2.) The sacred curtain, separating the holy of holies from the sanctuary, is designated by a different Hebrew word (peroketh). It is described as a "veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning work" (Exo 26:31; L......

CUTTING
the flesh in various ways was an idolatrous practice, a part of idol-worship (Deut. 14:1; 1-Kings 18:28). The Israelites were commanded not to imitate this practice (Lev. 19:28;21:5; Deut. 14:1). The tearing of the flesh from grief and anguish of spirit in mourning for the dead was regarded as a mark of affection (Jer. 16:6;41:5;48:37). Allusions are made in Revelation (13:16;17:5;19:20) to the ......

DALE, THE KING'S
the name of a valley, the alternative for "the valley of Shaveh" (q.v.), near the Dead Sea, where the king of Sodom met Abraham (Gen. 14:17). Some have identified it with the southern part of the valley of Jehoshaphat, where Absalom reared his family monument (2-Sam 18:18). ......

DARLING
Psa 22:20;35:17) means an "only one." ......

DAYSPRING
(Job 38:12; Luke 1:78), the dawn of the morning; daybreak. (Comp. Isa. 60:1, Isa. 60: 2; Mal. 4:2; Rev. 22:16.) ......

DESOLATION, ABOMINATION OF
(Matt. 24:15; Mark 13:14; comp. Luke 21:20), is interpreted of the eagles, the standards of the Roman army, which were an abomination to the Jews. These standards, rising over the site of the temple, were a sign that the holy place had fallen under the idolatrous Romans. The references are to Dan. 9:27. (See ABOMINATION.) ......

DINAH
judged; vindicated, daughter of Jacob by Leah, and sister of Simeon and Levi (Gen. 30:21). She was seduced by Shechem, the son of Hamor, the Hivite chief, when Jacob's camp was in the neighbourhood of Shechem. This led to the terrible revenge of Simeon and Levi in putting the Shechemites to death (Gen. 34). Jacob makes frequent reference to this deed of blood with abhorrence and regret (Gen. 34:30......

DINE
(Gen. 43:16). It was the custom in Egypt to dine at noon. But it is probable that the Egyptians took their principal meal in the evening, as was the general custom in the East (Luke 14:12). ......

DINHABAH
robbers' den, an Edomitish city, the capital of king Bela (Gen. 36:32). It is probably the modern Dibdiba, a little north-east of Petra. ......

DIVINATION
of false prophets (Deut. 18:10, Deut. 18: 14; Micah 3:6, Micah 3: 7, 11), of necromancers (1-Sam 28:8), of the Philistine priests and diviners (1-Sam 6:2), of Balaam (Josh. 13:22). Three kinds of divination are mentioned in Ezek. 21:21, Ezek. 21: by arrows, consulting with images (the teraphim), and by examining the entrails of animals sacrificed. The practice of this art seems to have been encour......

DRINK
The drinks of the Hebrews were water, wine, "strong drink," and vinegar. Their drinking vessels were the cup, goblet or "basin," the "cruse" or pitcher, and the saucer. To drink water by measure (Ezek. 4:11), and to buy water to drink (Lam. 5:4), denote great scarcity. To drink blood means to be satiated with slaughter. The Jews carefully strained their drinks through a sieve, through fear of ......

DRINK, STRONG
(Heb. shekar'), an intoxicating liquor (Judg. 13:4; Luke 1:15; Isa. 5:11; Micah 2:11) distilled from corn, honey, or dates. The effects of the use of strong drink are referred to in Psa 107:27; Isa. 24:20;49:26;51:17. Its use prohibited, Prov. 20:1. (See WINE.)......

DRINK-OFFERING
consisted of wine (Num. 15:5; Hos. 9:4) poured around the altar (Exo 30:9). Joined with meat-offerings (Num. 6:15, Num. 6: 17; 2-Kings 16:13; Joel 1:9, Joel 1: 13;2:14), presented daily (Exo 29:40), on the Sabbath (Num. 28:9), and on feast-days (28:14). One-fourth of an hin of wine was required for one lamb, one-third for a ram, and one-half for a bullock (Num. 15:5;28:7, 28: 14). "Drink offerings......

DWELLINGS
The materials used in buildings were commonly bricks, sometimes also stones (Lev. 14:40, Lev. 14: 42), which were held together by cement (Jer. 43:9) or bitumen (Gen. 11:3). The exterior was usually whitewashed (Lev. 14:41; Ezek. 13:10; Matt. 23:27). The beams were of sycamore (Isa. 9:10), or olive-wood, or cedar (1-Kings 7:2; Isa. 9:10). The form of Eastern dwellings differed in many respects f......

EARING
an Old English word (from the Latin aro, I plough), meaning "ploughing." It is used in the Authorized Version in Gen. 45:6; Exo 34:21; 1-Sam 8:12; Deut. 21:4; Isa. 30:24; but the Revised Version has rendered the original in these places by the ordinary word to plough or till. ......

EARRINGS
rings properly for the ear (Gen. 35:4; Num. 31:50; Ezek. 16:12). In Gen. 24:47 the word means a nose-jewel, and is so rendered in the Revised Version. In Isa. 3:20 the Authorized Version has "ear-rings," and the Revised Version "amulets," which more correctly represents the original word (lehashim), which means incantations; charms, thus remedies against enchantment, worn either suspended from the......

EAST WIND
the wind coming from the east (Job 27:21; Isa. 27:8, Isa. 27: etc.). Blight caused by this wind, "thin ears" (Gen. 41:6); the withered "gourd" (Jonah 4:8). It was the cause and also the emblem of evil (Ezek. 17:10;19:12; Hos. 13:15). In Palestine this wind blows from a burning desert, and hence is destitute of moisture necessary for vegetation. ......

EATING
The ancient Hebrews would not eat with the Egyptians (Gen. 43:32). In the time of our Lord they would not eat with Samaritans (John 4:9), and were astonished that he ate with publicans and sinners (Matt. 9:11). The Hebrews originally sat at table, but afterwards adopted the Persian and Chaldean practice of reclining (Luke 7:36). Their principal meal was at noon (Gen. 43:16; 1-Kings 20:16; Ruth 2:1......

EMBALMING
the process of preserving a body by means of aromatics (Gen. 50:2, Gen. 50: 3, 26). This art was practised by the Egyptians from the earliest times, and there brought to great perfection. This custom probably originated in the belief in the future reunion of the soul with the body. The process became more and more complicated, and to such perfection was it carried that bodies embalmed thousands of......

ENGINES
(1.) Heb. hishalon i.e., "invention" (as in Eccl. 7:29) contrivances indicating ingenuity. In 2-Chr 26:15 it refers to inventions for the purpose of propelling missiles from the walls of a town, such as stones (the Roman balista) and arrows (the catapulta). (2.) Heb. mechi kobollo, i.e., the beating of that which is in front a battering-ram (Ezek. 26:9), the use of which was common among the Egy......

ENTERTAIN
Entertainments, "feasts," were sometimes connected with a public festival (Deut. 16:11, Deut. 16: 14), and accompanied by offerings (1-Sam 9:13), in token of alliances (Gen. 26:30); sometimes in connection with domestic or social events, as at the weaning of children (Gen. 21:8), at weddings (Gen. 29:22; John 2:1), on birth-days (Matt. 14:6), at the time of sheep-shearing (2-Sam 13:23), and of vin......

EPHRAIM IN THE WILDERNESS
(John 11:54), a town to which our Lord retired with his disciples after he had raised Lazarus, and when the priests were conspiring against him. It lay in the wild, uncultivated hill-country to the north-east of Jerusalem, betwen the central towns and the Jordan valley.......

EVENING
the period following sunset with which the Jewish day began (Gen. 1:5; Mark 13:35). The Hebrews reckoned two evenings of each day, as appears from Exo 16:12:30:8;12:6 (marg.); Lev. 23:5 (marg. R.V., "between the two evenings"). The "first evening" was that period when the sun was verging towards setting, and the "second evening" the moment of actual sunset. The word "evenings" in Jer. 5:6 should b......

EVERLASTING
eternal, applied to God (Gen. 21:33; Deut. 33:27; Psa 41:13;90:2). We also read of the "everlasting hills" (Gen. 49:26); an "everlasting priesthood" (Exo 40:15; Num. 25:13). (See ETERNAL.) ......

EVIL-SPEAKING
is expressly forbidden (Titus 3:2; James 4:11), and severe punishments are denounced against it (1-Cor 5:11;6:10). It is spoken of also with abhorrence (Psa 15:3; Prov. 18:6, Prov. 18: 7), and is foreign to the whole Christian character and the example of Christ. ......

FAMINE
The first mentioned in Scripture was so grievous as to compel Abraham to go down to the land of Egypt (Gen. 26:1). Another is mentioned as having occurred in the days of Isaac, causing him to go to Gerar (Gen. 26:1, Gen. 26: 17). But the most remarkable of all was that which arose in Egypt in the days of Joseph, which lasted for seven years (Gen. 41-45). Famines were sent as an effect of God's a......

FARTHING
(1.) Matt. 10:29; Luke 12:6. Greek assarion, i.e., a small _as_, which was a Roman coin equal to a tenth of a denarius or drachma, nearly equal to a halfpenny of our money. (2.) Matt. 5:26; Mark 12:42 (Gr. kodrantes), the quadrant, the fourth of an _as_, equal to two lepta, mites. The lepton (mite) was the very smallest copper coin. ......

FATLING
(1.) A fatted animal for slaughter (2-Sam 6:13; Isa. 11:6; Ezek. 39:18. Comp. Matt. 22:4, Matt. 22: where the word used in the original, sitistos, means literally "corn-fed;" i.e., installed, fat). (2.) Psa 66:15 (Heb. meah, meaning "marrowy," "fat," a species of sheep). (3.) 1-Sam 15:9 (Heb. mishneh, meaning "the second," and hence probably "cattle of a second quality," or lambs of the second bir......

FINER
a worker in silver and gold (Prov. 25:4). In Judg. 17:4 the word (tsoreph) is rendered "founder," and in Isa. 41:7 "goldsmith." ......

FINING POT
a crucible, melting-pot (Prov. 17:3;27:21). ......

FIRKIN
Used only in John 2:6; the Attic amphora, equivalent to the Hebrew bath (q.v.), a measure for liquids containing about 8 7/8 gallons. ......

FISHING, THE ART OF
was prosecuted with great industry in the waters of Palestine. It was from the fishing-nets that Jesus called his disciples (Mark 1:16), and it was in a fishing-boat he rebuked the winds and the waves (Matt. 8:26) and delivered that remarkable series of prophecies recorded in Matt. 13. He twice miraculously fed multitudes with fish and bread (Matt. 14:19;15:36). It was in the mouth of a fish that ......

FLINT
abounds in all the plains and valleys of the wilderness of the forty years' wanderings. In Isa. 50:7 and Ezek. 3:9 the expressions, where the word is used, means that the "Messiah would be firm and resolute amidst all contempt and scorn which he would meet; that he had made up his mind to endure it, and would not shrink from any kind or degree of suffering which would be necessary to accomplish th......

FORGIVENESS OF SIN
one of the constituent parts of justification. In pardoning sin, God absolves the sinner from the condemnation of the law, and that on account of the work of Christ, i.e., he removes the guilt of sin, or the sinner's actual liability to eternal wrath on account of it. All sins are forgiven freely (Acts 5:31;13:38; 1-John 1:6). The sinner is by this act of grace for ever freed from the guilt and pe......

FOUNTAIN
(Heb. 'ain; i.e., "eye" of the water desert), a natural source of living water. Palestine was a "land of brooks of water, of fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and hills" (Deut. 8:7;11:11). These fountains, bright sparkling "eyes" of the desert, are remarkable for their abundance and their beauty, especially on the west of Jordan. All the perennial rivers and streams of the country......

FOUNTAIN OF THE VIRGIN
the perennial source from which the Pool of Siloam (q.v.) is supplied, the waters flowing in a copious stream to it through a tunnel cut through the rock, the actual length of which is 1,750 feet. The spring rises in a cave 20 feet by 7. A serpentine tunnel 67 feet long runs from it toward the left, off which the tunnel to the Pool of Siloam branches. It is the only unfailing fountain in Jerusalem......

FRANKINCENSE
(Heb. lebonah; Gr. libanos, i.e., "white"), an odorous resin imported from Arabia (Isa. 60:6; Jer. 6:20), yet also growing in Palestine (4:14). It was one of the ingredients in the perfume of the sanctuary (Exo 30:34), and was used as an accompaniment of the meat-offering (Lev. 2:1, Lev. 2: 16;6:15;24:7). When burnt it emitted a fragrant odour, and hence the incense became a symbol of the Divine n......

FREE-WILL OFFERING
a spontaneous gift (Exo 35:29), a voluntary sacrifice (Lev. 22:23; Ezra 3:5), as opposed to one in consequence of a vow, or in expiation of some offence. ......

FRYING-PAN
(Heb. marhesheth, a "boiler"), a pot for boiling meat (Lev. 2:7;7:9). ......

GIBEAH OF PHINEHAS
(Josh. 15:57, Josh. 15: R.V. marg.), a city on Mount Ephraim which had been given to Phinehas (24:33 "hill," A.V.; R.V. marg. and Heb., "Gibeah."). Here Eleazar the son of Aaron was buried. It has been identified with the modern Khurbet Jibia, 5 miles north of Guphna towards Shechem. ......

GIN
a trap. (1.) Psa 140:5, Psa 140:141:9, 141: Amos 3:5, Amos 3: the Hebrew word used, _mokesh_, means a noose or "snare," as it is elsewhere rendered (Psa 18:5; Prov. 13:14, Prov. 13: etc.). (2.) Job 18:9, Job 18: Isa. 8:14, Isa. 8: Heb. pah, a plate or thin layer; and hence a net, a snare, trap, especially of a fowler (Psa 69:22, Psa 69: "Let their table before them become a net;" Amos 3:5, Amos ......

GODLINESS
the whole of practical piety (1-Tim 4:8; 2-Pet 1:6). "It supposes knowledge, veneration, affection, dependence, submission, gratitude, and obedience." In 1-Tim 3:16 it denotes the substance of revealed religion. ......

GRAIN
used, in Amos 9:9, Amos 9: of a small stone or kernel; in Matt. 13:31, Matt. 13: of an individual seed of mustard; in John 12:24, John 12: 1-Cor 15:37, 1-Cor 15: of wheat. The Hebrews sowed only wheat, barley, and spelt; rye and oats are not mentioned in Scripture. ......

GRAVING
(1.) Heb. hatsabh. Job 19:24, Job 19: rendered "graven," but generally means hewn stone or wood, in quarry or forest. (2.) Heb. harush. Jer. 17:1, Jer. 17: rendered "graven," and indicates generally artistic work in metal, wood, and stone, effected by fine instruments. (3.) Heb. haqaq. Ezek. 4:1, Ezek. 4: engraving a plan or map, rendered "pourtray;" Job 19:23, Job 19: "written." (4.) Heb. p......

GRIND
(Exo 32:20; Deut. 9:21; Judg. 16:21), to crush small (Heb. tahan); to oppress the poor (Isa. 3:5). The hand-mill was early used by the Hebrews (Num. 11:8). It consisted of two stones, the upper (Deut. 24:6; 2-Sam 11:21) being movable and slightly concave, the lower being stationary. The grinders mentioned Eccl. 12:3 are the teeth. (See MILL.)......

HANDWRITING
(Col. 2:14). The "blotting out the handwriting" is the removal by the grace of the gospel of the condemnation of the law which we had broken.......

HANGING
(as a punishment), a mark of infamy inflicted on the dead bodies of criminals (Deut. 21:23) rather than our modern mode of punishment. Criminals were first strangled and then hanged (Nu. 25:4; Deut. 21:22). (See 2-Sam 21:6 for the practice of the Gibeonites.) Hanging (as a curtain). (1.) Heb. masak, (a) before the entrance to the court of the tabernacle (Exo 35:17); (b) before the door of the ta......

HEAVE OFFERING
Heb. terumah, (Exo 29:27) means simply an offering, a present, including all the offerings made by the Israelites as a present. This Hebrew word is frequently employed. Some of the rabbis attach to the word the meaning of elevation, and refer it to the heave offering, which consisted in presenting the offering by a motion up and down, distinguished from the wave offering, which consisted in a repe......

HIND
Heb. 'ayalah (2-Sam 22:34; Psa 18:33, Psa 18: etc.) and 'ayeleth (Ps. 22, title), the female of the hart or stag. It is referred to as an emblem of activity (Gen. 49:21), gentleness (Prov. 5:19), feminine modesty (2:7;3:5), earnest longing (Psa 42:1), timidity (Psa 29:9). In the title of Ps. 22, the word probably refers to some tune bearing that name.......

HINGE
(Heb. tsir), that on which a door revolves. "Doors in the East turn rather on pivots than on what we term hinges. In Syria, and especially in the Hauran, there are many ancient doors, consisting of stone slabs with pivots carved out of the same piece inserted in sockets above and below, and fixed during the building of the house" (Prov. 26:14).......

HINNOM
a deep, narrow ravine separating Mount Zion from the so-called "Hill of Evil Counsel." It took its name from "some ancient hero, the son of Hinnom." It is first mentioned in Josh. 15:8. It had been the place where the idolatrous Jews burned their children alive to Moloch and Baal. A particular part of the valley was called Tophet, or the "fire-stove," where the children were burned. After the Exil......

HIRELING
a labourer employed on hire for a limited time (Job 7:1;14:6; Mark 1:20). His wages were paid as soon as his work was over (Lev. 19:13). In the time of our Lord a day's wage was a "penny" (q.v.) i.e., a Roman denarius (Matt. 20:1).......

HOLINESS
in the highest sense belongs to God (Isa. 6:3; Rev. 15:4), and to Christians as consecrated to God's service, and in so far as they are conformed in all things to the will of God (Rom. 6:19, Rom. 6: 22; Eph. 1:4; Titus 1:8; 1-Pet 1:15). Personal holiness is a work of gradual development. It is carried on under many hindrances, hence the frequent admonitions to watchfulness, prayer, and perseveranc......

HUNTING
mentioned first in Gen. 10:9 in connection with Nimrod. Esau was "a cunning hunter" (Gen. 25:27). Hunting was practised by the Hebrews after their settlement in the "Land of Promise" (Lev. 17:15; Prov. 12:27). The lion and other ravenous beasts were found in Palestine (1-Sam 17:34; 2-Sam 23:20; 1-Kings 13:24; Ezek. 19:3), and it must have been necessary to hunt and destroy them. Various snares and......

INCARNATION
that act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1-Cor 2:8; Heb. 2:11; 1-Tim 3:16; Gal. 4:4, Gal. 4: etc.). The union is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; t......

INCENSE
a fragrant composition prepared by the "art of the apothecary." It consisted of four ingredients "beaten small" (Exo 30:34). That which was not thus prepared was called "strange incense" (30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place, and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest in the holy of holies (30:......

INDIA
occurs only in Esther 1:1 8:9, 8: where the extent of the dominion of the Persian king is described. The country so designated here is not the peninsula of Hindustan, but the country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab. The people and the products of India were well known to the Jews, who seem to have carried on an active trade with that country (Ezek. 27:15, Ezek. 27: 24). ......

INKHORN
The Hebrew word so rendered means simply a round vessel or cup for containing ink, which was generally worn by writers in the girdle (Ezek. 9:2, Ezek. 9: 3,11). The word "inkhorn" was used by the translators, because in former times in this country horns were used for containing ink. ......

INN
in the modern sense, unknown in the East. The khans or caravanserais, which correspond to the European inn, are not alluded to in the Old Testament. The "inn" mentioned in Exo 4:24 was just the halting-place of the caravan. In later times khans were erected for the accommodation of travellers. In Luke 2:7 the word there so rendered denotes a place for loosing the beasts of their burdens. It is ren......

INSPIRATION
that extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings infallible. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God" (R.V., "Every scripture inspired of God"), 2-Tim 3:16. This is true of all the "sacred writings," not in the sense of their being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as "theopneustic," i.e., "breathed ......

INTERCESSION OF CHRIST
Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual intercession for us. When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34; John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence of God for us (Heb. 9:12, Heb. 9:24). His advocacy with ......

INTERCESSION OF THE SPIRIT
(Rom. 8:26, Rom. 8: 27; John 14:26). "Christ is a royal Priest (Zech. 6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven, a......

ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF
(B.C. 975-B.C. 722). Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah's prophecy (1-Kings 11:31) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2, 12:3). Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten ......

JABIN
discerner; the wise. (1.) A king of Hazor, at the time of the entrance of Israel into Canaan (Josh. 11:1), whose overthrow and that of the northern chief with whom he had entered into a confederacy against Joshua was the crowning act in the conquest of the land (11:21; 14:6). This great battle, fought at Lake Merom, was the last of Joshua's battles of which we have any record. Here for the first t......

JACHIN
firm. (1.) The fourth son of Simeon (Gen. 46:10), called also Jarib (1-Chr 4:24). (2.) The head of one of the courses (the twenty-first) of priests (1-Chr 24:17). (3.) One of the priests who returned from the Exile (1-Chr 9:10). ......

JACHIN AND BOAZ
the names of two brazen columns set up in Solomon's temple (1-Kings 7:15). Each was eighteen cubits high and twelve in circumference (Jer. 52:21, Jer. 52: 23; 1-Kings 7:17). They had doubtless a symbolical import. ......

JACINTH
properly a flower of a reddish blue or deep purple (hyacinth), and hence a precious stone of that colour (Rev. 21:20). It has been supposed to designate the same stone as the ligure (Heb. leshem) mentioned in Exo 28:19 as the first stone of the third row in the high priest's breast-plate. In Rev. 9:17 the word is simply descriptive of colour. ......

JAVELIN
(1.) Heb. hanith, a lance, from its flexibility (1-Sam 18:10, 1-Sam 18: 11;19:9, 19: 10;20:33). (2.) Heb. romah, a lance for heavy-armed troops, so called from its piercing (Num. 25:7). (See ARMS.) ......

JEALOUSY OFFERING
the name of the offering the husband was to bring when he charged his wife with adultery (Num. 5:11). ......

JEHOIACHIN
succeeded his father Jehoiakin (B.C. 599) when only eight years of age, and reigned for one hundred days (2-Chr 36:9). He is also called Jeconiah (Jer. 24:1;27:20, 27: etc.), and Coniah (22:24;37:1). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah = Zedekiah (q.v.). He was the last direct heir to the Jewish crown. He was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, along with the flower of the nobility,......

JEZREEL, FOUNTAIN OF
where Saul encamped before the battle of Gilboa (1-Sam 29:1). In the valley under Zerin there are two considerable springs, one of which, perhaps that here referred to, "flows from under a sort of cavern in the wall of conglomerate rock which here forms the base of Gilboa. The water is excellent; and issuing from crevices in the rocks, it spreads out at once into a fine limpid pool forty or fifty ......

JUDAH, KINGDOM OF
When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Josh. 18:28), which was called the kingdom of Judah. It was very small in extent, being only about the size of the Scottish county of Perth. For the first sixty years the ......

JUDGMENT, THE FINAL
the sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, Rom. 14: 11; 2-Cor 5:10; 2-Thess 1:7). The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, John 5: 27; Rev. 1:7). "It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorio......

KINAH
an elegy, a city in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:22). It was probably not far from the Dead Sea, in the Wady Fikreh.......

KINE
(Heb. sing. parah, i.e., "fruitful"), mentioned in Pharaoh's dream (Gen. 41:18). Here the word denotes "buffaloes," which fed on the reeds and sedge by the river's brink.......

KING
is in Scripture very generally used to denote one invested with authority, whether extensive or limited. There were thirty-one kings in Canaan (Josh. 12:9, Josh. 12: 24), whom Joshua subdued. Adonibezek subdued seventy kings (Judg. 1:7). In the New Testament the Roman emperor is spoken of as a king (1-Pet 2:13, 1-Pet 2: 17); and Herod Antipas, who was only a tetrarch, is also called a king (Matt. ......

KING'S DALE
mentioned only in Gen. 14:17; 2-Sam 18:18, 2-Sam 18: the name given to "the valley of Shaveh," where the king of Sodom met Abram.......

KINGDOM OF GOD
(Matt. 6:33; Mark 1:14, Mark 1: 15; Luke 4:43) = "kingdom of Christ" (Matt. 13:41;20:21) = "kingdom of Christ and of God" (Eph. 5:5) = "kingdom of David" (Mark 11:10) = "the kingdom" (Matt. 8:12;13:19) = "kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 3:2;4:17;13:41), all denote the same thing under different aspects, viz.: (1) Christ's mediatorial authority, or his rule on the earth; (2) the blessings and advantages ......

KINGLY OFFICE OF CHRIST
one of the three special relations in which Christ stands to his people. Christ's office as mediator comprehends three different functions, viz., those of a prophet, priest, and king. These are not three distinct offices, but three functions of the one office of mediator. Christ is King and sovereign Head over his Church and over all things to his Church (Eph. 1:22;4:15; Col. 1:18;2:19). He exec......

KINGS, THE BOOKS OF
The two books of Kings formed originally but one book in the Hebrew Scriptures. The present division into two books was first made by the LXX., which now, with the Vulgate, numbers them as the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel being the first and second books of Kings. They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon till the subjugation of ......

KINSMAN
Heb. goel, from root meaning to redeem. The goel among the Hebrews was the nearest male blood relation alive. Certain important obligations devolved upon him toward his next of kin. (1.) If any one from poverty was unable to redeem his inheritance, it was the duty of the kinsman to redeem it (Lev. 25:25, Lev. 25:28; Ruth 3:9, Ruth 3: 12). He was also required to redeem his relation who had sold hi......

KNEADING-TROUGH
the vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened, was left to swell or ferment (Exo 8:3;12:34; Deut. 28:5, Deut. 28: 7). The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in haste. ......

LAPPING
of water like a dog, i.e., by putting the hand filled with water to the mouth. The dog drinks by shaping the end of his long thin tongue into the form of a spoon, thus rapidly lifting up water, which he throws into his mouth. The three hundred men that went with Gideon thus employed their hands and lapped the water out of their hands (Judg. 7:7). ......

LAPWING
the name of an unclean bird, mentioned only in Lev. 11:19 and Deut. 14:18. The Hebrew name of this bird, _dukiphath_, has been generally regarded as denoting the hoope (Upupa epops), an onomatopoetic word derived from the cry of the bird, which resembles the word "hoop;" a bird not uncommon in Palestine. Others identify it with the English peewit. ......

LATIN
the vernacular language of the ancient Romans (John 19:20). ......

LEASING
(Psa 4:2;5:6) an Old English word meaning lies, or lying, as the Hebrew word _kazabh_ is generally rendered. ......

LIBERTINE
found only Acts 6:9, Acts 6: one who once had been a slave, but who had been set at liberty, or the child of such a person. In this case the name probably denotes those descendants of Jews who had been carried captives to Rome as prisoners of war by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, and had afterwards been liberated. In A.D. 19 these manumitted Jews were banished from Rome. Many ......

LIGHTNING
frequently referred to by the sacred writers (Nah. 1:3). Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God's wrath (2-Sam 22:15; Job 28:26;37:4; Psa 135:7;144:6; Zech. 9:14). They represent God's glorious and awful majesty (Rev. 4:5), or some judgment of God on the world (20:9). ......

LINEN
(1.) Heb., pishet, pishtah, denotes "flax," of which linen is made (Isa. 19:9); wrought flax, i.e., "linen cloth", Lev. 13:47, Lev. 13: 48, 52, 59; Deut. 22:11. Flax was early cultivated in Egypt (Exo 9:31), and also in Palestine (Josh. 2:6; Hos. 2:9). Various articles were made of it: garments (2-Sam 6:14), girdles (Jer. 13:1), ropes and thread (Ezek. 40:3), napkins (Luke 24:12; John 20:7), tur......

LINEN-YARN
(See YARN.) ......

LINES
were used for measuring and dividing land; and hence the word came to denote a portion or inheritance measured out; a possession (Psa 16:6). ......

LINTEL
(1.) Heb. mashkoph, a projecting cover (Exo 12:22, Exo 12: 23; ver. 7, "upper door post," but R.V. "lintel"); the head-piece of a door, which the Israelites were commanded to mark with the blood of the paschal lamb. (2.) Heb. kaphtar. Amos 9:1; Zeph. 2:14 (R.V. correctly "chapiters," as in A.V. marg.). ......

LIVING CREATURES
as represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev. 15:7); they join the elders in the "new song" (5:8, 5: 9); they warn of danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3), and deliver the commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, Ezek. 10: 7); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who ......

LUKE, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best sources of information within his reach, and to have written an orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1). The authors of the first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Each ......

MAIN-SAIL
(Gr. artemon), answering to the modern "mizzen-sail," as some suppose. Others understand the "jib," near the prow, or the "fore-sail," as likely to be most useful in bringing a ship's head to the wind in the circumstances described (Acts 27:40). ......

MAN OF SIN
a designation of Antichrist given in 2-Thess 2:3, 2-Thess 2: usually regarded as descriptive of the Papal power; but "in whomsoever these distinctive features are found, whoever wields temporal and spiritual power in any degree similar to that in which the man of sin is here described as wielding it, he, be he pope or potentate, is beyond all doubt a distinct type of Antichrist." ......

MARK, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
It is the current and apparently well-founded tradition that Mark derived his information mainly from the discourses of Peter. In his mother's house he would have abundant opportunities of obtaining information from the other apostles and their coadjutors, yet he was "the disciple and interpreter of Peter" specially. As to the time when it was written, the Gospel furnishes us with no definite in......

MATTHEW, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
The author of this book was beyond a doubt the Matthew, an apostle of our Lord, whose name it bears. He wrote the Gospel of Christ according to his own plans and aims, and from his own point of view, as did also the other "evangelists." As to the time of its composition, there is little in the Gospel itself to indicate. It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem (Matt. 24), and......

MEAT-OFFERING
(Heb. minhah), originally a gift of any kind. This Hebrew word came latterly to denote an "unbloody" sacrifice, as opposed to a "bloody" sacrifice. A "drink-offering" generally accompanied it. The law regarding it is given in Lev. 2, 6:14. It was a recognition of the sovereignty of God and of his bounty in giving all earthly blessings (1-Chr 29:10; Deut. 26:5). It was an offering which took for gr......

MIAMIN
=Mijamin, from the right hand. (1.) The head of one of the divisions of the priests (1-Chr 24:9). (2.) A chief priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:5), called Mijamin (10:7) and Miniamin (12:17). ......

MIDDIN
measures, one of the six cities "in the wilderness," on the west of the Dead Sea, mentioned along with En-gedi (Josh. 15:61). ......

MINCING
(Heb. taphoph, Isa. 3:16), taking affectedly short and quick steps. Luther renders the word by "wag" or "waggle," thus representing "the affected gait of coquettish females." ......

MINE
The process of mining is described in Job 28:1. Moses speaks of the mineral wealth of Palestine (Deut. 8:9). Job 28:4 is rightly thus rendered in the Revised Version, "He breaketh open a shaft away from where men sojourn; they are forgotten of the foot [that passeth by]; they hang afar from men, they swing to and fro." These words illustrate ancient mining operations. ......

MINISTER
one who serves, as distinguished from the master. (1.) Heb. meshereth, applied to an attendant on one of superior rank, as to Joshua, the servant of Moses (Exo 33:11), and to the servant of Elisha (2-Kings 4:43). This name is also given to attendants at court (2-Chr 22:8), and to the priests and Levites (Jer. 33:21; Ezek. 44:11). (2.) Heb. pelah (Ezra 7:24), a "minister" of religion. Here used o......

MINNI
only in Jer. 51:27, Jer. 51: as the name of a province in Armenia, which was at this time under the Median kings. Armenia is regarded by some as = Har-minni i.e., the mountainous country of Minni. (See ARMENIA.) ......

MINNITH
distribution, an Ammonitish town (Judg. 11:33) from which wheat was exported to Tyre (Ezek. 27:17). It was probably somewhere in the Mishor or table-land on the east of Jordan. There is a gentle valley running for about 4 miles east of Dhiban called Kurm Dhiban, "the vineyards of Dibon." Tristram supposes that this may be the "vineyards" mentioned in Judg. (l.c.). ......

MINSTREL
(Matt. 9:23), a flute-player. Such music was a usual accompaniment of funerals. In 2-Kings 3:15 it denotes a player on a stringed instrument. ......

MINT
(Gr. heduosmon, i.e., "having a sweet smell"), one of the garden herbs of which the Pharisees paid tithes (Matt. 23:23; Luke 11:42). It belongs to the labiate family of plants. The species most common in Syria is the Mentha sylvestris, the wild mint, which grows much larger than the garden mint (M. sativa). It was much used in domestic economy as a condiment, and also as a medicine. The paying of ......

MOWING
(Heb. gez), rendered in Psa 72:6 "mown grass." The expression "king's mowings" (Amos 7:1) refers to some royal right of early pasturage, the first crop of grass for the cavalry (comp. 1-Kings 18:5). ......

MURMURING
of the Hebrews in the wilderness, called forth the displeasure of God, which was only averted by the earnest prayer of Moses (Num. 11:33, Num. 11: 34; 12;14:27, 14: 30, 31;16:3;21:4; Psa 106:25). Forbidden by Paul (1-Cor 10:10). ......

MURRAIN
Heb. deber, "destruction," a "great mortality", the fifth plague that fell upon the Egyptians (Exo 9:3). It was some distemper that resulted in the sudden and widespread death of the cattle. It was confined to the cattle of the Egyptians that were in the field (9:6). ......

MUSIC, INSTRUMENTAL
Among instruments of music used by the Hebrews a principal place is given to stringed instruments. These were, (1.) The kinnor, the "harp." (2.) The nebel, "a skin bottle," rendered "psaltery." (3.) The sabbeka, or "sackbut," a lute or lyre. (4.) The gittith, occurring in the title of Ps. 8; 8; 84. (5.) Minnim (Psa 150:4), rendered "stringed instruments;" in Psa 45:8, Psa 45: in the form _minni_, ......

NAIN
(from Heb. nain, "green pastures," "lovely"), the name of a town near the gate of which Jesus raised to life a widow's son (Luke 7:11). It is identified with the village called Nein, standing on the north-western slope of Jebel ed-Duhy (=the "hill Moreh" = "Little hermon"), about 4 miles from Tabor and 25 southwest of Capernaum. At the foot of the slope on which it stands is the great plain of Esd......

NAPKIN
(Gr. soudarion, John 11:44;20:7; Lat. sudarium, a "sweat-cloth"), a cloth for wiping the sweat from the face. But the word is used of a wrapper to fold money in (Luke 19:20), and as an article of dress, a "handkerchief" worn on the head (Acts 19:12).......

NEGINAH
in the title of Ps. 61, denotes the music of stringed instruments (1-Sam 16:16; Isa. 38:20). It is the singular form of Neginoth.......

NEGINOTH
i.e., songs with instrumental accompaniment, found in the titles of Ps. 4; 6; 54; 55; 67; 76; rendered "stringed instruments," Hab. 3:19, Hab. 3: A.V. It denotes all kinds of stringed instruments, as the "harp," "psaltery," "viol," etc. The "chief musician on Neginoth" is the leader of that part of the temple choir which played on stringed instruments.......

NETHINIM
the name given to the hereditary temple servants in all the post-Exilian books of Scripture. The word means given, i.e., "those set apart", viz., to the menial work of the sanctuary for the Levites. The name occurs seventeen times, and in each case in the Authorized Version incorrectly terminates in "s", "Nethinims;" in the Revised Version, correctly without the "s" (Ezra 2:70;7:7, 7: 24;8:20, 8: ......

NINEVEH
First mentioned in Gen. 10:11, Gen. 10: which is rendered in the Revised Version, "He [i.e., Nimrod] went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh." It is not again noticed till the days of Jonah, when it is described (Jonah 3:3;4:11) as a great and populous city, the flourishing capital of the Assyrian empire (2-Kings 19:36; Isa. 37:37). The book of the prophet Nahum is almost exclusively taken up ......

NUMBERING OF THE PEOPLE
Besides the numbering of the tribes mentioned in the history of the wanderings in the wilderness, we have an account of a general census of the whole nation from Dan to Beersheba, which David gave directions to Joab to make (1-Chr 21:1). Joab very reluctantly began to carry out the king's command. This act of David in ordering a numbering of the people arose from pride and a self-glorifying spir......

OFFERING
an oblation, dedicated to God. Thus Cain consecrated to God of the first-fruits of the earth, and Abel of the firstlings of the flock (Gen. 4:3, Gen. 4: 4). Under the Levitical system different kinds of offerings are specified, and laws laid down as to their presentation. These are described under their distinctive names. ......

OINTMENT
Various fragrant preparations, also compounds for medical purposes, are so called (Exo 30:25; Psa 133:2; Isa. 1:6; Amos 6:6; John 12:3; Rev. 18:13). ......

PAINT
Jezebel "painted her face" (2-Kings 9:30); and the practice of painting the face and the eyes seems to have been common (Jer. 4:30; Ezek. 23:40). An allusion to this practice is found in the name of Job's daughter (2:14) Kerenhappuch (q.v.). Paintings in the modern sense of the word were unknown to the ancient Jews.......

PALESTINE
originally denoted only the sea-coast of the land of Canaan inhabited by the Philistines (Exo 15:14; Isa. 14:29, Isa. 14: 31; Joel 3:4), and in this sense exclusively the Hebrew name Pelesheth (rendered "Philistia" in Psa 60:8;83:7;87:4;108:9) occurs in the Old Testament. Not till a late period in Jewish history was this name used to denote "the land of the Hebrews" in general (Gen. 40:15). It i......

PEACE OFFERINGS
(Heb. shelamim), detailed regulations regarding given in Lev. 3;7:11, 7: 29-34. They were of three kinds, (1) eucharistic or thanksgiving offerings, expressive of gratitude for blessings received; (2) in fulfilment of a vow, but expressive also of thanks for benefits recieved; and (3) free-will offerings, something spontaneously devoted to God.......

PERSEVERANCE OF THE SAINTS
their certain continuance in a state of grace. Once justified and regenerated, the believer can neither totally nor finally fall away from grace, but will certainly persevere therein and attain everlasting life. This doctrine is clearly taught in these passages, John 10:28, John 10: 29; Rom. 11:29; Phil. 1:6; 1-Pet 1:5. It, moreover, follows from a consideration of (1) the immutability of the di......

PHILISTINES
(Gen. 10:14, Gen. 10: R.V.; but in A.V., "Philistim"), a tribe allied to the Phoenicians. They were a branch of the primitive race which spread over the whole district of the Lebanon and the valley of the Jordan, and Crete and other Mediterranean islands. Some suppose them to have been a branch of the Rephaim (2-Sam 21:16). In the time of Abraham they inhabited the south-west of Judea, Abimelech o......

PHINEHAS
mouth of brass, or from old Egypt, the negro. (1.) Son of Eleazar, the high priest (Exo 6:25). While yet a youth he distinguished himself at Shittim by his zeal against the immorality into which the Moabites had tempted the people (Num. 25:1), and thus "stayed the plague" that had broken out among the people, and by which twenty-four thousand of them perished. For his faithfulness on that occasion......

PINE TREE
Heb. tidhar, mentioned along with the fir-tree in Isa. 41:19;60:13. This is probably the cypress; or it may be the stone-pine, which is common on the northern slopes of Lebanon. Some suppose that the elm, others that the oak, or holm, or ilex, is meant by the Hebrew word. In Neh. 8:15 the Revised Version has "wild olive" instead of "pine." (See FIR.) ......

PINNACLE
a little wing, (Matt. 4:5; Luke 4:9). On the southern side of the temple court was a range of porches or cloisters forming three arcades. At the south-eastern corner the roof of this cloister was some 300 feet above the Kidron valley. The pinnacle, some parapet or wing-like projection, was above this roof, and hence at a great height, probably 350 feet or more above the valley. ......

PLAIN
(1.) Heb. 'abel (Judg. 11:33), a "grassy plain" or "meadow." Instead of "plains of the vineyards," as in the Authorized Version, the Revised Version has "Abel-cheramim" (q.v.), comp. Judg. 11:22; 2-Chr 16:4. (2.) Heb. 'elon (Gen. 12:6;13:18;14:13;18:1; Deut. 11:30; Judg. 9:6), more correctly "oak," as in the Revised Version; margin, "terebinth." (3.) Heb. bik'ah (Gen. 11:2; Neh. 6:2; Ezek. 3:2......

PLAIN OF MAMRE
(Gen. 13:18;14:13; R.V., "oaks of Mamre;" marg., "terebinths"). (See MAMRE; TEIL-TREE.) ......

PREDESTINATION
This word is properly used only with reference to God's plan or purpose of salvation. The Greek word rendered "predestinate" is found only in these six passages, Acts 4:28; Rom. 8:29, Rom. 8: 30; 1-Cor 2:7; Eph. 1:5, Eph. 1: 11; and in all of them it has the same meaning. They teach that the eternal, sovereign, immutable, and unconditional decree or "determinate purpose" of God governs all events.......

PRINCE
the title generally applied to the chief men of the state. The "princes of the provinces" (1-Kings 20:14) were the governors or lord-lieutenants of the provinces. So also the "princes" mentioned in Dan. 6:1, Dan. 6: 3, 4, 6, 7 were the officers who administered the affairs of the provinces; the "satraps" (as rendered in R.V.). These are also called "lieutenants" (Esther 3:12;8:9; R.V., "satraps").......

RAIN
There are three Hebrew words used to denote the rains of different seasons, (1.) Yoreh (Hos. 6:3), or moreh (Joel 2:23), denoting the former or the early rain. (2.) Melqosh, the "latter rain" (Prov. 16:15). (3.) Geshem, the winter rain, "the rains." The heavy winter rain is mentioned in Gen. 7:12; Ezra 10:9; 2:11. The "early" or "former" rains commence in autumn in the latter part of October or be......

RAINBOW
caused by the reflection and refraction of the rays of the sun shining on falling rain. It was appointed as a witness of the divine faithfulness (Gen. 9:12). It existed indeed before, but it was then constituted as a sign of the covenant. Others, however (as Delitzsch, Commentary on Pentateuch), think that it "appeared then for the first time in the vault and clouds of heaven." It is argued by tho......

RAISINS
dried grapes; mentioned 1-Sam 25:18;30:12; 2-Sam 16:1; 1-Chr 12:40.......

REFINER
The process of refining metals is referred to by way of illustrations in Isa. 1:25; Jer. 6:29; Zech. 13:9; Mal. 3:2, Mal. 3: 3.......

REINS
the kidneys, the supposed seat of the desires and affections; used metaphorically for "heart." The "reins" and the "heart" are often mentioned together, as denoting the whole moral constitution of man (Psa 7:9;16:7;26:2;139:13; Jer. 17:10, Jer. 17: etc.).......

REZIN
firm; a prince, a king of Syria, who joined Pekah (q.v.) in an invasion of the kingdom of Judah (2-Kings 15:37;16:5; Isa. 7:1). Ahaz induced Tiglath-pileser III. to attack Damascus, and this caused Rezin to withdraw for the purpose of defending his own kingdom. Damascus was taken, and Rezin was slain in battle by the Assyrian king, and his people carried into captivity, B.C. 732 (2-Kings 16:9). ......

RING
Used as an ornament to decorate the fingers, arms, wrists, and also the ears and the nose. Rings were used as a signet (Gen. 38:18). They were given as a token of investment with authority (Gen. 41:42; Esther 3:8;8:2), and of favour and dignity (Luke 15:22). They were generally worn by rich men (James 2:2). They are mentioned by Isiah (3:21) among the adornments of Hebrew women. ......

ROSIN
found only in Authorized Version, margin, Ezek. 27:17, Ezek. 27: Heb. tsori, uniformly rendered elsewhere "balm" (q.v.), as here in the text. The Vulgate has resinam, rendered "rosin" in the Douay Version. As used, however, by Jerome, the Lat. resina denotes some odoriferous gum or oil. ......

SAINT
one separated from the world and consecrated to God; one holy by profession and by covenant; a believer in Christ (Psa 16:3; Rom. 1:7;8:27; Phil. 1:1; Heb. 6:10). The "saints" spoken of in Jude 1:14 are probably not the disciples of Christ, but the "innumerable company of angels" (Heb. 12:22; Psa 68:17), with reference to Deut. 33:2. This word is also used of the holy dead (Matt. 27:52; Rev. 1......

SARDINE STONE
(Rev. 4:3, Rev. 4: R.V., "sardius;" Heb. 'odhem; LXX., Gr. sardion, from a root meaning "red"), a gem of a blood-red colour. It was called "sardius" because obtained from Sardis in Lydia. It is enumerated among the precious stones in the high priest's breastplate (Exo 28:17;39:10). It is our red carnelian. ......

SCOURGING
(1-Kings 12:11). Variously administered. In no case were the stripes to exceed forty (Deut. 25:3; comp. 2-Cor 11:24). In the time of the apostles, in consequence of the passing of what was called the Porcian law, no Roman citizen could be scourged in any case (Acts 16:22). (See BASTINADO.) In the scourging of our Lord (Matt. 27:26; Mark 15:15) the words of prophecy (Isa. 53:5) were fulfilled. ......

SEETHING POT
a vessel for boiling provisions in (Job 41:20; Jer. 1:13). ......

SEPTUAGINT
See VERSIONS. ......

SHAALABBIN
or Shaal'bim, a place of foxes, a town of the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:42; Judg. 1:35). It was one of the chief towns from which Solomon drew his supplies (1-Kings 4:9). It is probably the modern village of Selbit, 3 miles north of Ajalon. ......

SHEARING-HOUSE
(2-Kings 10:12, 2-Kings 10: 14; marg., "house of shepherds binding sheep." R.V., "the shearing-house of the shepherds;" marg., "house of gathering"), some place between Samaria and Jezreel, where Jehu slew "two and forty men" of the royal family of Judah. The Heb. word Beth-eked so rendered is supposed by some to be a proper name.......

SHECHINAH
a Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them "in a pillar of a cloud." This was the symbol of his presence with his people. For references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Exo ......

SHEMINITH
eight; octave, a musical term, supposed to denote the lowest note sung by men's voices (1-Chr 15:21; Ps. 6; 12, title).......

SHINAB
cooling, the king of Adamah, in the valley of Siddim, who with his confederates was conquered by Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2).......

SHINAR, THE LAND OF
LXX. and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel was built (Gen. 11:1), and the city of Babylon. The name occurs later in Jewish history (Isa. 11:11; Zech. 5:11). Shinar was apparently first peopled by Turanian tribes, who tilled the land and made bricks and built citie......

SHRINES, SILVER
little models and medallions of the temple and image of Diana of Ephesus (Acts 19:24). The manufacture of these was a very large and profitable business. ......

SILVERLING
(Isa. 7:23). Literally the words are "at a thousand of silver", i.e., "pieces of silver," or shekels. ......

SIN
is "any want of conformity unto or transgression of the law of God" (1-John 3:4; Rom. 4:15), in the inward state and habit of the soul, as well as in the outward conduct of the life, whether by omission or commission (Rom. 6:12;7:5). It is "not a mere violation of the law of our constitution, nor of the system of things, but an offence against a personal lawgiver and moral governor who vindicates ......

SIN, WILDERNESS OF
lying between Elim and sinai (Exo 16:1; comp. Num. 33:11, Num. 33: 12). This was probably the narrow plain of el-Markha, which stretches along the eastern shore of the Red Sea for several miles toward the promontory of Ras Mohammed, the southern extremity of the Sinitic Peninsula. While the Israelites rested here for some days they began to murmur on account of the want of nourishment, as they had......

SIN-OFFERING
(Heb. hattath), the law of, is given in detail in Lev. 6:13;9:7, 9: 22-24;12:6;15:2, 15: 14, 25-30;14:19, 14: 31; Num. 6:10. On the day of Atonement it was made with special solemnity (Lev. 16:5, Lev. 16: 11, 15). The blood was then carried into the holy of holies and sprinkled on the mercy-seat. Sin-offerings were also presented at the five annual festivals (Num. 28, 29), and on the occasion of t......

SINAI
of Sin (the moon god), called also Horeb, the name of the mountain district which was reached by the Hebrews in the third month after the Exodus. Here they remained encamped for about a whole year. Their journey from the Red Sea to this encampment, including all the windings of the route, was about 150 miles. The last twenty-two chapters of Exodus, together with the whole of Leviticus and Num. ch.......

SINAITICUS CODEX
usually designated by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, is one of the most valuable of ancient MSS. of the Greek New Testament. On the occasion of a third visit to the convent of St. Catherine, on Mount Sinai, in 1859, it was discovered by Dr. Tischendorf. He had on a previous visit in 1844 obtained forty-three parchment leaves of the LXX., which he deposited in the university library of Le......

SINIM, THE LAND OF
(Isa. 49:12), supposed by some to mean China, but more probably Phoenicia (Gen. 10:17) is intended. ......

SINITE
an inhabitant of Sin, near Arka (Gen. 10:17; 1-Chr 1:15). (See ARKITE.) ......

SITTING
the attitude generally assumed in Palestine by those who were engaged in any kind of work. "The carpenter saws, planes, and hews with his hand-adze, sitting on the ground or upon the plank he is planning. The washerwoman sits by the tub; and, in a word, no one stands when it is possible to sit. Shopkeepers always sit, and Levi sitting at the receipt of custom (Matt. 9:9) is the exact way to state ......

SKIN, COATS MADE OF
(Gen. 3:21). Skins of rams and badgers were used as a covering for the tabernacle (Exo 25:5; Num. 4:8). ......

SLING
With a sling and a stone David smote the Philistine giant (1-Sam 17:40, 1-Sam 17: 49). There were 700 Benjamites who were so skilled in its use that with the left hand they "could sling stones at a hair breadth, and not miss" (Judg. 20:16; 1-Chr 12:2). It was used by the Israelites in war (2-Kings 3:25). (See ARMS.) The words in Prov. 26:8, Prov. 26: "As he that bindeth a stone in a sling," etc.......

SOLEMN MEETING
(Isa. 1:13), the convocation on the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:36; Num. 29:35, Num. 29: R.V., "solemn assembly;" marg., "closing festival"). It is the name given also to the convocation held on the seventh day of the Passover (Deut. 16:8). ......

SPAIN
Paul expresses his intention (Rom. 15:24, Rom. 15: 28) to visit Spain. There is, however, no evidence that he ever carried it into effect, although some think that he probably did so between his first and second imprisonment. (See TARSHISH.) ......

SPRING
(Heb. 'ain, "the bright open source, the eye of the landscape"). To be carefully distinguished from "well" (q.v.). "Springs" mentioned in Josh. 10:40 (Heb. 'ashdoth) should rather be "declivities" or "slopes" (R.V.), i.e., the undulating ground lying between the lowlands (the shephelah) and the central range of hills. ......

STAR, MORNING
a name figuratively given to Christ (Rev. 22:16; comp. 2-Pet 1:19). When Christ promises that he will give the "morning star" to his faithful ones, he "promises that he will give to them himself, that he will give to them himself, that he will impart to them his own glory and a share in his own royal dominion; for the star is evermore the symbol of royalty (Matt. 2:2), being therefore linked with ......

STEALING
See THEFT. ......

STONING
a form of punishment (Lev. 20:2;24:14; Deut. 13:10;17:5;22:21) prescribed for certain offences. Of Achan (Josh. 7:25), Naboth (1 Kings 21), Stephen (Acts 7:59), Paul (Acts 14:19; 2-Cor 11:25). ......

STRAIN AT
Simply a misprint for "strain out" (Matt. 23:24). ......

SWELLING
of Jordan (Jer. 12:5), literally the "pride" of Jordan (as in R.V.), i.e., the luxuriant thickets of tamarisks, poplars, reeds, etc., which were the lair of lions and other beasts of prey. The reference is not to the overflowing of the river banks. (49:19;50:44; Zech. 11:3). ......

SWINE
(Heb. hazir), regarded as the most unclean and the most abhorred of all animals (Lev. 11:7; Isa. 65:4;66:3, 66: 17; Luke 15:15, Luke 15: 16). A herd of swine were drowned in the Sea of Galilee (Luke 8:32, Luke 8: 33). Spoken of figuratively in Matt. 7:6 (see Prov. 11:22). It is frequently mentioned as a wild animal, and is evidently the wild boar (Arab. khanzir), which is common among the marshes ......

SYCAMINE TREE
mentioned only in Luke 17:6. It is rendered by Luther "mulberry tree" (q.v.), which is most probably the correct rendering. It is found of two species, the black mulberry (Morus nigra) and the white mulberry (Mourea), which are common in Palestine. The silk-worm feeds on their leaves. The rearing of them is one of the chief industries of the peasantry of Lebanon and of other parts of the land. It ......

TABERING
playing on a small drum or tabret. In Nahum 2:7, Nahum 2: where alone it occurs, it means beating on the breast, as players beat on the tabret. ......

TACKLING
(Isa. 33:23), the ropes attached to the mast of a ship. In Acts 27:19 this word means generally the furniture of the ship or the "gear" (27:17), all that could be removed from the ship. ......

TAXING
(Luke 2:2; R.V., "enrolment"), "when Cyrenius was governor of Syria," is simply a census of the people, or an enrolment of them with a view to their taxation. The decree for the enrolment was the occasion of Joseph and Mary's going up to Bethlehem. It has been argued by some that Cyrenius (q.v.) was governor of Cilicia and Syria both at the time of our Lord's birth and some years afterwards. This ......

TEREBINTH
(R.V. marg. of Deut. 11:30, Deut. 11: etc.), the Pistacia terebinthus of botanists; a tree very common in the south and east of Palestine. (See OAK.) ......

THORN IN THE FLESH
(2-Cor 12:7). Many interpretations have been given of this passage. (1.) Roman Catholic writers think that it denotes suggestions to impiety. (2.) Luther, Calvin, and other Reformers interpret the expression as denoting temptation to unbelief. (3.) Others suppose the expression refers to "a pain in the ear or head," epileptic fits, or, in general, to some severe physical infirmity, which was a......

THRESHING
See AGRICULTURE. ......

THYINE WOOD
mentioned only in Rev. 18:12 among the articles which would cease to be purchased when Babylon fell. It was called citrus, citron wood, by the Romans. It was the Callitris quadrivalvis of botanists, of the cone-bearing order of trees, and of the cypress tribe of this order. The name of this wood is derived from the Greek word _thuein_, "to sacrifice," and it was so called because it was burnt in s......

TIN
Heb. bedil (Num. 31:22; Ezek. 22:18, Ezek. 22: 20), a metal well known in ancient times. It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon obtained their supplies of tin from the British Isles. In Ezek. 27:12 it is said to have been brought from Tarshish, which was probably a commercial emporium supplied with commodities from other places. In Isa. 1:25 the word so rendered is genera......

TINKLING ORNAMENTS
(Isa. 3:18), anklets of silver or gold, etc., such as are still used by women in Syria and the East. ......

TRESPASS OFFERING
(Heb. 'asham, "debt"), the law concerning, given in Lev. 5:14:7; also in Num. 5:5. The idea of sin as a "debt" pervades this legislation. The _asham_, which was always a ram, was offered in cases where sins were more private. (See OFFERING.) ......

TRINITY
a word not found in Scripture, but used to express the doctrine of the unity of God as subsisting in three distinct Persons. This word is derived from the Gr. trias, first used by Theophilus (A.D. 168-183), or from the Lat. trinitas, first used by Tertullian (A.D. 220), to express this doctrine. The propositions involved in the doctrine are these: 1. That God is one, and that there is but one God ......

TUBAL-CAIN
the son of Lamech and Zillah, "an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron" (Gen. 4:22; R.V., "the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron"). ......

UPHARSIN
and they divide, one of the words written by the mysterious hand on the wall of Belshazzar's palace (Dan. 5:25). It is a pure Chaldean word. "Peres" is only a simple form of the same word. ......

VINE
one of the most important products of Palestine. The first mention of it is in the history of Noah (Gen. 9:20). It is afterwards frequently noticed both in the Old and New Testaments, and in the ruins of terraced vineyards there are evidences that it was extensively cultivated by the Jews. It was cultivated in Palestine before the Israelites took possession of it. The men sent out by Moses brought......

VINE OF SODOM
referred to only in Deut. 32:32. Among the many conjectures as to this tree, the most probable is that it is the 'osher of the Arabs, which abounds in the region of the Dead Sea. Its fruit are the so-called "apples of Sodom," which, though beautiful to the eye, are exceedingly bitter to the taste. (See EN-GEDI.) The people of Israel are referred to here by Moses as being utterly corrupt, bringing ......

VINEGAR
Heb. hometz, Gr. oxos, Fr. vin aigre; i.e., "sour wine." The Hebrew word is rendered vinegar in Psa 69:21, Psa 69: a prophecy fulfilled in the history of the crucifixion (Matt. 27:34). This was the common sour wine (posea) daily made use of by the Roman soldiers. They gave it to Christ, not in derision, but from compassion, to assuage his thirst. Prov. 10:26 shows that there was also a stronger vi......

VIRGIN
In a prophecy concerning our Lord, Isaiah (7:14) says, "A virgin [R.V. marg., 'the virgin'] shall conceive, and bear a son" (comp. Luke 1:31). The people of the land of Zidon are thus referred to by Isaiah (23:12), "O thou oppressed virgin, daughter of Zidon;" and of the people of Israel, Jeremiah (18:13) says, "The virgin of Israel hath done a very horrible thing." ......

WAILING-PLACE, JEWS'
a section of the western wall of the temple area, where the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail their desolate condition (Psa 79:1, Psa 79: 4, 5). The stones in this part of the wall are of great size, and were placed, as is generally believed, in the position in which they are now found in the time of Solomon. "The congregation at the wailing-place is one of the most solemn gatherings ......

WANDERING
of the Israelites in the wilderness in consequence of their rebellious fears to enter the Promised Land (Num. 14:26). They wandered for forty years before they were permitted to cross the Jordan (Josh. 4:19;5:6). The record of these wanderings is given in Num. 33:1. Many of the stations at which they camped cannot now be identified. Questions of an intricate nature have been discussed regardin......

WASHING
(Mark 7:1). The Jews, like other Orientals, used their fingers when taking food, and therefore washed their hands before doing so, for the sake of cleanliness. Here the reference is to the ablutions prescribed by tradition, according to which "the disciples ought to have gone down to the side of the lake, washed their hands thoroughly, 'rubbing the fist of one hand in the hollow of the other, then......

WATCHINGS
(2-Cor 6:5), lit. "sleeplessnesses," the result of "manual labour, teaching, travelling, meditating, praying, cares, and the like" (Meyer's Com.). ......

WAVE OFFERINGS
parts of peace-offerings were so called, because they were waved by the priests (Exo 29:24, Exo 29: 26, 27; Lev. 7:20;8:27;9:21;10:14, 10: 15, etc.), in token of a solemn special presentation to God. They then became the property of the priests. The first-fruits, a sheaf of barley, offered at the feast of Pentecost (Lev. 23:17), and wheat-bread, the first-fruits of the second harvest, offered at t......

WEAVING, WEAVERS
Weaving was an art practised in very early times (Exo 35:35). The Egyptians were specially skilled in it (Isa. 19:9; Ezek. 27:7), and some have regarded them as its inventors. In the wilderness, the Hebrews practised it (Exo 26:1, Exo 26: 8;28:4, 28: 39; Lev. 13:47). It is referred to in subsequent times as specially the women's work (2-Kings 23:7; Prov. 31:13, Prov. 31: 24). No mention of the l......

WINDOW
properly only an opening in a house for the admission of light and air, covered with lattice-work, which might be opened or closed (2-Kings 1:2; Acts 20:9). The spies in Jericho and Paul at Damascus were let down from the windows of houses abutting on the town wall (Josh. 2:15; 2-Cor 11:33). The clouds are metaphorically called the "windows of heaven" (Gen. 7:11; Mal. 3:10). The word thus rendered......

WINDS
blowing from the four quarters of heaven (Jer. 49:36; Ezek. 37:9; Dan. 8:8; Zech. 2:6). The east wind was parching (Ezek. 17:10;19:12), and is sometimes mentioned as simply denoting a strong wind (Job 27:21; Isa. 27:8). This wind prevails in Palestine from February to June, as the west wind (Luke 12:54) does from November to February. The south was a hot wind (Job 37:17; Luke 12:55). It swept over......

WINE
The common Hebrew word for wine is _yayin_, from a root meaning "to boil up," "to be in a ferment." Others derive it from a root meaning "to tread out," and hence the juice of the grape trodden out. The Greek word for wine is _oinos_, and the Latin _vinun_. But besides this common Hebrew word, there are several others which are thus rendered. (1.) Ashishah (2-Sam 6:19; 1-Chr 16:3; 2:5; Hos. 3:1)......

WINE-PRESS
Consisted of two vats or receptacles, (1) a trough (Heb. gath, Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were trodden upon and bruised (Isa. 16:10; Lam. 1:15; Joel 3:13); and (2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Neh. 13:15; Job 24:11; Isa. 63:2, Isa. 63: 3; Hag. 2:16; Joel 2:24). Wine-presses are found in almo......

WINEFAT
(Mark 12:1). The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs only here in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans, into which the juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is here used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage in Matt. 21:33 the Greek word _lenos_ is used. This properly denotes the upper one of ......

WINNOW
Corn was winnowed, (1.) By being thrown up by a shovel against the wind. As a rule this was done in the evening or during the night, when the west wind from the sea was blowing, which was a moderate breeze and fitted for the purpose. The north wind was too strong, and the east wind came in gusts. (2.) By the use of a fan or van, by which the chaff was blown away (Ruth 3:2; Isa. 30:24; Jer. 4:11, J......

WOOD-OFFERING
(Neh. 10:34;13:31). It would seem that in the time of Nehemiah arrangements were made, probably on account of the comparative scarcity of wood, by which certain districts were required, as chosen by lot, to furnish wood to keep the altar fire perpetually burning (Lev. 6:13). ......

WRITING
The art of writing must have been known in the time of the early Pharaohs. Moses is commanded "to write for a memorial in a book" (Exo 17:14) a record of the attack of Amalek. Frequent mention is afterwards made of writing (28:11, 28: 21, 29, 36;31:18;32:15, 32: 16;34:1, 34: 28;39:6, 39: 14, 30). The origin of this art is unknown, but there is reason to conclude that in the age of Moses it was wel......

ZIN
a low palm-tree, the south-eastern corner of the desert et-Tih, the wilderness of Paran, between the Gulf of Akabah and the head of the Wady Guraiyeh (Num. 13:21). To be distinguished from the wilderness of Sin (q.v.).......

ZINA
ornament, one of the sons of Shimei (1-Chr 23:10).......