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ALLEGORY
used only in Gal. 4:24, Gal. 4: where the apostle refers to the history of Isaac the free-born, and Ishmael the slave-born, and makes use of it allegorically. Every parable is an allegory. Nathan (2-Sam 12:1) addresses David in an allegorical narrative. In the eightieth Psalm there is a beautiful allegory: "Thou broughtest a vine out of Egypt," etc. In Eccl. 12:2, Eccl. 12: there is a striking a......

ALLELUIA
the Greek form (Rev. 19:1, Rev. 19: 3, 4, 6) of the Hebrew Hallelujah = Praise ye Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the psalms (106, 111, 112, 113, etc.).......

ALLIANCE
a treaty between nations, or between individuals, for their mutual advantage. Abraham formed an alliance with some of the Canaanitish princes (Gen. 14:13), also with Abimelech (21:22). Joshua and the elders of Israel entered into an alliance with the Gibeonites (Josh. 9:3). When the Israelites entered Palestine they were forbidden to enter into alliances with the inhabitants of the country (Lev.......

ALLON
oak. (1.) The expression in the Authorized Version of Josh. 19:33, Josh. 19: "from Allon to Zaanannim," is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version, "from the oak in Zaanannim." The word denotes some remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim, and which served as a landmark. (2.) The son of Jedaiah, of the family of the Simeonites, who expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (1-Chr 4......

ALLON-BACHUTH
oak of weeping, a tree near Bethel, at the spot where Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried (Gen. 35:8). Large trees, from their rarity in the plains of Palestine, were frequently designated as landmarks. This particular tree was probably the same as the "palm tree of Deborah" (Judg. 4:5).......

BACA, VALLEY OF
(Psa 84:6; R.V., "valley of weeping," marg., "or balsam trees"), probably a valley in some part of Palestine, or generally some one of the valleys through which pilgrims had to pass on their way to the sanctuary of Jehovah on Zion; or it may be figuratively "a valley of weeping."......

CALL
(1.) To cry for help, hence to pray (Gen. 4:26). Thus men are said to "call upon the name of the Lord" (Acts 2:21;7:59;9:14; Rom. 10:12; 1-Cor 1:2). (2.) God calls with respect to men when he designates them to some special office (Exo 31:2; Isa. 22:20; Acts 13:2), and when he invites them to accept his offered grace (Matt. 9:13;11:28;22:4). In the message of the gospel his call is addressed t......

CALLING
a profession, or as we usually say, a vocation (1-Cor 7:20). The "hope of your calling" in Eph. 4:4 is the hope resulting from your being called into the kingdom of God.......

DECISION, VALLEY OF
a name given to the valley of Jehoshaphat (q.v.) as the vale of the sentence. The scene of Jehovah's signal inflictions on Zion's enemies (Joel 3:14; marg., "valley of concision or threshing"). ......

DESIRE OF ALL NATIONS
(Hag. 2:7), usually interpreted as a title of the Messiah. The Revised Version, however, more correctly renders "the desirable things of all nations;" i.e., the choicest treasures of the Gentiles shall be consecrated to the Lord. ......

EFFECTUAL CALL
See CALL. ......

FALL OF MAN
an expression probably borrowed from the Apocryphal Book of Wisdom, to express the fact of the revolt of our first parents from God, and the consequent sin and misery in which they and all their posterity were involved. The history of the Fall is recorded in Gen. 2 and 3. That history is to be literally interpreted. It records facts which underlie the whole system of revealed truth. It is referr......

FALLOW-DEER
Deut. 14:5 (R.V., "Wild goat"); 1-Kings 4:23 (R.V., "roebucks"). This animal, called in Hebrew _yahmur_, from a word meaning "to be red," is regarded by some as the common fallow-deer, the Cervus dama, which is said to be found very generally over Western and Southern Asia. It is called "fallow" from its pale-red or yellow colour. Some interpreters, however, regard the name as designating the buba......

FALLOW-GROUND
The expression, "Break up your fallow ground" (Hos. 10:12; Jer. 4:3) means, "Do not sow your seed among thorns", i.e., break off all your evil habits; clear your hearts of weeds, in order that they may be prepared for the seed of righteousness. Land was allowed to lie fallow that it might become more fruitful; but when in this condition, it soon became overgrown with thorns and weeds. The cultivat......

GALL
(1) Heb. mererah, meaning "bitterness" (Job 16:13); i.e., the bile secreted in the liver. This word is also used of the poison of asps (20:14), and of the vitals, the seat of life (25). (2.) Heb. rosh. In Deut. 32:33 and Job 20:16 it denotes the poison of serpents. In Hos. 10:4 the Hebrew word is rendered "hemlock." The original probably denotes some bitter, poisonous plant, most probably the po......

GALLERY
(1.) Heb. 'attik (Ezek. 41:15, Ezek. 41: 16), a terrace; a projection; ledge. (2.) Heb. rahit (1:17), translated "rafters," marg. "galleries;" probably panel-work or fretted ceiling.......

GALLIM
heaps, (1-Sam 25:44; Isa. 10:30). The native place of Phalti, to whom Michal was given by Saul. It was probably in Benjamin, to the north of Jerusalem.......

GALLIO
the elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and for some time minister of the emperor Nero. He was "deputy", i.e., proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the emperor Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth (Acts 18:12). The word used here by Luke in describing the rank of Gallio shows his accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Claudius, and the governor of such a p......

GALLOWS
Heb. 'ets, meaning "a tree" (Esther 6:4), a post or gibbet. In Gen. 40:19 and Deut. 21:22 the word is rendered "tree."......

HALL
(Gr. aule, Luke 22:55; R.V., "court"), the open court or quadrangle belonging to the high priest's house. In Matt. 26:69 and Mark 14:66 this word is incorrectly rendered "palace" in the Authorized Version, but correctly "court" in the Revised Version. In John 10:1, John 10:16 it means a "sheep-fold." In Matt. 27:27 and Mark 15:16 (A.V., "common hall;" R.V., "palace") it refers to the proetorium or......

HALLEL
praise, the name given to the group of Psalms 113-118, which are preeminently psalms of praise. It is called "The Egyptian Hallel," because it was chanted in the temple whilst the Passover lambs were being slain. It was chanted also on other festival occasions, as at Pentecost, the feast of Tabernacles, and the feast of Dedication. The Levites, standing before the altar, chanted it verse by verse,......

HALLELUJAH
praise ye Jehovah, frequently rendered "Praise ye the LORD," stands at the beginning of ten of the psalms (106, 111-113, 135, 146-150), hence called "hallelujah psalms." From its frequent occurrence it grew into a formula of praise. The Greek form of the word (alleluia) is found in Rev. 19:1, Rev. 19: 3, 4, 6.......

HALLOW
to render sacred, to consecrate (Exo 28:38;29:1). This word is from the Saxon, and properly means "to make holy." The name of God is "hallowed", i.e., is reverenced as holy (Matt. 6:9).......

JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF
mentioned in Scripture only in Joel 3:2, Joel 3: 12. This is the name given in modern times to the valley between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, and the Kidron flows through it. Here Jehoshaphat overthrew the confederated enemies of Israel (Psa 83:6); and in this valley also God was to overthrow the Tyrians, Zidonians, etc. (Joel 3:4, Joel 3: 19), with an utter overthrow. This has been fulfill......

JEZREEL, VALLEY OF
lying on the northern side of the city, between the ridges of Gilboa and Moreh, an offshoot of Esdraelon, running east to the Jordan (Josh. 17:16; Judg. 6:33; Hos. 1:5). It was the scene of the signal victory gained by the Israelites under Gideon over the Midianites, the Amalekites, and the "children of the east" (Judg. 6:3). Two centuries after this the Israelites were here defeated by the Philis......

JUDGMENT HALL
Gr. praitorion (John 18:28, John 18: 33;19:9; Matt. 27:27), "common hall." In all these passages the Revised Version renders "palace." In Mark 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium" (q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word "praitorion" has this meaning (comp. A......

MALLOTHI
my fulness, a Kohathite Levite, one of the sons of Heman the Levite (1-Chr 25:4), and chief of the nineteenth division of the temple musicians (26). ......

MALLOWS
occurs only in Job 30:4 (R.V., "saltwort"). The word so rendered (malluah, from melah, "salt") most probably denotes the Atriplex halimus of Linnaeus, a species of sea purslane found on the shores of the Dead Sea, as also of the Mediterranean, and in salt marshes. It is a tall shrubby orach, growing to the height sometimes of 10 feet. Its buds and leaves, with those of other saline plants, are eat......

MALLUCH
reigned over, or reigning. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1-Chr 6:44). (2.) A priest who returned from Babylon (Neh. 12:2). (3.) Ezra 10:29. (4.) Ezra 10:32 ......

MOUNT OF THE VALLEY
(Josh. 13:19), a district in the east of Jordan, in the territory of Reuben. The "valley" here was probably the Ghor or valley of the Jordan, and hence the "mount" would be the hilly region in the north end of the Dead Sea. (See ZARETH-SHAHAR.) ......

NAHALLAL
pasture, a city in Zebulun on the border of Issachar (Josh. 19:15), the same as Nahalol (Judg. 1:30). It was given to the Levites. It has been by some identified with Malul in the plain of Esdraelon, 4 miles from Nazareth.......

NEBALLAT
wickedness in secret, (Neh. 11:34), probably the village of Beit Nebala, about 4 miles north of Lydda.......

PALLU
separated, the second son of Reuben (1-Chr 5:3); called Phallu, Gen. 46:9. He was the father of the Phalluites (Exo 6:14; Num. 26:5, Num. 26: 8).......

PHALLU
separated, the second son of Reuben (Gen. 46:9). ......

REPHAIM, VALLEY OF
(Josh. 15:8;18:16, 18: R.V.). When David became king over all Israel, the Philistines, judging that he would now become their uncompromising enemy, made a sudden attack upon Hebron, compelling David to retire from it. He sought refuge in "the hold" at Adullam (2-Sam 5:17), and the Philistines took up their position in the valley of Rephaim, on the west and south-west of Jerusalem. Thus all communi......

SALLAI
basket-maker. (1.) A Benjamite (Neh. 11:8). (2.) A priest in the days of Joshua and Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:20). ......

SALLU
weighed. (1.) A priest (Neh. 12:7). (2.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 9:7; Neh. 11:7). ......

SALT, VALLEY OF
a place where it is said David smote the Syrians (2-Sam 8:13). This valley (the' Arabah) is between Judah and Edom on the south of the Dead Sea. Hence some interpreters would insert the words, "and he smote Edom," after the words, "Syrians" in the above text. It is conjectured that while David was leading his army against the Ammonites and Syrians, the Edomites invaded the south of Judah, and that......

SANBALLAT
held some place of authority in Samaria when Nehemiah went up to Jerusalem to rebuild its ruined walls. He vainly attempted to hinder this work (Neh. 2:10, Neh. 2: 19;4:1; 6). His daughter became the wife of one of the sons of Joiada, a son of the high priest, much to the grief of Nehemiah (13:28). ......

SHALLECHETH, THE GATE OF
i.e., "the gate of casting out," hence supposed to be the refuse gate; one of the gates of the house of the Lord, "by the causeway of the going up" i.e., the causeway rising up from the Tyropoeon valley = valley of the cheesemakers (1-Chr 26:16).......

SHALLUM
retribution. (1.) The son of Jabesh, otherwise unknown. He "conspired against Zachariah, and smote him before the people, and slew him, and reigned in his stead" (2-Kings 15:10). He reigned only "a month of days in Samaria" (15:13, 15: marg.). Menahem rose up against Shallum and put him to death (2-Kings 15:14, 2-Kings 15: 15, 17), and became king in his stead. (2.) Keeper of the temple vestment......

SHAVEH, VALLEY OF
valley of the plain the ancient name of the "king's dale" (q.v.), or Kidron, on the north side of Jerusalem (Gen. 14:17).......

SWALLOW
(1.) Heb. sis (Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7), the Arabic for the swift, which "is a regular migrant, returning in myriads every spring, and so suddenly that while one day not a swift can be seen in the country, on the next they have overspread the whole land, and fill the air with their shrill cry." The swift (cypselus) is ordinarily classed with the swallow, which it resembles in its flight, habits, and ......

TYROPOEON VALLEY
(i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemongers"), the name given by Josephus the historian to the valley or rugged ravine which in ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion. This valley, now filled up with a vast accumulation of rubbish, and almost a plain, was spanned by bridges, the most noted of which was Zion Bridge, which was probably the ordinary means of communication between the royal pala......

VALLEY
(1.) Heb. bik'ah, a "cleft" of the mountains (Deut. 8:7;11:11; Psa 104:8; Isa. 41:18); also a low plain bounded by mountains, as the plain of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon around the sources of the Jordan (Josh. 11:17;12:7), and the valley of Megiddo (2-Chr 35:22). (2.) 'Emek, "deep;" "a long, low plain" (Job 39:10, Job 39: 21; Psa 65:13; 2:1), such as the plain of Esdraelon; the "valley of gian......

WALL
Cities were surrounded by walls, as distinguished from "unwalled villages" (Ezek. 38:11; Lev. 25:29). They were made thick and strong (Num. 13:28; Deut. 3:5). Among the Jews walls were built of stone, some of those in the temple being of great size (1-Kings 6:7;7:9;20:30; Mark 13:1, Mark 13: 2). The term is used metaphorically of security and safety (Isa. 26:1;60:18; Rev. 21:12). (See FENCE.) ......

FLESH
in the Old Testament denotes (1) a particular part of the body of man and animals (Gen. 2:21;41:2; Psa 102:5, Psa 102: marg.); (2) the whole body (Psa 16:9); (3) all living things having flesh, and particularly humanity as a whole (Gen. 6:12, Gen. 6: 13); (4) mutability and weakness (2-Chr 32:8; comp. Isa. 31:3; Psa 78:39). As suggesting the idea of softness it is used in the expression "heart of ......

FLESH-HOOK
a many-pronged fork used in the sacrificial services (1-Sam 2:13, 1-Sam 2: 14; Exo 27:3;38:3) by the priest in drawing away the flesh. The fat of the sacrifice, together with the breast and shoulder (Lev. 7:29), were presented by the worshipper to the priest. The fat was burned on the alter (3:3), and the breast and shoulder became the portion of the priests. But Hophni and Phinehas, not content w......

THORN IN THE FLESH
(2-Cor 12:7). Many interpretations have been given of this passage. (1.) Roman Catholic writers think that it denotes suggestions to impiety. (2.) Luther, Calvin, and other Reformers interpret the expression as denoting temptation to unbelief. (3.) Others suppose the expression refers to "a pain in the ear or head," epileptic fits, or, in general, to some severe physical infirmity, which was a......