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AARON
the eldest son of Amram and Jochebed, a daughter of Levi (Exo 6:20). Some explain the name as meaning mountaineer, others mountain of strength, illuminator. He was born in Egypt three years before his brother Moses, and a number of years after his sister Miriam (2:1, 2:4;7:7). He married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab of the house of Judah (6:23; 1-Chr 2:10), by whom he had four sons, Nadab a......

AARONITES
the descendants of Aaron, and therefore priests. Jehoiada, the father of Benaiah, led 3,700 Aaronites as "fighting men" to the support of David at Hebron (1-Chr 12:27). Eleazar (Num. 3:32), and at a later period Zadok (1-Chr 27:17), was their chief.......

ABADDON
destruction, the Hebrew name (equivalent to the Greek Apollyon, i.e., destroyer) of "the angel of the bottomless pit" (Rev. 9:11). It is rendered "destruction" in Job 28:22;31:12;26:6; Prov. 15:11;27:20. In the last three of these passages the Revised Version retains the word "Abaddon." We may regard this word as a personification of the idea of destruction, or as sheol, the realm of the dead.......

ABDON
servile. (1.) The son of Hillel, a Pirathonite, the tenth judge of Israel (Judg. 12:13). He is probably the Bedan of 1-Sam 12:11. (2.) The first-born of Gibeon of the tribe of Benjamin (1-Chr 8:30;9:36). (3.) The son of Micah, one of those whom Josiah sent to the prophetess Huldah to ascertain from her the meaning of the recently discovered book of the law (2-Chr 34:20). He is called Achbor in......

ABI-ALBON
father of strength; i.e., "valiant", one of David's body-guard of thirty mighty men (2-Sam 23:31); called also Abiel (1-Chr 11:32).......

ABLUTION
or washing, was practised, (1.) When a person was initiated into a higher state: e.g., when Aaron and his sons were set apart to the priest's office, they were washed with water previous to their investiture with the priestly robes (Lev. 8:6). (2.) Before the priests approached the altar of God, they were required, on pain of death, to wash their hands and their feet to cleanse them from the soi......

ABOMINATION
This word is used, (1.) To express the idea that the Egyptians considered themselves as defiled when they ate with strangers (Gen. 43:32). The Jews subsequently followed the same practice, holding it unlawful to eat or drink with foreigners (John 18:28; Acts 10:28;11:3). (2.) Every shepherd was "an abomination" unto the Egyptians (Gen. 46:34). This aversion to shepherds, such as the Hebrews, aro......

ABRONAH
R.V., one of Israel's halting-places in the desert (3:34, 3:35), just before Ezion-gaber. In A.V., "Ebronah." ......

ADDON
low, one of the persons named in Neh. 7:61 who could not "shew their father's house" on the return from captivity. This, with similar instances (ver. 63), indicates the importance the Jews attached to their genealogies. ......

ADJURATION
a solemn appeal whereby one person imposes on another the obligation of speaking or acting as if under an oath (1-Sam 14:24; Josh. 6:26; 1-Kings 22:16). We have in the New Testament a striking example of this (Matt. 26:63; Mark 5:7), where the high priest calls upon Christ to avow his true character. It would seem that in such a case the person so adjured could not refuse to give an answer. Th......

ADONI-ZEDEC
lord of justice or righteousness, was king in Jerusalem at the time when the Israelites invaded Palestine (Josh. 10:1, Josh. 10:3). He formed a confederacy with the other Canaanitish kings against the Israelites, but was utterly routed by Joshua when he was engaged in besieging the Gibeonites. The history of this victory and of the treatment of the five confederated kings is recorded in Josh. 10:1......

ADONIBEZEK
lord of Bezek, a Canaanitish king who, having subdued seventy of the chiefs that were around him, made an attack against the armies of Judah and Simeon, but was defeated and brought as a captive to Jerusalem, where his thumbs and great toes were cut off. He confessed that God had requited him for his like cruelty to the seventy kings whom he had subdued (Judg. 1:4; comp. 1-Sam 15:33). ......

ADONIJAH
my Lord is Jehovah. (1.) The fourth son of David (2-Sam 3:4). After the death of his elder brothers, Amnon and Absalom, he became heir-apparent to the throne. But Solomon, a younger brother, was preferred to him. Adonijah, however, when his father was dying, caused himself to be proclaimed king. But Nathan and Bathsheba induced David to give orders that Solomon should at once be proclaimed and adm......

ADONIKAM
whom the Lord sets up, one of those "which came with Zerubbabel" (Ezra 2:13). His "children," or retainers, to the number of 666, came up to Jerusalem (8:13). ......

ADONIRAM
(Adoram, 1-Kings 12:18), the son of Abda, was "over the tribute," i.e., the levy or forced labour. He was stoned to death by the people of Israel (1-Kings 4:6;5:14) ......

ADOPTION
the giving to any one the name and place and privileges of a son who is not a son by birth. (1.) Natural. Thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses (Exo 2:10), and Mordecai Esther (Esther 2:7). (2.) National. God adopted Israel (Exo 4:22; Deut. 7:6; Hos. 11:1; Rom. 9:4). (3.) Spiritual. An act of God's grace by which he brings men into the number of his redeemed family, and makes them partakers ......

AENON
springs, a place near Salim where John baptized (John 3:23). It was probably near the upper source of the Wady Far'ah, an open valley extending from Mount Ebal to the Jordan. It is full of springs. A place has been found called 'Ainun, four miles north of the springs.......

AFFECTION
feeling or emotion. Mention is made of "vile affections" (Rom. 1:26) and "inordinate affection" (Col. 3:5). Christians are exhorted to set their affections on things above (Col. 3:2). There is a distinction between natural and spiritual or gracious affections (Ezek. 33:32).......

AFFLICTIONS
common to all (Job 5:7;14:1; Psa 34:19); are for the good of men (James 1:2, James 1: 3, 12; 2-Cor 12:7) and the glory of God (2-Cor 12:7; 1-Pet 4:14), and are to be borne with patience by the Lord's people (Psa 94:12; Prov. 3:12). They are all directed by God (Lam. 3:33), and will result in the everlasting good of his people (2-Cor 4:16) in Christ Jesus (Rom. 8:35).......

AGONY
contest; wrestling; severe struggling with pain and suffering. Anguish is the reflection on evil that is already past, while agony is a struggle with evil at the time present. It is only used in the New Testament by Luke (22:44) to describe our Lord's fearful struggle in Gethsemane. The verb from which the noun "agony" is derived is used to denote an earnest endeavour or striving, as "Strive [ag......

AJALON
and Aij'alon, place of deer. (1.) A town and valley originally assigned to the tribe of Dan, from which, however, they could not drive the Amorites (Judg. 1:35). It was one of the Levitical cities given to the Kohathites (1-Chr 6:69). It was not far from Beth-shemesh (2-Chr 28:18). It was the boundary between the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, and is frequently mentioned in Jewish history (2-Chr 11......

ALLON
oak. (1.) The expression in the Authorized Version of Josh. 19:33, Josh. 19: "from Allon to Zaanannim," is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version, "from the oak in Zaanannim." The word denotes some remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim, and which served as a landmark. (2.) The son of Jedaiah, of the family of the Simeonites, who expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (1-Chr 4......

ALLON-BACHUTH
oak of weeping, a tree near Bethel, at the spot where Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried (Gen. 35:8). Large trees, from their rarity in the plains of Palestine, were frequently designated as landmarks. This particular tree was probably the same as the "palm tree of Deborah" (Judg. 4:5).......

ALMON
hidden, one of the sacerdotal cities of Benjamin (Josh. 21:18), called also Alemeth (1-Chr 6:60).......

ALMOND
a native of Syria and Palestine. In form, blossoms, and fruit it resembles the peach tree. Its blossoms are of a very pale pink colour, and appear before its leaves. Its Hebrew name, _shaked_, signifying "wakeful, hastening," is given to it on account of its putting forth its blossoms so early, generally in February, and sometimes even in January. In Eccl. 12:5, Eccl. 12: it is referred to as illu......

AMMON
another form of the name Ben-ammi, the son of Lot (Gen. 19:38). This name is also used for his posterity (Psa 83:7).......

AMMONITE
the usual name of the descendants of Ammon, the son of Lot (Gen. 19:38). From the very beginning (Deut. 2:16) of their history till they are lost sight of (Judg. 5:2), this tribe is closely associated with the Moabites (Judg. 10:11; 2-Chr 20:1; Zeph. 2:8). Both of these tribes hired Balaam to curse Israel (Deut. 23:4). The Ammonites were probably more of a predatory tribe, moving from place to pla......

AMNON
faithful. (1.) One of the sons of Shammai, of the children of Ezra (1-Chr 4:20; comp. 17). (2.) The eldest son of David, by Ahinoam of Jezreel (1-Chr 3:1; 2-Sam 3:2). Absalom caused him to be put to death for his great crime in the matter of Tamar (2-Sam 13:28, 2-Sam 13: 29).......

AMON
builder. (1.) The governor of Samaria in the time of Ahab. The prophet Micaiah was committed to his custody (1-Kings 22:26; 2-Chr 18:25). (2.) The son of Manasseh, and fourteenth king of Judah. He restored idolatry, and set up the images which his father had cast down. Zephaniah (1:4;3:4, 3: 11) refers to the moral depravity prevailing in this king's reign. He was assassinated (2-Kings 21:18: ......

ANDRONICUS
man-conquering, a Jewish Christian, the kinsman and fellowprisoner of Paul (Rom. 16:7); "of note among the apostles."......

ANTONIA
a fortress in Jerusalem, at the north-west corner of the temple area. It is called "the castle" (Acts 21:34, Acts 21: 37). From the stairs of this castle Paul delivered his famous speech to the multitude in the area below (Acts 22:1). It was originally a place in which were kept the vestments of the high priest. Herod fortified it, and called it Antonia in honour of his friend Mark Antony. It was ......

APOLLONIA
a city of Macedonia between Amphipolis and Thessalonica, from which it was distant about 36 miles. Paul and Silas passed through it on their way to Thessalonica (Acts 17:1).......

APOLLYON
destroyer, the name given to the king of the hosts represented by the locusts (Rev. 9:11). It is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Abaddon (q.v.).......

APRON
found in the Authorized Version in Gen. 3:7, Gen. 3: of the bands of fig-leaves made by our first parents. In Acts 19:12, Acts 19: it denotes the belt or half-girdle worn by artisans and servants round the waist for the purpose of preserving the clothing from injury. In marg. of Authorized Version, Ruth 3:15, Ruth 3: correctly rendered instead of "vail." (R.V., "mantle.")......

ARDON
descendant, the last of the three sons of Caleb by his first wife Azubah (1-Chr 2:18).......

ARMAGEDDON
occurs only in Rev. 16:16 (R.V., "Har-Magedon"), as symbolically designating the place where the "battle of that great day of God Almighty" (ver. 14) shall be fought. The word properly means the "mount of Megiddo." It is the scene of the final conflict between Christ and Antichrist. The idea of such a scene was suggested by the Old Testament great battle-field, the plain of Esdraelon (q.v.).......

ARMONI
inhabitant of a fortress, the first-named of the two sons of Saul and Rizpah. He was delivered up to the Gibeonites by David, and hanged by them (2-Sam 21:8, 2-Sam 21: 9).......

ARNON
swift, the southern boundary of the territory of Israel beyond Jordan, separating it from the land of Moab (Deut. 3:8, Deut. 3: 16). This river (referred to twenty-four times in the Bible) rises in the mountains of Gilead, and after a circuitous course of about 80 miles through a deep ravine it falls into the Dead Sea nearly opposite Engedi. The stream is almost dry in summer. It is now called el-......

ASCENSION
See CHRIST.......

ASHKELON
=Askelon=Ascalon, was one of the five cities of the Philistines (Josh. 13:3; 1-Sam 6:17). It stood on the shore of the Mediterranean, 12 miles north of Gaza. It is mentioned on an inscription at Karnak in Egypt as having been taken by king Rameses II., the oppressor of the Hebrews. In the time of the judges (Judg. 1:18) it fell into the possession of the tribe of Judah; but it was soon after retak......

ASTRONOMY
The Hebrews were devout students of the wonders of the starry firmanent (Amos 5:8; Ps. 19). In the Book of Job, which is the oldest book of the Bible in all probability, the constellations are distinguished and named. Mention is made of the "morning star" (Rev. 2:28; comp. Isa. 14:12), the "seven stars" and "Pleiades," "Orion," "Arcturus," the "Great Bear" (Amos 5:8; Job 9:9;38:31), "the crooked s......

ATONEMENT
This word does not occur in the Authorized Version of the New Testament except in Rom. 5:11, Rom. 5: where in the Revised Version the word "reconciliation" is used. In the Old Testament it is of frequent occurrence. The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, i.e., the state of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is reconciliation. Thus it is used to denote the effect which fl......

ATONEMENT, DAY OF
the great annual day of humiliation and expiation for the sins of the nation, "the fast" (Acts 27:9), and the only one commanded in the law of Moses. The mode of its observance is described in Lev. 16:3;23:26; and Num. 29:7. It was kept on the tenth day of the month Tisri, i.e., five days before the feast of Tabernacles, and lasted from sunset to sunset. (See AZAZEL.)......

BAAL-HAMON
place of a multitude, a place where Solomon had an extensive vineyard (8:11). It has been supposed to be identical with Baal-gad, and also with Hammon in the tribe of Asher (Josh. 19:28). Others identify it with Belamon, in Central Palestine, near Dothaim.......

BAAL-HERMON
lord of Hermon. (1.) A city near Mount Hermon inhabited by the Ephraimites (1-Chr 5:23). Probably identical with Baal-gad (Josh. 11:17). (2.) A mountain east of Lebanon (Judg. 3:3). Probably it may be the same as Mount Hermon, or one of its three peaks.......

BAAL-MEON
lord of dwelling, a town of Reuben (Num. 32:38), called also Beth-meon (Jer. 48:23) and Beth-baal-meon (Josh. 13:17). It is supposed to have been the birth-place of Elisha. It is identified with the modern M'ain, about 3 miles south-east of Heshbon.......

BAAL-ZEPHON
Baal of the north, an Egyptian town on the shores of the Gulf of Suez (Exo 14:2; Num. 33:7), over against which the children of Israel encamped before they crossed the Red Sea. It is probably to be identified with the modern Jebel Deraj or Kulalah, on the western shore of the Gulf of Suez. Baal-zapuna of the Egyptians was a place of worship.......

BABYLON
the Greek form of BABEL; Semitic form Babilu, meaning "The Gate of God." In the Assyrian tablets it means "The city of the dispersion of the tribes." The monumental list of its kings reaches back to B.C. 2300, and includes Khammurabi, or Amraphel (q.v.), the contemporary of Abraham. It stood on the Euphrates, about 200 miles above its junction with the Tigris, which flowed through its midst and di......

BABYLON, KINGDOM OF
called "the land of the Chaldeans" (Jer. 24:5; Ezek,12:13), was an extensive province in Central Asia along the valley of the Tigris from the Persian Gulf northward for some 300 miles. It was famed for its fertility and its riches. Its capital was the city of Babylon, a great commercial centre (Ezek. 17:4; Isa. 43:14). Babylonia was divided into the two districts of Accad in the north, and Summer ......

BABYLONISH GARMENT
a robe of rich colours fabricated at Babylon, and hence of great value (Josh.7:21).......

BAR-JONA
son of Jonah, the patronymic of Peter (Matt. 16:17; John 1:42), because his father's name was Jonas. (See PETER.)......

BEACON
a pole (Heb. to'ren) used as a standard or ensign set on the tops of mountains as a call to the people to assemble themselves for some great national purpose (Isa. 30:17). In Isa. 33:23 and Ezek. 27:5, Ezek. 27: the same word is rendered "mast." (See Banner.) ......

BETH-DAGON
house of Dagon. (1.) A city in the low country or plain of Judah, near Philistia (Josh. 15:41); the modern Beit Degan, about 5 miles from Lydda. (2.) A city near the south-east border of Asher (Josh. 19:27). It was a Philistine colony. It is identical with the modern ruined village of Tell D'auk. ......

BETH-HORON
house of the hollow, or of the cavern, the name of two towns or villages (2-Chr 8:5; 1-Chr 7:24) in the territory of Ephraim, on the way from Jerusalem to Joppa. They are distinguished as Beth-horon "the upper" and Beth-horon "the nether." They are about 2 miles apart, the former being about 10 miles north-west of Jerusalem. Between the two places was the ascent and descent of Beth-horon, leading ......

BEYOND
when used with reference to Jordan, signifies in the writings of Moses the west side of the river, as he wrote on the east bank (Gen. 50:10, Gen. 50: 11; Deut. 1:1, Deut. 1: 5;3:8, 3: 20;4:46); but in the writings of Joshua, after he had crossed the river, it means the east side (Josh. 5:1;12:7;22:7). ......

BITH-RON
the broken or divided place, a district in the Arabah or Jordan valley, on the east of the river (2-Sam 2:29). It was probably the designation of the region in general, which is broken and intersected by ravines. ......

BOND
an obligation of any kind (Num. 30:2, Num. 30: 4, 12). The word means also oppression or affliction (Psa 116:16; Phil. 1:7). Christian love is the "bond of perfectness" (Col. 3:14), and the influences of the Spirit are the "bond of peace" (Eph. 4:3). ......

BONDAGE
of Israel in Egypt (Exo 2:23, Exo 2: 25; 5), which is called the "house of bondage" (13:3;20:2). This word is used also with reference to the captivity in Babylon (Isa. 14:3), and the oppression of the Persian king (Ezra 9:8, Ezra 9: 9). ......

BONNET
(Heb. peer), Exo 39:28 (R.V., "head-tires"); Ezek. 44:18 (R.V., "tires"), denotes properly a turban worn by priests, and in Isa. 3:20 (R.V., "head-tires") a head-dress or tiara worn by females. The Hebrew word so rendered literally means an ornament, as in Isa. 61:10 (R.V., "garland"), and in Ezek. 24:17, Ezek. 24: 23 "tire" (R.V., "head-tire"). It consisted of a piece of cloth twisted about the h......

BRIMSTONE
an inflammable mineral substance found in quantities on the shores of the Dead Sea. The cities of the plain were destroyed by a rain of fire and brimstone (Gen. 19:24, Gen. 19: 25). In Isa. 34:9 allusion is made to the destruction of these cities. This word figuratively denotes destruction or punishment (Job 18:15; Isa. 30:33;34:9; Psa 11:6; Ezek. 38:22). It is used to express the idea of excrucia......

CAMON
full of stalks, a place (Judg. 10:5) where Jair was buried. It has usually been supposed to have been a city of Gilead, on the east of Jordan. It is probably, however, the modern Tell-el-Kaimun, on the southern slopes of Carmel, the Jokneam of Carmel (Josh. 12:22; 1-Kings 4:12), since it is not at all unlikely that after he became judge, Jair might find it more convenient to live on the west side ......

CANON
This word is derived from a Hebrew and Greek word denoting a reed or cane. Hence it means something straight, or something to keep straight; and hence also a rule, or something ruled or measured. It came to be applied to the Scriptures, to denote that they contained the authoritative rule of faith and practice, the standard of doctrine and duty. A book is said to be of canonical authority when it ......

CEDRON
the black torrent, the brook flowing through the ravine below the eastern wall of Jerusalem (John 18:1). (See KIDRON.)......

CENTURION
a Roman officer in command of a hundred men (Mark 15:39, Mark 15: 44, 45). Cornelius, the first Gentile convert, was a centurion (Acts 10:1, Acts 10: 22). Other centurions are mentioned in Matt. 8:5, Matt. 8: 8, 13; Luke 7:2, Luke 7: 6; Acts 21:32;22:25, 22: 26;23:17, 23: 23;24:23;27:1, 27: 6, 11, 31, 43;28:16. A centurion watched the crucifixion of our Lord (Matt. 27:54; Luke 23:47), and when he ......

CHALCEDONY
Mentioned only in Rev. 21:19, Rev. 21: as one of the precious stones in the foundation of the New Jerusalem. The name of this stone is derived from Chalcedon, where it is said to have been first discovered. In modern mineralogy this is the name of an agate-like quartz of a bluish colour. Pliny so names the Indian ruby. The mineral intended in Revelation is probably the Hebrew _nophekh_, translated......

CHAMELEON
a species of lizard which has the faculty of changing the colour of its skin. It is ranked among the unclean animals in Lev. 11:30, Lev. 11: where the Hebrew word so translated is _coah_ (R.V., "land crocodile"). In the same verse the Hebrew _tanshemeth_, rendered in Authorized Version "mole," is in Revised Version "chameleon," which is the correct rendering. This animal is very common in Egypt an......

CHAMPION
(1-Sam 17:4, 1-Sam 17: 23), properly "the man between the two," denoting the position of Goliath between the two camps. Single combats of this kind at the head of armies were common in ancient times. In ver. 51 this word is the rendering of a different Hebrew word, and properly denotes "a mighty man." ......

CHESALON
strength; confidence, a place on the border of Judah, on the side of Mount Jearim (Josh. 15:10); probably identified with the modern village of Kesla, on the western mountains of Judah. ......

CHIDON
dart, the name of the threshing-floor at which the death of Uzzah took place (1-Chr 13:9). In the parallel passage in Samuel (2-Sam 6:6) it is called "Nachon's threshing-floor." It was a place not far north-west from Jerusalem. ......

CHILION
the pining one, the younger son of Elimelech and Naomi, and husband of Orpah, Ruth's sister (Ruth 1:2;4:9). ......

CHRONICLES
the words of the days, (1-Kings 14:19; 1-Chr 27:24), the daily or yearly records of the transactions of the kingdom; events recorded in the order of time. ......

CHRONICLES OF KING DAVID
(1-Chr 27:24) were statistical state records; one of the public sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles derived information on various public matters. ......

CHRONICLES, BOOKS OF
The two books were originally one. They bore the title in the Massoretic Hebrew _Dibre hayyamim_, i.e., "Acts of the Days." This title was rendered by Jerome in his Latin version "Chronicon," and hence "Chronicles." In the Septuagint version the book is divided into two, and bears the title Paraleipomena, i.e., "things omitted," or "supplements", because containing many things omitted in the Books......

CHRONOLOGY
is the arrangement of facts and events in the order of time. The writers of the Bible themselves do not adopt any standard era according to which they date events. Sometimes the years are reckoned, e.g., from the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:1;33:38; 1-Kings 6:1), and sometimes from the accession of kings (1-Kings 15:1, 1-Kings 15: 9, 25, 33, etc.), and sometimes again from the return from Exile (Ez......

CINNAMON
Heb. kinamon, the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of botanists, a tree of the Laurel family, which grows only in India on the Malabar coast, in Ceylon, and China. There is no trace of it in Egypt, and it was unknown in Syria. The inner rind when dried and rolled into cylinders forms the cinnamon of commerce. The fruit and coarser pieces of bark when boiled yield a fragrant oil. It was one of the principal i......

CIRCUMCISION
cutting around. This rite, practised before, as some think, by divers races, was appointed by God to be the special badge of his chosen people, an abiding sign of their consecration to him. It was established as a national ordinance (Gen. 17:10, Gen. 17: 11). In compliance with the divine command, Abraham, though ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised on the same day with Ishmael, who was thirt......

COGITATIONS
(or "thoughts," as the Chaldee word in Dan. 7:28 literally means), earnest meditation. ......

COLLECTION
The Christians in Palestine, from various causes, suffered from poverty. Paul awakened an interest in them among the Gentile churches, and made pecuniary collections in their behalf (Acts 24:17; Rom. 15:25, Rom. 15: 26; 1-Cor 16:1; 2-Cor 8:9; Gal. 2:10). ......

COLONY
The city of Philippi was a Roman colony (Acts 16:12), i.e., a military settlement of Roman soldiers and citizens, planted there to keep in subjection a newly-conquered district. A colony was Rome in miniature, under Roman municipal law, but governed by military officers (praetors and lictors), not by proconsuls. It had an independent internal government, the jus Italicum; i.e., the privileges of I......

COMMUNION
fellowship with God (Gen. 18:17; Exo 33:9; Num. 12:7, Num. 12: 8), between Christ and his people (John 14:23), by the Spirit (2-Cor 13:14; Phil. 2:1), of believers with one another (Eph. 4:1). The Lord's Supper is so called (1-Cor 10:16, 1-Cor 10: 17), because in it there is fellowship between Christ and his disciples, and of the disciples with one another. ......

CONANIAH
whom Jehovah hath set, a Levite placed over the tithes brought into the temple (2-Chr 35:9). ......

CONCISION
(Gr. katatome; i.e., "mutilation"), a term used by Paul contemptuously of those who were zealots for circumcision (Phil. 3:2). Instead of the warning, "Beware of the circumcision" (peritome) i.e., of the party who pressed on Gentile converts the necessity of still observing that ordinance, he says, "Beware of the concision;" as much as to say, "This circumcision which they vaunt of is in Christ on......

CONCUBINE
in the Bible denotes a female conjugally united to a man, but in a relation inferior to that of a wife. Among the early Jews, from various causes, the difference between a wife and a concubine was less marked than it would be amongst us. The concubine was a wife of secondary rank. There are various laws recorded providing for their protection (Exo 21:7; Deut. 21:10), and setting limits to the rela......

CONCUPISCENCE
desire, Rom. 7:8 (R.V., "coveting"); Col. 3:5 (R.V., "desire"). The "lust of concupiscence" (1-Thess 4:5; R.V., "passion of lust") denotes evil desire, indwelling sin. ......

CONDUIT
a water-course or channel (Job 38:25). The "conduit of the upper pool" (Isa. 7:3) was formed by Hezekiah for the purpose of conveying the waters from the upper pool in the valley of Gihon to the west side of the city of David (2-Kings 18:17;20:20; 2-Chr 32:30). In carrying out this work he stopped "the waters of the fountains which were without the city" i.e., "the upper water-course of Gihon", an......

CONEY
(Heb. shaphan; i.e., "the hider"), an animal which inhabits the mountain gorges and the rocky districts of Arabia Petraea and the Holy Land. "The conies are but a feeble folk, yet make they their houses in the rocks" (Prov. 30:26; Psa 104:18). They are gregarious, and "exceeding wise" (Prov. 30:24), and are described as chewing the cud (Lev. 11:5; Deut. 14:7). The animal intended by this name is......

CONFECTION
(Exo 30:35, Exo 30: "ointment" in ver. 25; R.V., "perfume"). The Hebrew word so rendered is derived from a root meaning to compound oil and perfume. ......

CONFECTIONARIES
only in 1-Sam 8:13, 1-Sam 8: those who make confections, i.e., perfumers, who compound species and perfumes. ......

CONFESSION
(1) An open profession of faith (Luke 12:8). (2.) An acknowledment of sins to God (Lev. 16:21; Ezra 9:5; Dan. 9:3), and to a neighbour whom we have wronged (James 5:16; Matt. 18:15). ......

CONGREGATION
(Heb. kahal), the Hebrew people collectively as a holy community (Num. 15:15). Every circumcised Hebrew from twenty years old and upward was a member of the congregation. Strangers resident in the land, if circumcised, were, with certain exceptions (Exo 12:19; Num. 9:14; Deut. 23:1), admitted to the privileges of citizenship, and spoken of as members of the congregation (Exo 12:19; Num. 9:14;15:15......

CONGREGATION, MOUNT OF THE
(Isa. 14:13), has been supposed to refer to the place where God promised to meet with his people (Exo 25:22;29:42, 29: 43) i.e., the mount of the Divine presence, Mount Zion. But here the king of Babylon must be taken as expressing himself according to his own heathen notions, and not according to those of the Jews. The "mount of the congregation" will therefore in this case mean the northern moun......

CONSCIENCE
that faculty of the mind, or inborn sense of right and wrong, by which we judge of the moral character of human conduct. It is common to all men. Like all our other faculties, it has been perverted by the Fall (John 16:2; Acts 26:9; Rom. 2:15). It is spoken of as "defiled" (Titus 1:15), and "seared" (1-Tim 4:2). A "conscience void of offence" is to be sought and cultivated (Acts 24:16; Rom. 9:1; 2......

CONSECRATION
the devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or service of God. The race of Abraham and the tribe of Levi were thus consecrated (Exo 13:2, Exo 13: 12, 15; Num. 3:12). The Hebrews devoted their fields and cattle, and sometimes the spoils of war, to the Lord (Lev. 27:28, Lev. 27: 29). According to the Mosaic law the first-born both of man and beast were consecrated to God. In the New T......

CONSOLATION OF ISRAEL
a name for the Messiah in common use among the Jews, probably suggested by Isa. 12:1;49:13. The Greek word thus rendered (Luke 2:25, Luke 2: paraklesis) is kindred to that translated "Comforter" in John 14:16, John 14: etc., parakletos. ......

CONSTELLATION
a cluster of stars, or stars which appear to be near each other in the heavens, and which astronomers have reduced to certain figures (as the "Great Bear," the "Bull," etc.) for the sake of classification and of memory. In Isa. 13:10, Isa. 13: where this word only occurs, it is the rendering of the Hebrew _kesil_, i.e., "fool." This was the Hebrew name of the constellation Orion (Job 9:9;38:31), a......

CONTENTMENT
a state of mind in which one's desires are confined to his lot whatever it may be (1-Tim 6:6; 2-Cor 9:8). It is opposed to envy (James 3:16), avarice (Heb. 13:5), ambition (Prov. 13:10), anxiety (Matt. 6:25, Matt. 6: 34), and repining (1-Cor 10:10). It arises from the inward disposition, and is the offspring of humility, and of an intelligent consideration of the rectitude and benignity of divine ......

CONVERSATION
generally the goings out and in of social intercourse (Eph. 2:3;4:22; R.V., "manner of life"); one's deportment or course of life. This word is never used in Scripture in the sense of verbal communication from one to another (Psa 50:23; Heb. 13:5). In Phil. 1:27 3:20, 3: a different Greek word is used. It there means one's relations to a community as a citizen, i.e., citizenship. ......

CONVERSION
the turning of a sinner to God (Acts 15:3). In a general sense the heathen are said to be "converted" when they abandon heathenism and embrace the Christian faith; and in a more special sense men are converted when, by the influence of divine grace in their souls, their whole life is changed, old things pass away, and all things become new (Acts 26:18). Thus we speak of the conversion of the Phili......

CONVOCATION
a meeting of a religious character as distinguished from congregation, which was more general, dealing with political and legal matters. Hence it is called an "holy convocation." Such convocations were the Sabbaths (Lev. 23:2, Lev. 23: 3), the Passover (Exo 12:16; Lev. 23:7, Lev. 23: 8; Num. 28:25), Pentecost (Lev. 23:21), the feast of Trumpets (Lev. 23:24; Num. 29:1), the feast of Weeks (Num. 28:......

CORINTHIANS, SECOND EPISTLE TO THE
Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the chu......

CREATION
"In the beginning" God created, i.e., called into being, all things out of nothing. This creative act on the part of God was absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The cause of all things exists only in the will of God. The work of creation is attributed (1) to the Godhead (Gen. 1:1, Gen. 1: 26); (2) to the Father (1-Cor 8:6); (3) to the Son (John 1:3; Col. 1:16, Col. 1: 17); (4) to the......

CRIMSON
See COLOUR. ......

CRUCIFIXION
a common mode of punishment among heathen nations in early times. It is not certain whether it was known among the ancient Jews; probably it was not. The modes of capital punishment according to the Mosaic law were, by the sword (Exo 21), strangling, fire (Lev. 20), and stoning (Deut. 21). This was regarded as the most horrible form of death, and to a Jew it would acquire greater horror from the......

DAEMON
the Greek form, rendered "devil" in the Authorized Version of the New Testament. Daemons are spoken of as spiritual beings (Matt. 8:16;10:1;12:43) at enmity with God, and as having a certain power over man (James 2:19; Rev. 16:14). They recognize our Lord as the Son of God (Matt. 8:20; Luke 4:41). They belong to the number of those angels that "kept not their first estate," "unclean spirits," "fal......

DAEMONIAC
one "possessed with a devil." In the days of our Lord and his apostles, evil spirits, "daemons," were mysteriously permitted by God to exercise an influence both over the souls and bodies of men, inflicting dumbness (Matt. 9:32), blindness (12:22), epilepsy (Mark 9:17), insanity (Matt. 8:28; Mark 5:1). Daemoniacs are frequently distinguished from those who are afflicted with ordinary bodily maladi......

DAGON
little fish; diminutive from dag = a fish, the fish-god; the national god of the Philistines (Judg. 16:23). This idol had the body of a fish with the head and hands of a man. It was an Assyrio-Babylonian deity, the worship of which was introduced among the Philistines through Chaldea. The most famous of the temples of Dagon were at Gaza (Judg. 16:23) and Ashdod (1-Sam 5:1). (See FISH.) ......

DAGON'S HOUSE
(1-Sam 5:2), or Beth-dagon, as elsewhere rendered (5:41;19:27), was the sanctuary or temple of Dagon. The Beth-dagon of Josh. 15:41 was one of the cities of the tribe of Judah, in the lowland or plain which stretches westward. It has not been identified. The Beth-dagon of Josh. 19:27 was one of the border cities of Asher. That of 1-Chr 10:10 was in the western half-tribe of Manasseh, where t......

DAMNATION
in Rom. 13:2, Rom. 13: means "condemnation," which comes on those who withstand God's ordinance of magistracy. This sentence of condemnation comes not from the magistrate, but from God, whose authority is thus resisted. In 1-Cor 11:29 (R.V., "judgment") this word means condemnation, in the sense of exposure to severe temporal judgements from God, as the following verse explains. In Rom. 14:23 ......

DEACON
Anglicized form of the Greek word diaconos, meaning a "runner," "messenger," "servant." For a long period a feeling of mutual jealousy had existed between the "Hebrews," or Jews proper, who spoke the sacred language of palestine, and the "Hellenists," or Jews of the Grecian speech, who had adopted the Grecian language, and read the Septuagint version of the Bible instead of the Hebrew. This jealou......

DEACONESS
Rom. 16:1, Rom. 16: 3, 12; Phil. 4:2, Phil. 4: 3; 1-Tim 3:11;5:9, 5: 10; Titus 2:3, Titus 2: 4). In these passages it is evident that females were then engaged in various Christian ministrations. Pliny makes mention of them also in his letter to Trajan (A.D. 110). ......

DECISION, VALLEY OF
a name given to the valley of Jehoshaphat (q.v.) as the vale of the sentence. The scene of Jehovah's signal inflictions on Zion's enemies (Joel 3:14; marg., "valley of concision or threshing"). ......

DEDICATION, FEAST OF THE
(John 10:22, John 10: 42), i.e., the feast of the renewing. It was instituted B.C. 164 to commemorate the purging of the temple after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes (B.C. 167), and the rebuilding of the altar after the Syrian invaders had been driven out by Judas Maccabaeus. It lasted for eight days, beginning on the 25th of the month Chisleu (December), which was often a period of heavy rai......

DEGREES, SONG OF
song of steps, a title given to each of these fifteen psalms, 120-134 inclusive. The probable origin of this name is the circumstance that these psalms came to be sung by the people on the ascents or goings up to Jerusalem to attend the three great festivals (Deut. 16:16). They were well fitted for being sung by the way from their peculiar form, and from the sentiments they express. "They are char......

DEMON
See DAEMON. ......

DESIRE OF ALL NATIONS
(Hag. 2:7), usually interpreted as a title of the Messiah. The Revised Version, however, more correctly renders "the desirable things of all nations;" i.e., the choicest treasures of the Gentiles shall be consecrated to the Lord. ......

DESOLATION, ABOMINATION OF
(Matt. 24:15; Mark 13:14; comp. Luke 21:20), is interpreted of the eagles, the standards of the Roman army, which were an abomination to the Jews. These standards, rising over the site of the temple, were a sign that the holy place had fallen under the idolatrous Romans. The references are to Dan. 9:27. (See ABOMINATION.) ......

DESTRUCTION
in Job 26:6, Job 26:28:22 (Heb. abaddon) is sheol, the realm of the dead. ......

DESTRUCTION, CITY OF
(Isa. 19:18; Heb. Ir-ha-Heres, "city of overthrow," because of the evidence it would present of the overthrow of heathenism), the ideal title of On or Heliopolis (q.v.). ......

DEUTERONOMY
In all the Hebrew manuscripts the Pentateuch (q.v.) forms one roll or volume divided into larger and smaller sections called _parshioth_ and _sedarim_. It is not easy to say when it was divided into five books. This was probably first done by the Greek translators of the book, whom the Vulgate follows. The fifth of these books was called by the Greeks Deuteronomion, i.e., the second law, hence our......

DIAMOND
(1.) A precious gem (Heb. yahalom', in allusion to its hardness), otherwise unknown, the sixth, i.e., the third in the second row, in the breastplate of the high priest, with the name of Naphtali engraven on it (Exo 28:18;39:11; R.V. marg., "sardonyx.") (2.) A precious stone (Heb. shamir', a sharp point) mentioned in Jer. 17:1. From its hardness it was used for cutting and perforating other mine......

DIBON
pining; wasting. (1.) A city in Moab (Num. 21:30); called also Dibon-gad (33:45), because it was built by Gad and Dimon (Isa. 15:9). It has been identified with the modern Diban, about 3 miles north of the Arnon and 12 miles east of the Dead Sea. (See Moabite Stone.) (2.) A city of the tribe of Judah, inhabited after the Captivity (Neh. 11:25); called also Dimonah (Josh. 15:22). It is probably t......

DIONYSIUS
the Areopagite, one of Paul's converts at Athens (Acts 17:34). ......

DISPENSATION
(Gr. oikonomia, "management," "economy"). (1.) The method or scheme according to which God carries out his purposes towards men is called a dispensation. There are usually reckoned three dispensations, the Patriarchal, the Mosaic or Jewish, and the Christian. (See COVENANT, Administration of.) These were so many stages in God's unfolding of his purpose of grace toward men. The word is not found wi......

DISPERSION
(Gr. diaspora, "scattered," James 1:1; 1-Pet 1:1) of the Jews. At various times, and from the operation of divers causes, the Jews were separated and scattered into foreign countries "to the outmost parts of heaven" (Deut. 30:4). (1.) Many were dispersed over Assyria, Media, Babylonia, and Persia, descendants of those who had been transported thither by the Exile. The ten tribes, after existing ......

DIVINATION
of false prophets (Deut. 18:10, Deut. 18: 14; Micah 3:6, Micah 3: 7, 11), of necromancers (1-Sam 28:8), of the Philistine priests and diviners (1-Sam 6:2), of Balaam (Josh. 13:22). Three kinds of divination are mentioned in Ezek. 21:21, Ezek. 21: by arrows, consulting with images (the teraphim), and by examining the entrails of animals sacrificed. The practice of this art seems to have been encour......

DRAGON
(1.) Heb. tannim, plural of tan. The name of some unknown creature inhabiting desert places and ruins (Job 30:29; Psa 44:19; Isa. 13:22;34:13;43:20; Jer. 10:22; Micah 1:8; Mal. 1:3); probably, as translated in the Revised Version, the jackal (q.v.). (2.) Heb. tannin. Some great sea monster (Jer. 51:34). In Isa. 51:9 it may denote the crocodile. In Gen. 1:21 (Heb. plural tanninim) the Authorized ......

DRAGON WELL
(Neh. 2:13), supposed by some to be identical with the Pool of Gihon.......

DRINK, STRONG
(Heb. shekar'), an intoxicating liquor (Judg. 13:4; Luke 1:15; Isa. 5:11; Micah 2:11) distilled from corn, honey, or dates. The effects of the use of strong drink are referred to in Psa 107:27; Isa. 24:20;49:26;51:17. Its use prohibited, Prov. 20:1. (See WINE.)......

DUNGEON
different from the ordinary prison in being more severe as a place of punishment. Like the Roman inner prison (Acts 16:24), it consisted of a deep cell or cistern (Jer. 38:6). To be shut up in, a punishment common in Egypt (Gen. 39:20;40:3;41:10;42:19). It is not mentioned, however, in the law of Moses as a mode of punishment. Under the later kings imprisonment was frequently used as a punishment ......

EBONY
a black, hard wood, brought by the merchants from India to Tyre (Ezek. 27:15). It is the heart-wood, brought by Diospyros ebenus, which grows in Ceylon and Southern India. ......

EBRONAH
passage, one of the stations of the Israelites in their wanderings (Num. 33:34, Num. 33: 35). It was near Ezion-geber. ......

EGLON
the bullock; place of heifers. (1.) Chieftain or king of one of the Moabite tribes (Judg. 3:12). Having entered into an alliance with Ammon and Amalek, he overran the trans-Jordanic region, and then crossing the Jordan, seized on Jericho, the "city of palm trees," which had been by this time rebuilt, but not as a fortress. He made this city his capital, and kept Israel in subjection for eighteen y......

EKRON
firm-rooted, the most northerly of the five towns belonging to the lords of the Philistines, about 11 miles north of Gath. It was assigned to Judah (Josh. 13:3), and afterwards to Dan (19:43), but came again into the full possession of the Philistines (1-Sam 5:10). It was the last place to which the Philistines carried the ark before they sent it back to Israel (1-Sam 5:10;6:1). There was here a n......

ELECTION OF GRACE
The Scripture speaks (1) of the election of individuals to office or to honour and privilege, e.g., Abraham, Jacob, Saul, David, Solomon, were all chosen by God for the positions they held; so also were the apostles. (2) There is also an election of nations to special privileges, e.g., the Hebrews (Deut. 7:6; Rom. 9:4). (3) But in addition there is an election of individuals to eternal life (2-The......

ELON
oak. (1.) A city of Dan (Josh. 19:43). (2.) A Hittite, father of Bashemath, Esau's wife (Gen. 26:34). (3.) One of the sons of Zebulun (Gen. 46:14). (4.) The eleventh of the Hebrew judges. He held office for ten years (Judg. 12:11, Judg. 12: 12). He is called the Zebulonite.......

EPHRON
fawn-like. (1.) The son of Zohar a Hittite, the owner of the field and cave of Machpelah (q.v.), which Abraham bought for 400 shekels of silver (Gen. 23:8;25:9;49:29, 49: 30). (2.) A mountain range which formed one of the landmarks on the north boundary of the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:9), probably the range on the west side of the Wady Beit-Hanina.......

ESARHADDON
Assur has given a brother, successor of Sennacherib (2-Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38). He ascended the throne about B.C. 681. Nothing further is recorded of him in Scripture, except that he settled certain colonists in Samaria (Ezra 4:2). But from the monuments it appears that he was the most powerful of all the Assyrian monarchs. He built many temples and palaces, the most magnificent of which was the ......

ESDRAELON
the Greek form of the Hebrew "Jezreel," the name of the great plain (called by the natives Merj Ibn Amer; i.e., "the meadow of the son of Amer") which stretches across Central Palestine from the Jordan to the Mediterraanean, separating the mountain ranges of Carmel and Samaria from those of Galilee, extending about 14 miles from north to south, and 9 miles from east to west. It is drained by "that......

EUROCLYDON
south-east billow, the name of the wind which blew in the Adriatic Gulf, and which struck the ship in which Paul was wrecked on the coast of Malta (Acts 27:14; R.V., "Euraquilo," i.e., north-east wind). It is called a "tempestuous wind," i.e., as literally rendered, a "typhonic wind," or a typhoon. It is the modern Gregalia or Levanter. (Comp. Jonah 1:4.) ......

EXECUTIONER
(Mark 6:27). Instead of the Greek word, Mark here uses a Latin word, speculator, which literally means "a scout," "a spy," and at length came to denote one of the armed bodyguard of the emperor. Herod Antipas, in imitation of the emperor, had in attendance on him a company of speculatores. They were sometimes employed as executioners, but this was a mere accident of their office. (See MARK, GOSPEL......

EXPIATION
Guilt is said to be expiated when it is visited with punishment falling on a substitute. Expiation is made for our sins when they are punished not in ourselves but in another who consents to stand in our room. It is that by which reconciliation is effected. Sin is thus said to be "covered" by vicarious satisfaction. The cover or lid of the ark is termed in the LXX. hilasterion, that which covere......

EZION-GEBER
the giant's backbone (so called from the head of a mountain which runs out into the sea), an ancient city and harbour at the north-east end of the Elanitic branch of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Akabah, near Elath or Eloth (Num. 33:35; Deut. 2:8). Here Solomon built ships, "Tarshish ships," like those trading from Tyre to Tarshish and the west, which traded with Ophir (1-Kings 9:26; 2-Chr 8:17); and h......

FIRST-BORN, REDEMPTION OF
From the beginning the office of the priesthood in each family belonged to the eldest son. But when the extensive plan of sacrificial worship was introduced, requiring a company of men to be exclusively devoted to this ministry, the primitive office of the first-born was superseded by that of the Levites (Num. 3:11), and it was ordained that the first-born of man and of unclean animals should henc......

FIRST-BORN, SANCTIFICATION OF THE
A peculiar sanctity was attached to the first-born both of man and of cattle. God claimed that the first-born males of man and of animals should be consecrated to him, the one as a priest (Exo 19:22, Exo 19: 24), representing the family to which he belonged, and the other to be offered up in sacrifice (Gen. 4:4). ......

FLAGON
Heb. ashishah, (2-Sam 6:19; 1-Chr 16:3; 2:5; Hos. 3:1), meaning properly "a cake of pressed raisins." "Flagons of wine" of the Authorized Version should be, as in the Revised Version, "cakes of raisins" in all these passages. In Isa. 22:24 it is the rendering of the Hebrew _nebel_, which properly means a bottle or vessel of skin. (Comp. 1-Sam 1:24;10:3;25:18; 2-Sam 16:1, 2-Sam 16: where the same H......

FORNICATION
in every form of it was sternly condemned by the Mosaic law (Lev. 21:9;19:29; Deut. 22:20, Deut. 22: 21, 23-29;23:18; Exo 22:16). (See ADULTERY.) But this word is more frequently used in a symbolical than in its ordinary sense. It frequently means a forsaking of God or a following after idols (Isa. 1:2; Jer. 2:20; Ezek. 16; Hos. 1:2;2:1; Jer. 3:8, Jer. 3:9). ......

FRONTLETS
occurs only in Exo 13:16; Deut. 6:8, Deut. 6: 11:18. The meaning of the injunction to the Israelites, with regard to the statues and precepts given them, that they should "bind them for a sign upon their hand, and have them as frontlets between their eyes," was that they should keep them distinctly in view and carefully attend to them. But soon after their return from Babylon they began to interpr......

FURLONG
a stadium, a Greek measure of distance equal to 606 feet and 9 inches (Luke 24:13; John 6:19;11:18; Rev. 14:20;21:16). ......

GARRISON
(1.) Heb. matstsab, a station; a place where one stands (1-Sam 14:12); a military or fortified post (1-Sam 13:23;14:1, 14: 4, 6, etc.). (2.) Heb. netsib, a prefect, superintendent; hence a military post (1-Sam 10:5;13:3, 13: 4; 2-Sam 8:6). This word has also been explained to denote a pillar set up to mark the Philistine conquest, or an officer appointed to collect taxes; but the idea of a milit......

GATH-RIMMON
press of the pomegranate. (1.) A Levitical city in the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:45;21:24; 1-Chr 6:69). (2.) Another city of the same name in Manasseh, west of the Jordan (Josh. 21:25), called also Bileam (1-Chr 6:70).......

GENERATION
Gen. 2:4, Gen. 2: "These are the generations," means the "history."5:1, 5: "The book of the generations," means a family register, or history of 37:2, 37: "The generations of Jacob" = the history of Jacob and his 7:1, 7: "In this generation" = in this age. Psa 49:19, Psa 49: "The generation of his fathers" = the dwelling of his fathers, i.e., the grave. Psa 73:15, Psa 73: "The generation of thy ch......

GERSHON
=Ger'shom expulsion, the eldest of Levi's three sons (Gen. 46:11; Exo 6:16). In the wilderness the sons of Gershon had charge of the fabrics of the tabernacle when it was moved from place to place, the curtains, veils, tent-hangings (Num. 3:21). Thirteen Levitical cities fell to the lot of the Gershonites (Josh. 21:27). ......

GIBBETHON
a height, a city of the Philistines in the territory of Dan, given to the Kohathites (Josh. 19:44;21:23). Nadab the king of Israel, while besieging it, was slain under its walls by Baasha, one of his own officers (1-Kings 15:27). It was in the possession of the Philistines after the secession of the ten tribes (2-Chr 11:13, 2-Chr 11: 14). ......

GIBEON
hill-city, "one of the royal cities, greater than Ai, and all the men thereof were mighty" (Josh. 10:2). Its inhabitants were Hivites (11:19). It lay within the territory of Benjamin, and became a priest-city (18:25;21:17). Here the tabernacle was set up after the destruction of Nob, and here it remained many years till the temple was built by Solomon. It is represented by the modern el-Jib, to th......

GIDEON
called also Jerubbaal (Judg. 6:29, Judg. 6: 32), was the first of the judges whose history is circumstantially narrated (Judg. 6-8). His calling is the commencement of the second period in the history of the judges. After the victory gained by Deborah and Barak over Jabin, Israel once more sank into idolatry, and the Midianites (q.v.) and Amalekites, with other "children of the east," crossed the ......

GIHON
a stream. (1.) One of the four rivers of Eden (Gen. 2:13). It has been identified with the Nile. Others regard it as the Oxus, or the Araxes, or the Ganges. But as, according to the sacred narrative, all these rivers of Eden took their origin from the head-waters of the Euphrates and the Trigris, it is probable that the Gihon is the ancient Araxes, which, under the modern name of the Arras, discha......

GIZONITE
a name given to Hashem, an inhabitant of Gizoh, a place somewhere in the mountains of Judah (1-Chr 11:34; 2-Sam 23:32, 2-Sam 23: 34). ......

GLUTTON
(Deut. 21:20), Heb. zolel, from a word meaning "to shake out," "to squander;" and hence one who is prodigal, who wastes his means by indulgence. In Prov. 23:21, Prov. 23: the word means debauchees or wasters of their own body. In Prov. 28:7, Prov. 28: the word (pl.) is rendered Authorized Version "riotous men;" Revised Version, "gluttonous." Matt. 11:19, Matt. 11: Luke 7:34, Luke 7: Greek phagos, ......

HABERGEON
an Old English word for breastplate. In Job 41:26 (Heb. shiryah) it is properly a "coat of mail;" the Revised Version has "pointed shaft." In Exo 28:32, Exo 28:39:23, 39: it denotes a military garment strongly and thickly woven and covered with mail round the neck and breast. Such linen corselets have been found in Egypt. The word used in these verses is _tahra_, which is of Egyptian origin. The R......

HABITATION
God is the habitation of his people, who find rest and safety in him (Psa 71:3;91:9). Justice and judgment are the habitation of God's throne (Psa 89:14, Psa 89: Heb. mekhon, "foundation"), because all his acts are founded on justice and judgment. (See Psa 132:5, Psa 132: 13; Eph. 2:22, Eph. 2: of Canaan, Jerusalem, and the temple as God's habitation.) God inhabits eternity (Isa. 57:15), i.e., dwe......

HADAD-RIMMON
(composed of the names of two Syrian idols), the name of a place in the valley of Megiddo. It is alluded to by the prophet Zechariah (12:11) in a proverbial expression derived from the lamentation for Josiah, who was mortally wounded near this place (2-Chr 35:22). It has been identified with the modern Rummaneh, a village "at the foot of the Megiddo hills, in a notch or valley about an hour and a ......

HAMMON
warm springs. (1.) A town in the tribe of Asher, near Zidon (Josh. 19:28), identified with 'Ain Hamul. (2.) A Levitical city of Naphtali (1-Chr 6:76).......

HAMON
See BAAL-HAMON.......

HAMON-GOG
multitude of Gog, the name of the valley in which the slaughtered forces of Gog are to be buried (Ezek. 39:11, Ezek. 39:15), "the valley of the passengers on the east of the sea."......

HAMONAH
multitude, a name figuratively assigned to the place in which the slaughter and burial of the forces of Gog were to take place (Ezek. 39:16).......

HARBONA
(a Persian word meaning "ass-driver"), one of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains of king Ahasuerus (Esther 1:10;7:9).......

HASHMONAH
fatness, the thirtieth halting-place of the Israelites during their wanderings in the wilderness, not far from Mount Hor (Num. 33:29, Num. 33: 30).......

HAZAR-HATTICON
village of the midway, a place near Hamath in the confines of Hauran (Ezek. 47:16), probably on the north brow of Hermon.......

HAZEZON-TAMAR
pruning of the palm, the original name of the place afterwards called ENGEDI (q.v.), Gen. 14:7; called also HAZAZON-TAMAR (2-Chr 20:2).......

HEBRON
a community; alliance. (1.) A city in the south end of the valley of Eshcol, about midway between Jerusalem and Beersheba, from which it is distant about 20 miles in a straight line. It was built "seven years before Zoan in Egypt" (Gen. 13:18; Num. 13:22). It still exists under the same name, and is one of the most ancient cities in the world. Its earlier name was Kirjath-arba (Gen. 23:2; Josh. 14......

HELBON
fat; i.e., "fertile", (Ezek. 27:18 only), a place whence wine was brought to the great market of Tyre. It has been usually identified with the modern Aleppo, called Haleb by the native Arabs, but is more probably to be found in one of the villages in the Wady Helbon, which is celebrated for its grapes, on the east slope of Anti-Lebanon, north of the river Barada (Abana). ......

HELON
strong, father of Eliab, who was "captain of the children of Zebulun" (Num. 1:9;2:7). ......

HERMON
a peak, the eastern prolongation of the Anti-Lebanon range, reaching to the height of about 9,200 feet above the Mediterranean. It marks the north boundary of Palestine (Deut. 3:8, Deut. 3:4:48; Josh. 11:3, Josh. 11: 17;13:11;12:1), and is seen from a great distance. It is about 40 miles north of the Sea of Galilee. It is called "the Hermonites" (Psa 42:6) because it has more than one summit. The ......

HERMONITES, THE
(Psa 42:6, Psa 42: 7) = "the Hermons", i.e., the three peaks or summits of Hermon, which are about a quarter of a mile apart.......

HERODION
a Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes and calls his "kinsman" (Rom. 16:11).......

HERON
(Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18), ranked among the unclean birds. The Hebrew name is _'anaphah_, and indicates that the bird so named is remarkable for its angry disposition. "The herons are wading-birds, peculiarly irritable, remarkable for their voracity, frequenting marshes and oozy rivers, and spread over the regions of the East." The Ardea russeta, or little golden egret, is the commonest species in......

HESHBON
intelligence, a city ruled over by Sihon, king of the Amorites (Josh. 3:10;13:17). It was taken by Moses (Num. 21:23), and became afterwards a Levitical city (Josh. 21:39) in the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:37). After the Exile it was taken possession of by the Moabites (Isa. 15:4; Jer. 48:2, Jer. 48: 34, 45). The ruins of this town are still seen about 20 miles east of Jordan from the north end of t......

HESHMON
fatness, a town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:27).......

HETHLON
wrapped up, a place on the north border of Palestine. The "way of Hethlon" (Ezek. 47:15;48:1) is probably the pass at the end of Lebanon from the Mediterranean to the great plain of Hamath (q.v.), or the "entrance of Hamath."......

HEZION
vision, the father of Tabrimon, and grandfather of Ben-hadad, king of Syria (1-Kings 15:18).......

HEZRON
enclosed. (1.) One of the sons of Reuben (Gen. 46:9; Exo 6:14). (2.) The older of the two sons of Pharez (Gen. 46:12). (3.) A plain in the south of Judah, west of Kadesh-barnea (Josh. 15:3).......

HIGGAION
in Psa 92:3 means the murmuring tone of the harp. In Psa 9:16 it is a musical sign, denoting probably a pause in the instrumental interlude. In Psa 19:14 the word is rendered "meditation;" and in Lam. 3:62, Lam. 3: "device" (R.V., "imagination").......

HONEY
(1.) Heb. ya'ar, occurs only 1-Sam 14:25, 1-Sam 14: 27, 29; 5:1, 5: where it denotes the honey of bees. Properly the word signifies a forest or copse, and refers to honey found in woods. (2.) Nopheth, honey that drops (Psa 19:10; Prov. 5:3; 4:11). (3.) Debash denotes bee-honey (Judg. 14:8); but also frequently a vegetable honey distilled from trees (Gen. 43:11; Ezek. 27:17). In these passages ......

HORONAIM
two caverns, a city of Moab to the south of the Arnon, built, apparently, upon an eminence, and a place of some importance (Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:3, Jer. 48: 5, 34). ......

HORONITE
the designation of Sanballat (Neh. 2:10, Neh. 2: 19), a native of Horonaim, or of one of the two Beth-horons, the "upper" or the "nether," mentioned in Josh. 16:3, Josh. 16:5. ......

HUMILIATION OF CHRIST
(Phil. 2:8), seen in (1) his birth (Gal. 4:4; Luke 2:7; John 1:46; Heb. 2:9), (2) his circumstances, (3) his reputation (Isa. 53; Matt. 26:59, Matt. 26: 67; Psa 22:6; Matt. 26:68), (4) his soul (Psa 22:1; Matt. 4:1; Luke 22:44; Heb. 2:17, Heb. 2: 18;4:15), (5) his death (Luke 23; John 19; Mark 15:24, Mark 15: 25), (6) and his burial (Isa. 53:9; Matt. 27:57, Matt. 27: 58, 60). His humiliation was......

ICONIUM
the capital of ancient Lycaonia. It was first visited by Paul and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle's first missionary journey (Acts 13:50, Acts 13: 51). Here they were persecuted by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to Lystra. They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the church which had been founded there (14:21, 14:22). It was probably again visite......

IJON
a ruin, a city of Naphtali, captured by Ben-hadad of Syria at the instance of Asa (1-Kings 15:20), and afterwards by Tiglath-pileser of Assyria (2-Kings 15:29) in the reign of Pekah; now el-Khiam. ......

IMPUTATION
is used to designate any action or word or thing as reckoned to a person. Thus in doctrinal language (1) the sin of Adam is imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is reckoned as theirs, and they are dealt with therefore as guilty; (2) the righteousness of Christ is imputed to them that believe in him, or so attributed to them as to be considered their own; and (3) our sins are imputed to Christ,......

INCARNATION
that act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1-Cor 2:8; Heb. 2:11; 1-Tim 3:16; Gal. 4:4, Gal. 4: etc.). The union is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; t......

INSPIRATION
that extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings infallible. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God" (R.V., "Every scripture inspired of God"), 2-Tim 3:16. This is true of all the "sacred writings," not in the sense of their being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as "theopneustic," i.e., "breathed ......

INTERCESSION OF CHRIST
Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual intercession for us. When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34; John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence of God for us (Heb. 9:12, Heb. 9:24). His advocacy with ......

INTERCESSION OF THE SPIRIT
(Rom. 8:26, Rom. 8: 27; John 14:26). "Christ is a royal Priest (Zech. 6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven, a......

IRON
Tubal-Cain is the first-mentioned worker in iron (Gen. 4:22). The Egyptians wrought it at Sinai before the Exodus. David prepared it in great abundance for the temple (1-Chr 22:3:29:7). The merchants of Dan and Javan brought it to the market of Tyre (Ezek. 27:19). Various instruments are mentioned as made of iron (Deut. 27:5;19:5; Josh. 17:16, Josh. 17: 18; 1-Sam 17:7; 2-Sam 12:31; 2-Kings 6:5, 2-......

IRRIGATION
As streams were few in Palestine, water was generally stored up in winter in reservoirs, and distributed through gardens in numerous rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the foot (Deut. 11:10). For purposes of irrigation, water was raised from streams or pools by water-wheels, or by a shaduf, commonly used on the banks of the Nile to the present day. ......

JADON
judge, a Meronothite who assisted in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:7). ......

JALON
lodger, the last of the four sons of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah (1-Chr 4:17). ......

JASON
he that will cure, the host of Paul and Silas in Thessalonica. The Jews assaulted his house in order to seize Paul, but failing to find him, they dragged Jason before the ruler of the city (Acts 17:5). He was apparently one of the kinsmen of Paul (Rom. 16:21), and accompanied him from Thessalonica to Corinth. ......

JAW-BONE
of an ass afforded Samson a weapon for the great slaughter of the Philistines (Judg. 15.15), in which he slew a thousand men. In verse 19 the Authorized Version reads, "God clave a hollow place that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout." This is a mis-translation of the words. The rendering should be as in the Revised Version, "God clave the hollow place that is in Lehi," etc., Lehi (q.v.......

JEHONADAB
Jehovah is liberal; or, whom Jehovah impels. (1.) A son of Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who gave the fatal wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne (2-Sam 13:3). He was very "subtil," but unprincipled. (2.) A son of Rechab, the founder of a tribe who bound themselves by a vow to abstain from wine (Jer. 35:6). There were different settlements of Rechabites (Judg. 1:16;4:11; 1-Chr......

JEHONATHAN
whom Jehovah gave. (1.) One of the stewards of David's store-houses (1-Chr 27:25). (2.) A Levite who taught the law to the people of Judah (2-Chr 17:8). (3.) Neh. 12:18. ......

JESHIMON
the waste, probably some high waste land to the south of the Dead Sea (Num. 21:20;23:28; 1-Sam 23:19, 1-Sam 23: 24); or rather not a proper name at all, but simply "the waste" or "wilderness," the district on which the plateau of Ziph (q.v.) looks down. ......

JEZREEL, PORTION OF
the field adjoining the city (2-Kings 9:10, 2-Kings 9: 21, 36, 37). Here Naboth was stoned to death (1-Kings 21:13). ......

JOHN, SECOND EPISTLE OF
is addressed to "the elect lady," and closes with the words, "The children of thy elect sister greet thee;" but some would read instead of "lady" the proper name Kyria. Of the thirteen verses composing this epistle seven are in the First Epistle. The person addressed is commended for her piety, and is warned against false teachers. ......

JONADAB
=Jehon'adab. (1.) The son of Rechab, and founder of the Rechabites (q.v.), 2-Kings 10:15; Jer. 35:6, Jer. 35: 10. (2.) The son of Shimeah, David's brother (2-Sam 13:3). He was "a very subtil man."......

JONAH
a dove, the son of Amittai of Gath-hepher. He was a prophet of Israel, and predicted the restoration of the ancient boundaries (2-Kings 14:25) of the kingdom. He exercised his ministry very early in the reign of Jeroboam II., and thus was contemporary with Hosea and Amos; or possibly he preceded them, and consequently may have been the very oldest of all the prophets whose writings we possess. His......

JONAH, BOOK OF
This book professes to give an account of what actually took place in the experience of the prophet. Some critics have sought to interpret the book as a parable or allegory, and not as a history. They have done so for various reasons. Thus (1) some reject it on the ground that the miraculous element enters so largely into it, and that it is not prophetical but narrative in its form; (2) others, de......

JONAS
(1.) Greek form of Jonah (Matt. 12:39, Matt. 12: 40, 41, etc.). (2.) The father of the apostles Peter (John 21:15) and Andrew; but the reading should be (also 1:42), as in the Revised Version, "John," instead of Jonas.......

JONATH-ELEM-RECHOKIM
dove of the dumbness of the distance; i.e., "the silent dove in distant places", title of Ps. 56. This was probably the name of some well known tune or melody to which the psalm was to be sung.......

JONATHAN
whom Jehovah gave, the name of fifteen or more persons that are mentioned in Scripture. The chief of these are, (1.) A Levite descended from Gershom (Judg. 18:30). His history is recorded 17:7 18:30. The Rabbins changed this name into Manasseh "to screen the memory of the great lawgiver from the stain of having so unworthy an apostate among his near descendants." He became priest of the idol image......

JUDAH UPON JORDAN
The Authorized Version, following the Vulgate, has this rendering in Josh. 19:34. It has been suggested that, following the Masoretic punctuation, the expression should read thus, "and Judah; the Jordan was toward the sun-rising." The sixty cities (Havoth-jair, Num. 32:41) on the east of Jordan were reckoned as belonging to Judah, because Jair, their founder, was a Manassite only on his mother's s......

JUSTIFICATION
a forensic term, opposed to condemnation. As regards its nature, it is the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as conformed to all its demands. In addition to the pardon (q.v.) of sin, justification declares that all the claims of the law are satisfied in respect of th......

KADMONITES
Orientals, the name of a Canaanitish tribe which inhabited the north-eastern part of Palestine in the time of Abraham (Gen. 15:19). Probably they were identical with the "children of the east," who inhabited the country between Palestine and the Euphrates.......

KEDRON
the valley, now quite narrow, between the Mount of Olives and Mount Moriah. The upper part of it is called the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The LXX., in 1-Kings 15:13, 1-Kings 15: translate "of the cedar." The word means "black," and may refer to the colour of the water or the gloom of the ravine, or the black green of the cedars which grew there. John 18:1, John 18: "Cedron," only here in New Testament......

KIDRON
= Kedron = Cedron, turbid, the winter torrent which flows through the Valley of Jehoshaphat, on the eastern side of Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives. This valley is known in Scripture only by the name "the brook Kidron." David crossed this brook bare-foot and weeping, when fleeing from Absalom (2-Sam 15:23, 2-Sam 15: 30), and it was frequently crossed by our Lord in his journeyi......

KISHION
hardness, a city of Issachar assigned to the Gershonite Levites (Josh. 19:20), the same as Kishon (21:28). ......

KISHON
winding, a winter torrent of Central Palestine, which rises about the roots of Tabor and Gilboa, and passing in a northerly direction through the plains of Esdraelon and Acre, falls into the Mediterranean at the north-eastern corner of the bay of Acre, at the foot of Carmel. It is the drain by which the waters of the plain of Esdraelon and of the mountains that surround it find their way to the se......

KITRON
knotty, a city of Zebulun (Judg. 1:30), called also Kattath (Josh. 19:15); supposed to be "Cana of Galilee." ......

LAMENTATION
(Heb. qinah), an elegy or dirge. The first example of this form of poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan (2-Sam 1:17). It was a frequent accompaniment of mourning (Amos 8:10). In 2-Sam 3:33, 2-Sam 3: 34 is recorded David's lament over Abner. Prophecy sometimes took the form of a lament when it predicted calamity (Ezek. 27:2, Ezek. 27: 32;28:12;32:2, 32: 16). ......

LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF
called in the Hebrew canon _'Ekhah_, meaning "How," being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing. It is the first word of the book (see 2-Sam 1:19). The LXX. adopted the name rendered "Lamentations" (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth) now in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the holy land by Chaldeans. I......

LEBANON
white, "the white mountain of Syria," is the loftiest and most celebrated mountain range in Syria. It is a branch running southward from the Caucasus, and at its lower end forking into two parallel ranges, the eastern or Anti-Lebanon, and the western or Lebanon proper. They enclose a long valley (Josh. 11:17) of from 5 to 8 miles in width, called by Roman writers Coele-Syria, now called el-Buka'a,......

LEBONAH
frankincense, a town near Shiloh, on the north side of Bethel (Judg. 21:19). It has been identified with el-Lubban, to the south of Nablus. ......

LEGION
a regiment of the Roman army, the number of men composing which differed at different times. It originally consisted of three thousand men, but in the time of Christ consisted of six thousand, exclusive of horsemen, who were in number a tenth of the foot-men. The word is used (Matt. 26:53; Mark 5:9) to express simply a great multitude. ......

LIONS
the most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests (Jer. 5:6;12:8; Amos 3:4), in the caves of the mountains (4:8; Nah. 2:12), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jer. 49:19;50:44; Zech. 11:3). No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old Te......

LYCAONIA
an inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of Cappadocia and the south of Galatia. It was a Roman province, and its chief towns were Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The "speech of Lycaonia" (Acts 14:11) was probably the ancient Assyrian language, or perhaps, as others think, a corrupt Greek intermingled with Syriac words. Paul preached in this region, and revisited it (Acts 16:1;18:23;19:1). ......

MACEDONIA
in New Testament times, was a Roman province lying north of Greece. It was governed by a propraetor with the title of proconsul. Paul was summoned by the vision of the "man of Macedonia" to preach the gospel there (Acts 16:9). Frequent allusion is made to this event (18:5;19:21; Rom. 15:26; 2-Cor 1:16;11:9; Phil. 4:15). The history of Paul's first journey through Macedonia is given in detail in Ac......

MADON
strife, a Canaanitish city in the north of Palestine (Josh. 11:1;12:19), whose king was slain by Joshua; perhaps the ruin Madin, near Hattin, some 5 miles west of Tiberias. ......

MAHLON
sickly, the elder of Elimelech the Bethlehemite's two sons by Naomi. He married Ruth and died childless (Ruth 1:2, Ruth 1: 5;4:9, 4: 10), in the land of Moab. ......

MAMMON
a Chaldee or Syriac word meaning "wealth" or "riches" (Luke 16:9); also, by personification, the god of riches (Matt. 6:24; Luke 16:9). ......

MAON
habitation, a town in the tribe of Judah, about 7 miles south of Hebron, which gave its name to the wilderness, the district round the conical hill on which the town stood. Here David hid from Saul, and here Nabal had his possessions and his home (1-Sam 23:24, 1-Sam 23: 25;25:2). "Only some small foundations of hewn stone, a square enclosure, and several cisterns are now to be seen at Maon. Are th......

MASON
an artificer in stone. The Tyrians seem to have been specially skilled in architecture (1-Kings 5:17, 1-Kings 5: 18; 2-Sam 5:11). This art the Hebrews no doubt learned in Egypt (Exo 1:11, Exo 1: 14), where ruins of temples and palaces fill the traveller with wonder at the present day. ......

ME-JARKON
waters of yellowness, or clear waters, a river in the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:46). It has been identified with the river 'Aujeh, which rises at Antipatris. ......

MEKONAH
a base or foundation, a town in the south of Judah (Neh. 11:28), near Ziklag. ......

MELONS
only in Num. 11:5, Num. 11: the translation of the Hebrew abattihim, the LXX. and Vulgate pepones, Arabic britikh. Of this plant there are various kinds, the Egyptian melon, the Cucumus chate, which has been called "the queen of cucumbers;" the water melon, the Cucurbita citrullus; and the common or flesh melon, the Cucumus melo. "A traveller in the East who recollects the intense gratitude which ......

MEONENIM
(Judg. 9:37; A.V., "the plain of Meonenim;" R.V., "the oak of Meonenim") means properly "soothsayers" or "sorcerers," "wizards" (Deut. 18:10, Deut. 18: 14; 2-Kings 21:6; Micah 5:12). This may be the oak at Shechem under which Abram pitched his tent (see SHECHEM), the "enchanter's oak," so called, perhaps, from Jacob's hiding the "strange gods" under it (Gen. 35:4). ......

MERONOTHITE
a name given to Jehdeiah, the herdsman of the royal asses in the time of David and Solomon (1-Chr 27:30), probably as one being a native of some unknown town called Meronoth. ......

MIGRON
precipice or landslip, a place between Aiath and Michmash (Isa. 10:28). The town of the same name mentioned in 1-Sam 14:2 was to the south of this. ......

MNASON
reminding, or remembrancer, a Christian of Jerusalem with whom Paul lodged (Acts 21:16). He was apparently a native of Cyprus, like Barnabas (11:19, 11: 20), and was well known to the Christians of Caesarea (4:36). He was an "old disciple" (R.V., "early disciple"), i.e., he had become a Christian in the beginning of the formation of the Church in Jerusalem. ......

MOABITE STONE
a basalt stone, bearing an inscription by King Mesha, which was discovered at Dibon by Klein, a German missionary at Jerusalem, in 1868. It was 3 1/2 feet high and 2 in breadth and in thickness, rounded at the top. It consisted of thirty-four lines, written in Hebrew-Phoenician characters. It was set up by Mesha as a record and memorial of his victories. It records (1) Mesha's wars with Omri, (2) ......

MONEY
Of uncoined money the first notice we have is in the history of Abraham (Gen. 13:2;20:16;24:35). Next, this word is used in connection with the purchase of the cave of Machpelah (23:16), and again in connection with Jacob's purchase of a field at Shalem (Gen. 33:18, Gen. 33: 19) for "an hundred pieces of money"=an hundred Hebrew kesitahs (q.v.), i.e., probably pieces of money, as is supposed, bear......

MONEY-CHANGER
(Matt. 21:12; Mark 11:15; John 2:15). Every Israelite from twenty years and upwards had to pay (Exo 30:13) into the sacred treasury half a shekel every year as an offering to Jehovah, and that in the exact Hebrew half-shekel piece. There was a class of men, who frequented the temple courts, who exchanged at a certain premium foreign moneys for these half-shekels to the Jews who came up to Jerusale......

MONTH
Among the Egyptians the month of thirty days each was in use long before the time of the Exodus, and formed the basis of their calculations. From the time of the institution of the Mosaic law the month among the Jews was lunar. The cycle of religious feasts depended on the moon. The commencement of a month was determined by the observation of the new moon. The number of months in the year was usua......

MOON
heb. yareah, from its paleness (Ezra 6:15), and lebanah, the "white" (6:10; Isa. 24:23), was appointed by the Creator to be with the sun "for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years" (Gen. 1:14). A lunation was among the Jews the period of a month, and several of their festivals were held on the day of the new moon. It is frequently referred to along with the sun (Josh. 10:12; Psa 72:5, Ps......

MOUNT OF CORRUPTION
(2-Kings 23:13; Vulg., "mount of offence"), the name given to a part of the Mount of Olives, so called because idol temples were there erected in the time of Solomon, temples to the Zidonian Ashtoreth and to the "abominations" of Moab and Ammon. ......

MOUNT OF THE CONGREGATION
only in Isa. 14:13, Isa. 14: a mythic mountain of the Babylonians, regarded by them as the seat of the gods. It was situated in the far north, and in Babylonian inscriptions is described as a mountain called Im-Kharasak, "the mighty mountain of Bel, whose head reaches heaven, whose root is the holy deep." In their geography they are said to have identified it with mount El-wend, near Ecbatana. ......

NACHON
prepared, the owner of a thrashing-floor near which Uzzah was slain (2-Sam 6:6); called also Chidon (1-Chr 13:9). ......

NAHSHON
sorcerer, the son of Aminadab, and prince of the children of Judah at the time of the first numbering of the tribes in the wilderness (Exo 6:23). His sister Elisheba was the wife of Aaron. He died in the wilderness (Num. 26:64, Num. 26: 65). His name occurs in the Greek form Naasson in the genealogy of Christ (Matt,1:4; Luke 3:32).......

NEW MOON, FEAST OF
Special services were appointed for the commencement of a month (Num. 28:11;10:10). (See FESTIVALS.) ......

ON
light; the sun, (Gen. 41:45, Gen. 41: 50), the great seat of sun-worship, called also Bethshemesh (Jer. 43:13) and Aven (Ezek. 30:17), stood on the east bank of the Nile, a few miles north of Memphis, and near Cairo, in the north-east. The Vulgate and the LXX. Versions have "Heliopolis" ("city of the sun") instead of On in Genesis and of Aven in Ezekiel. The "city of destruction" Isaiah speaks of ......

ONAN
strong, the second son of Judah (Gen. 38:4; comp. Deut. 25:5; Matt. 22:24). He died before the going down of Jacob and his family into Egypt. ......

ONESIMUS
useful, a slave who, after robbing his master Philemon (q.v.) at Colosse, fled to Rome, where he was converted by the apostle Paul, who sent him back to his master with the epistle which bears his name. In it he beseeches Philemon to receive his slave as a "faithful and beloved brother." Paul offers to pay to Philemon anything his slave had taken, and to bear the wrong he had done him. He was acco......

ONESIPHORUS
bringing profit, an Ephesian Christian who showed great kindness to Paul at Rome. He served him in many things, and had oft refreshed him. Paul expresses a warm interest in him and his household (2-Tim 1:16;4:19). ......

ONION
The Israelites in the wilderness longed for the "onions and garlick of Egypt" (Num. 11:5). This was the _betsel_ of the Hebrews, the Allium cepe of botanists, of which it is said that there are some thirty or forty species now growing in Palestine. The onion is "the 'undivided' leek, _unio_, _unus_, one." ......

ONO
a town of Benjamin, in the "plain of Ono" (1-Chr 8:12; Ezra 2:33); now Kefr 'Ana, 5 miles north of Lydda, and about 30 miles north-west of Jerusalem. Not succeeding in their attempts to deter Nehemiah from rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem, Sanballat and Tobiah resorted to strategem, and pretending to wish a conference with him, they invited him to meet them at Ono. Four times they made the reques......

ONYCHA
a nail; claw; hoof, (Heb. sheheleth; Exo 30:34), a Latin word applied to the operculum, i.e., the claw or nail of the strombus or wing-shell, a univalve common in the Red Sea. The opercula of these shell-fish when burned emit a strong odour "like castoreum." This was an ingredient in the sacred incense. ......

ONYX
a hail; claw; hoof, (Heb. shoham), a precious stone adorning the breast-plate of the high priest and the shoulders of the ephod (Exo 28:9, Exo 28: 20;35:27; Job 28:16; Ezek. 28:13). It was found in the land of Havilah (Gen. 2:12). The LXX. translates the Hebrew word by smaragdos, an emerald. Some think that the sardonyx is meant. But the onyx differs from the sardonyx in this, that while the latte......

ORION
Heb. Kesil; i.e., "the fool", the name of a constellation (Job 9:9;38:31; Amos 5:8) consisting of about eighty stars. The Vulgate renders thus, but the LXX. renders by Hesperus, i.e., "the evening-star," Venus. The Orientals "appear to have conceived of this constellation under the figure of an impious giant bound upon the sky." This giant was, according to tradition, Nimrod, the type of the folly......

PARDON
the forgiveness of sins granted freely (Isa. 43:25), readily (Neh. 9:17; Psa 86:5), abundantly (Isa. 55:7; Rom. 5:20). Pardon is an act of a sovereign, in pure sovereignty, granting simply a remission of the penalty due to sin, but securing neither honour nor reward to the pardoned. Justification (q.v.), on the other hand, is the act of a judge, and not of a sovereign, and includes pardon and, at ......

PASSION
Only once found, in Acts 1:3, Acts 1: meaning suffering, referring to the sufferings of our Lord.......

PAVILION
a tent or tabernacle (2-Sam 22:12; 1-Kings 20:12), or enclosure (Psa 18:11;27:5). In Jer. 43:10 it probably denotes the canopy suspended over the judgement-seat of the king.......

PERFECTION
See SANCTIFICATION. ......

PERSECUTION
The first great persecution for religious opinion of which we have any record was that which broke out against the worshippers of God among the Jews in the days of Ahab, when that king, at the instigation of his wife Jezebel, "a woman in whom, with the reckless and licentious habits of an Oriental queen, were united the fiercest and sternest qualities inherent in the old Semitic race", sought in t......

PETER, SECOND EPISTLE OF
The question of the authenticity of this epistle has been much discussed, but the weight of evidence is wholly in favour of its claim to be the production of the apostle whose name it bears. It appears to have been written shortly before the apostle's death (1:14). This epistle contains eleven references to the Old Testament. It also contains (3:15, 3: 16) a remarkable reference to Paul's epistles......

PHILEMON
an inhabitant of Colosse, and apparently a person of some note among the citizens (Col. 4:9; Philemon 1:2). He was brought to a knowledge of the gospel through the instrumentality of Paul (19), and held a prominent place in the Christian community for his piety and beneficence (4-7). He is called in the epistle a "fellow-labourer," and therefore probably held some office in the church at Colosse; ......

PHILEMON, EPISTLE TO
was written from Rome at the same time as the epistles to the Colossians and Ephesians, and was sent also by Onesimus. It was addressed to Philemon and the members of his family. It was written for the purpose of interceding for Onesimus (q.v.), who had deserted his master Philemon and been "unprofitable" to him. Paul had found Onesimus at Rome, and had there been instrumental in his conversion,......

PHLEGON
burning, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sent salutations (Rom. 16:14). ......

PIGEON
Pigeons are mentioned as among the offerings which, by divine appointment, Abram presented unto the Lord (Gen. 15:9). They were afterwards enumerated among the sin-offerings (Lev. 1:14;12:6), and the law provided that those who could not offer a lamb might offer two young pigeons (5:7; comp. Luke 2:24). (See DOVE.) ......

PILATE, PONTIUS
probably connected with the Roman family of the Pontii, and called "Pilate" from the Latin pileatus, i.e., "wearing the pileus", which was the "cap or badge of a manumitted slave," as indicating that he was a "freedman," or the descendant of one. He was the sixth in the order of the Roman procurators of Judea (A.D. 26-36). His headquarters were at Caesarea, but he frequently went up to Jerusalem. ......

PIRATHON
prince, or summit, a place "in the land of Ephraim" (Judg. 12:15), now Fer'on, some 10 miles south-west of Shechem. This was the home of Abdon the judge. ......

PIRATHONITE
(1.) Abdon, the son of Hillel, so called, Judg. 12:13, Judg. 12: 15. (2.) Benaiah the Ephraimite (2-Sam 23:30), one of David's thirty heroes. ......

PISON
Babylonian, the current, broad-flowing, one of the "four heads" into which the river which watered the garden of Eden was divided (Gen. 2:11). Some identify it with the modern Phasis, others with the Halys, others the Jorak or Acampis, others the Jaab, the Indus, the Ganges, etc. ......

POISON
(1.) Heb. hemah, "heat," the poison of certain venomous reptiles (Deut. 32:24, Deut. 32: 33; Job 6:4; Psa 58:4), causing inflammation. (2.) Heb. rosh, "a head," a poisonous plant (Deut. 29:18), growing luxuriantly (Hos. 10:4), of a bitter taste (Psa 69:21; Lam. 3:5), and coupled with wormwood; probably the poppy. This word is rendered "gall", q.v., (Deut. 29:18;32:33; Psa 69:21; Jer. 8:14, Jer. ......

PONTIUS PILATE
See PILATE. ......

PONTUS
a province of Asia Minor, stretching along the southern coast of the Euxine Sea, corresponding nearly to the modern province of Trebizond. In the time of the apostles it was a Roman province. Strangers from this province were at Jerusalem at Pentecost (Acts 2:9), and to "strangers scattered throughout Pontus," among others, Peter addresses his first epistle (1-Pet 1:1). It was evidently the resort......

POOLS OF SOLOMON
the name given to three large open cisterns at Etam, at the head of the Wady Urtas, having an average length of 400 feet by 220 in breadth, and 20 to 30 in depth. These pools derive their chief supply of water from a spring called "the sealed fountain," about 200 yards to the north-west of the upper pool, to which it is conveyed by a large subterranean passage. They are 150 feet distant from each ......

PORCH, SOLOMON'S
a colonnade on the east of the temple, so called from a tradition that it was a relic of Solomon's temple left standing after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians. (Comp. 1-Kings 7:6.) The word "porch" is in the New Testament the rendering of three different Greek words: (1.) Stoa, meaning a portico or veranda (John 5:2;10:23; Acts 3:11;5:12). (2.) Pulon, a gateway (Matt. 26:71). ......

PREDESTINATION
This word is properly used only with reference to God's plan or purpose of salvation. The Greek word rendered "predestinate" is found only in these six passages, Acts 4:28; Rom. 8:29, Rom. 8: 30; 1-Cor 2:7; Eph. 1:5, Eph. 1: 11; and in all of them it has the same meaning. They teach that the eternal, sovereign, immutable, and unconditional decree or "determinate purpose" of God governs all events.......

PRISON
The first occasion on which we read of a prison is in the history of Joseph in Egypt. Then Potiphar, "Joseph's master, took him, and put him into the prison, a place where the king's prisoners were bound" (Gen. 39:20). The Heb. word here used (sohar) means properly a round tower or fortress. It seems to have been a part of Potiphar's house, a place in which state prisoners were kept. The Mosaic ......

PROPITIATION
that by which God is rendered propitious, i.e., by which it becomes consistent with his character and government to pardon and bless the sinner. The propitiation does not procure his love or make him loving; it only renders it consistent for him to execise his love towards sinners. In Rom. 3:25 and Heb. 9:5 (A.V., "mercy-seat") the Greek word _hilasterion_ is used. It is the word employed by the......

PROPORTION OF FAITH
(Rom. 12:6). Paul says here that each one was to exercise his gift of prophecy, i.e., of teaching, "according to the proportion of faith." The meaning is, that the utterances of the "prophet" were not to fluctuate according to his own impulses or independent thoughts, but were to be adjusted to the truth revealed to him as a beliver, i.e., were to be in accordance with it. In post-Reformation ti......

PURIFICATION
the process by which a person unclean, according to the Levitical law, and thereby cut off from the sanctuary and the festivals, was restored to the enjoyment of all these privileges. The great annual purification of the people was on the Day of Atonement (q.v.). But in the details of daily life there were special causes of cermonial uncleanness which were severally provided for by ceremonial ......

QUATERNION
a band of four soldiers. Peter was committed by Herod to the custody of four quaternions, i.e., one quaternion for each watch of the night (Acts 12:4). Thus every precaution was taken against his escape from prison. Two of each quaternion were in turn stationed at the door (12:6), and to two the apostle was chained according to Roman custom.......

QUOTATIONS
from the Old Testament in the New, which are very numerous, are not made according to any uniform method. When the New Testament was written, the Old was not divided, as it now is, into chapters and verses, and hence such peculiarities as these: When Luke (20:37) refers to Exo 3:6, Exo 3: he quotes from "Moses at the bush", i.e., the section containing the record of Moses at the bush. So also Mark......

RABBONI
(id.) occurs only twice in the New Testament (Mark 10:51, Mark 10: A.V., "Lord," R.V., "Rabboni;" John 20:16). It was the most honourable of all the titles.......

RAKKON
a place upon the shore, a town belonging to Dan (Josh. 19:46). It is now Tell er-Rakkeit, 6 miles north of Joppa, on the sea-shore, near the mouth of the river 'Aujeh, i.e., "yellow water." (See KANAH.)......

RECONCILATION
a change from enmity to friendship. It is mutual, i.e., it is a change wrought in both parties who have been at enmity. (1.) In Col. 1:21, Col. 1: 22, the word there used refers to a change wrought in the personal character of the sinner who ceases to be an enemy to God by wicked works, and yields up to him his full confidence and love. In 2-Cor 5:20 the apostle beseeches the Corinthians to be "......

REDEMPTION
the purchase back of something that had been lost, by the payment of a ransom. The Greek word so rendered is _apolutrosis_, a word occurring nine times in Scripture, and always with the idea of a ransom or price paid, i.e., redemption by a lutron (see Matt. 20:28; Mark 10:45). There are instances in the LXX. Version of the Old Testament of the use of _lutron_ in man's relation to man (Lev. 19:20;2......

REGENERATION
only found in Matt. 19:28 and Titus 3:5. This word literally means a "new birth." The Greek word so rendered (palingenesia) is used by classical writers with reference to the changes produced by the return of spring. In Matt. 19:28 the word is equivalent to the "restitution of all things" (Acts 3:21). In Titus 3:5 it denotes that change of heart elsewhere spoken of as a passing from death to life ......

REMMON-METHOAR
(Josh. 19:13), rendered correctly in the Revised Version, "Rimmon, which stretcheth unto Neah," a landmark of Zebulun; called also Rimmon (1-Chr 6:77). ......

RESURRECTION OF CHRIST
one of the cardinal facts and doctrines of the gospel. If Christ be not risen, our faith is vain (1-Cor 15:14). The whole of the New Testament revelation rests on this as an historical fact. On the day of Pentecost Peter argued the necessity of Christ's resurrection from the prediction in Ps. 16 (Acts 2:24). In his own discourses, also, our Lord clearly intimates his resurrection (Matt. 20:19; Mar......

RESURRECTION OF THE DEAD
will be simultaneous both of the just and the unjust (Dan. 12:2; John 5:28, John 5: 29; Rom. 2:6; 2-Thess 1:6). The qualities of the resurrection body will be different from those of the body laid in the grave (1-Cor 15:53, 1-Cor 15: 54; Phil. 3:21); but its identity will nevertheless be preserved. It will still be the same body (1-Cor 15:42) which rises again. As to the nature of the resurrecti......

REVELATION
an uncovering, a bringing to light of that which had been previously wholly hidden or only obscurely seen. God has been pleased in various ways and at different times (Heb. 1:1) to make a supernatural revelation of himself and his purposes and plans, which, under the guidance of his Spirit, has been committed to writing. (See WORD+OF+GOD.) The Scriptures are not merely the "record" of revelation; ......

REVELATION OF CHRIST
the second advent of Christ. Three different Greek words are used by the apostles to express this, (1) apokalupsis (1 Cor. 1;7; 2-Thess 1:7; 1-Pet 1:7, 1-Pet 1: 13); (2) parousia (Matt. 24:3, Matt. 24: 27; 1-Thess 2:19; James 5:7, James 5: 8); (3) epiphaneia (1-Tim 6:14; 2-Tim 1:10;4:1; Titus 2:13). There existed among Christians a wide expectation, founded on Matt. 24:29, Matt. 24: 30, 34, of the......

REVELATION, BOOK OF
=The Apocalypse, the closing book and the only prophetical book of the New Testament canon. The author of this book was undoubtedly John the apostle. His name occurs four times in the book itself (1:1, 1: 4, 9;22:8), and there is every reason to conclude that the "John" here mentioned was the apostle. In a manuscript of about the twelfth century he is called "John the divine," but no reason can be......

REZON
prince, son of Eliadah. Abandoning the service of Hadadezer, the king of Zobah, on the occasion of his being defeated by David, he became the "captain over a band" of marauders, and took Damascus, and became king of Syria (1-Kings 11:23; 2-Sam 8:3). For centuries after this the Syrians were the foes of Israel. He "became an adversary to Israel all the days of Solomon." ......

RIMMON
pomegranate. (1.) A man of Beeroth (2-Sam 4:2), one of the four Gibeonite cities. (See Josh. 9:17.) (2.) A Syrian idol, mentioned only in 2-Kings 5:18. (3.) One of the "uttermost cities" of Judah, afterwards given to Simeon (Josh. 15:21, Josh. 15: 32;19:7; 1-Chr 4:32). In Josh. 15:32 Ain and Rimmon are mentioned separately, but 19:7 and 1-Chr 4:32 (comp. Neh. 11:29) the two words are probably ......

RIMMON-PAREZ
a pomegranate breach, or Rimmon of the breach, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:19, Num. 33: 20). ......

RIVERS OF BABYLON
(Psa 137:1), i.e., of the whole country of Babylonia, e.g., the Tigris, Euphrates, Chalonas, the Ulai, and the numerous canals. ......

SAFFRON
Heb. karkom, Arab. zafran (i.e., "yellow"), mentioned only in 4:13, 4: 14; the Crocus sativus. Many species of the crocus are found in Palestine. The pistils and stigmata, from the centre of its flowers, are pressed into "saffron cakes," common in the East. "We found," says Tristram, "saffron a very useful condiment in travelling cookery, a very small pinch of it giving not only a rich yellow colo......

SALMON
shady; or Zalmon (q.v.), a hill covered with dark forests, south of Shechem, from which Abimelech and his men gathered wood to burn that city (Judg. 9:48). In Psa 68:14 the change from war to peace is likened to snow on the dark mountain, as some interpret the expression. Others suppose the words here mean that the bones of the slain left unburied covered the land, so that it seemed to be white as......

SALMONE
a promontory on the east of Crete, under which Paul sailed on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:7); the modern Cape Sidero. ......

SALUTATION
"Eastern modes of salutation are not unfrequently so prolonged as to become wearisome and a positive waste of time. The profusely polite Arab asks so many questions after your health, your happiness, your welfare, your house, and other things, that a person ignorant of the habits of the country would imagine there must be some secret ailment or mysterious sorrow oppressing you, which you wished to......

SALVATION
This word is used of the deliverance of the Israelites from the Egyptians (Exo 14:13), and of deliverance generally from evil or danger. In the New Testament it is specially used with reference to the great deliverance from the guilt and the pollution of sin wrought out by Jesus Christ, "the great salvation" (Heb. 2:3). (See REDEMPTION; REGENERATION.) ......

SAMSON
of the sun, the son of Manoah, born at Zorah. The narrative of his life is given in Judg. 13-16. He was a "Nazarite unto God" from his birth, the first Nazarite mentioned in Scripture (Judg. 13:3; comp. Num. 6:1). The first recorded event of his life was his marriage with a Philistine woman of Timnath (Judg. 14:1). Such a marriage was not forbidden by the law of Moses, as the Philistines did not f......

SANCTIFICATION
involves more than a mere moral reformation of character, brought about by the power of the truth: it is the work of the Holy Spirit bringing the whole nature more and more under the influences of the new gracious principles implanted in the soul in regeneration. In other words, sanctification is the carrying on to perfection the work begun in regeneration, and it extends to the whole man (Rom. 6:......

SARDINE STONE
(Rev. 4:3, Rev. 4: R.V., "sardius;" Heb. 'odhem; LXX., Gr. sardion, from a root meaning "red"), a gem of a blood-red colour. It was called "sardius" because obtained from Sardis in Lydia. It is enumerated among the precious stones in the high priest's breastplate (Exo 28:17;39:10). It is our red carnelian. ......

SARDONYX
(Rev. 21:20), a species of the carnelian combining the sard and the onyx, having three layers of opaque spots or stripes on a transparent red basis. Like the sardine, it is a variety of the chalcedony. ......

SARGON
(In the inscriptions, "Sarra-yukin" [the god] has appointed the king; also "Sarru-kinu," the legitimate king.) On the death of Shalmaneser (B.C. 723), one of the Assyrian generals established himself on the vacant throne, taking the name of "Sargon," after that of the famous monarch, the Sargon of Accad, founder of the first Semitic empire, as well as of one of the most famous libraries of Chaldea......

SCORPIONS
mentioned along with serpents (Deut. 8:15). Used also figuratively to denote wicked persons (Ezek. 2:6; Luke 10:19); also a particular kind of scourge or whip (1-Kings 12:11). Scorpions were a species of spider. They abounded in the Jordan valley. ......

SEASONS
(Gen. 8:22). See AGRICULTURE; MONTH. ......

SERMON ON THE MOUNT
After spending a night in solemn meditation and prayer in the lonely mountain-range to the west of the Lake of Galilee (Luke 6:12), on the following morning our Lord called to him his disciples, and from among them chose twelve, who were to be henceforth trained to be his apostles (Mark 3:14, Mark 3: 15). After this solemn consecration of the twelve, he descended from the mountain-peak to a more l......

SHARON, SARON
a plain, a level tract extending from the Mediterranean to the hill country to the west of Jerusalem, about 30 miles long and from 8 to 15 miles broad, celebrated for its beauty and fertility (1-Chr 27:29; Isa. 33:9;35:2;65:10). The "rose of Sharon" is celebrated (2:1). It is called Lasharon (the article la being here a part of the word) in Josh. 12:18.......

SHIGGAION
from the verb shagah, "to reel about through drink," occurs in the title of Ps. 7. The plural form, shigionoth, is found in Hab. 3:1. The word denotes a lyrical poem composed under strong mental emotion; a song of impassioned imagination accompanied with suitable music; a dithyrambic ode.......

SHIHON
overturning, a town of Issachar (Josh. 19:19).......

SHILONITE
Ahijah the prophet, whose home was in Shiloh, is so designated (1-Kings 11:29;15:29). The plural form occurs (1-Chr 9:5), denoting the descendants of Shelah, Judah's youngest son.......

SHIMEON
hearkening. Ezra 10:31.......

SHIMRON
watch-post, an ancient city of the Canaanites; with its villages, allotted to Zebulun (Josh. 19:15); now probably Semunieh, on the northern edge of the plain of Esdraelon, 5 miles west of Nazareth.......

SHIMRON-MERON
the same, probably, as Shimron (Josh. 12:20).......

SIDON
fishing; fishery, Gen. 10:15, Gen. 10: 19 (A.V. marg., Tzidon; R.V., Zidon); Matt. 11:21, Matt. 11: 22; Luke 6:17. (See ZIDON.) ......

SIHON
striking down. The whole country on the east of Jordan, from the Arnon to the Jabbok, was possessed by the Amorites, whose king, Sihon, refused to permit the Israelites to pass through his territory, and put his army in array against them. The Israelites went forth against him to battle, and gained a complete victory. The Amorites were defeated; Sihon, his sons, and all his people were smitten wit......

SIMEON
hearing. (1.) The second son of Jacob by Leah (Gen. 29:33). He was associated with Levi in the terrible act of vengeance against Hamor and the Shechemites (34:25, 34: 26). He was detained by Joseph in Egypt as a hostage (2:24). His father, when dying, pronounced a malediction against him (9:5). The words in the Authorized Version (9:6), "they digged down a wall," ought to be, as correctly rendered......

SIMEON, THE TRIBE OF
was "divided and scattered" according to the prediction in Gen. 49:5. They gradually dwindled in number, and sank into a position of insignificance among the other tribes. They decreased in the wilderness by about two-thirds (comp. Num. 1:23;26:14). Moses pronounces no blessing on this tribe. It is passed by in silence (Deut. 33). This tribe received as their portion a part of the territory alre......

SIMON
the abbreviated form of Simeon. (1.) One of the twelve apostles, called the Canaanite (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:18). This word "Canaanite" does not mean a native of Canaan, but is derived from the Syriac word Kanean or Kaneniah, which was the name of a Jewish sect. The Revised Version has "Cananaean;" marg., "or Zealot" He is also called "Zelotes" (Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13; R.V., "the Zealot"), because prev......

SION
elevated. (1.) Denotes Mount Hermon in Deut. 4:48; called Sirion by the Sidonians, and by the Amorites Shenir (Deut. 3:9). (See HERMON.) (2.) The Greek form of Zion (q.v.) in Matt. 21:5; John 12:15. ......

SIRION
a breastplate, the Sidonian name of Hermon (q.v.), Deut. 3:9; Psa 29:6. ......

SOLOMON
peaceful, (Heb. Shelomoh), David's second son by Bathsheba, i.e., the first after their legal marriage (2 Sam. 12). He was probably born about B.C. 1035 (1-Chr 22:5;29:1). He succeeded his father on the throne in early manhood, probably about sixteen or eighteen years of age. Nathan, to whom his education was intrusted, called him Jedidiah, i.e., "beloved of the Lord" (2-Sam 12:24, 2-Sam 12: 25). ......

SOLOMON'S PORCH
(John 10:23; Acts 3:11;5:12), a colonnade, or cloister probably, on the eastern side of the temple. It is not mentioned in connection with the first temple, but Josephus mentions a porch, so called, in Herod's temple (q.v.). ......

SOLOMON, SONG OF
called also, after the Vulgate, the "Canticles." It is the "song of songs" (1:1), as being the finest and most precious of its kind; the noblest song, "das Hohelied," as Luther calls it. The Solomonic authorship of this book has been called in question, but evidences, both internal and external, fairly establish the traditional view that it is the product of Solomon's pen. It is an allegorical poe......

SON OF GOD
The plural, "sons of God," is used (Gen. 6:2, Gen. 6: 4) to denote the pious descendants of Seth. In Job 1:6;38:7 this name is applied to the angels. Hosea uses the phrase (1:10) to designate the gracious relation in which men stand to God. In the New Testament this phrase frequently denotes the relation into which we are brought to God by adoption (Rom. 8:14, Rom. 8: 19; 2-Cor 6:18; Gal. 4:5, G......

SON OF MAN
(1.) Denotes mankind generally, with special reference to their weakness and frailty (Job 25:6; Psa 8:4;144:3;146:3; Isa. 51:12, Isa. 51: etc.). (2.) It is a title frequently given to the prophet Ezekiel, probably to remind him of his human weakness. (3.) In the New Testament it is used forty-three times as a distinctive title of the Saviour. In the Old Testament it is used only in Psa 80:17 a......

SONGS
of Moses (Exo 15; Num. 21:17; Deut. 32; Rev. 15:3), Deborah (Judg. 5), Hannah (1 Sam. 2), David (2 Sam. 22, and Psalms), Mary (Luke 1:46), Zacharias (Luke 1:68), the angels (Luke 2:13), Simeon (Luke 2:29), the redeemed (Rev. 5:9; 19), Solomon (see SOLOMON, SONGS OF). ......

SPONGE
occurs only in the narrative of the crucifixion (Matt. 27:48; Mark 15:36; John 19:29). It is ranked as a zoophyte. It is found attached to rocks at the bottom of the sea. ......

STONE
Stones were commonly used for buildings, also as memorials of important events (Gen. 28:18; Josh. 24:26, Josh. 24: 27; 1-Sam 7:12, 1-Sam 7: etc.). They were gathered out of cultivated fields (Isa. 5:2; comp. 2-Kings 3:19). This word is also used figuratively of believers (1-Pet 2:4, 1-Pet 2: 5), and of the Messiah (Psa 118:22; Isa. 28:16; Matt. 21:42; Acts 4:11, Acts 4: etc.). In Dan. 2:45 it refe......

STONES, PRECIOUS
Frequently referred to (1-Kings 10:2; 2-Chr 3:6;9:10; Rev. 18:16;21:19). There are about twenty different names of such stones in the Bible. They are figuratively introduced to denote value, beauty, durability (5:14; Isa 54:11, Isa 54: 12; Lam. 4:7). ......

STONING
a form of punishment (Lev. 20:2;24:14; Deut. 13:10;17:5;22:21) prescribed for certain offences. Of Achan (Josh. 7:25), Naboth (1 Kings 21), Stephen (Acts 7:59), Paul (Acts 14:19; 2-Cor 11:25). ......

SUBSCRIPTIONS
The subscriptions to Paul's epistles are no part of the original. In their present form they are ascribed to Euthalius, a bishop of the fifth century. Some of them are obviously incorrect. ......

TABRIMON
good is Rimmon, the father of Benhadad, king of Syria (1-Kings 15:18). ......

TACHMONITE
=Hach'monite, a name given to Jashobeam (2-Sam 23:8; comp. 1-Chr 11:11). ......

TALMON
oppressed. (1.) A Levite porter (1-Chr 9:17; Neh. 11:19). (2.) One whose descendants returned with Zerubbabel to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45); probably the same as (1). ......

TEMPLE, SOLOMON'S
Before his death David had "with all his might" provided materials in great abundance for the building of the temple on the summit of Mount Moriah (1-Chr 22:14;29:4; 2-Chr 3:1), on the east of the city, on the spot where Abraham had offered up Isaac (Gen. 22:1). In the beginning of his reign Solomon set about giving effect to the desire that had been so earnestly cherished by his father, and prepa......

TEMPLE, THE SECOND
After the return from captivity, under Zerubbabel (q.v.) and the high priest Jeshua, arrangements were almost immediately made to reorganize the long-desolated kingdom. The body of pilgrims, forming a band of 42,360, including children, having completed the long and dreary journey of some four months, from the banks of the Euphrates to Jerusalem, were animated in all their proceeding by a strong r......

TEMPTATION
(1.) Trial; a being put to the test. Thus God "tempted [Gen. 22:1; R.V., 'did prove'] Abraham;" and afflictions are said to tempt, i.e., to try, men (James 1:2, James 1: 12; comp. Deut. 8:2), putting their faith and patience to the test. (2.) Ordinarily, however, the word means solicitation to that which is evil, and hence Satan is called "the tempter" (Matt. 4:3). Our Lord was in this way tempted......

TESTIMONY
(1.) Witness or evidence (2-Thess 1:10). (2.) The Scriptures, as the revelation of God's will (2-Kings 11:12; Psa 19:7;119:88; Isa. 8:16, Isa. 8: 20). (3.) The altar raised by the Gadites and Reubenites (Josh. 22:10). ......

TESTIMONY, TABERNACLE OF
the tabernacle, the great glory of which was that it contained "the testimony", i.e., the "two tables" (Exo 38:21). The ark in which these tables were deposited was called the "ark of the testimony" (0:3), and also simply the "testimony" (27:21;30:6). ......

THESSALONIANS, EPISTLES TO THE
The first epistle to the Thessalonians was the first of all Paul's epistles. It was in all probability written from Corinth, where he abode a "long time" (Acts 18:11, Acts 18: 18), early in the period of his residence there, about the end of A.D. 52. The occasion of its being written was the return of Timotheus from Macedonia, bearing tidings from Thessalonica regarding the state of the church t......

THESSALONICA
a large and populous city on the Thermaic bay. It was the capital of one of the four Roman districts of Macedonia, and was ruled by a praetor. It was named after Thessalonica, the wife of Cassander, who built the city. She was so called by her father, Philip, because he first heard of her birth on the day of his gaining a victory over the Thessalians. On his second missionary journey, Paul preache......

THRONE
(Heb. kiss'e), a royal chair or seat of dignity (Deut. 17:18; 2-Sam 7:13; Psa 45:6); an elevated seat with a canopy and hangings, which cover it. It denotes the seat of the high priest in 1-Sam 1:9;4:13, 4: and of a provincial governor in Neh. 3:7 and Psa 122:5. The throne of Solomon is described at length in 1-Kings 10:18. ......

TIMON
honouring, one of the seven deacons at Jerusalem (Acts 6:5). Nothing further is known of him. ......

TIMOTHY, SECOND EPISTLE TO
was probably written a year or so after the first, and from Rome, where Paul was for a second time a prisoner, and was sent to Timothy by the hands of Tychicus. In it he entreats Timothy to come to him before winter, and to bring Mark with him (comp. Phil. 2:22). He was anticipating that "the time of his departure was at hand" (2-Tim 4:6), and he exhorts his "son Timothy" to all diligence and stea......

TOB-ADONIJAH
good is Jehovah, my Lord, a Levite sent out by Jehoshaphat to instruct the people of Judah in the law (2-Chr 17:8). ......

TONGUES, CONFUSION OF
at Babel, the cause of the early separation of mankind and their division into nations. The descendants of Noah built a tower to prevent their dispersion; but God "confounded their language" (Gen. 11:1), and they were scattered over the whole earth. Till this time "the whole earth was of one language and of one speech." (See SHINAR.) ......

TONGUES, GIFT OF
granted on the day of Pentecost (Acts 2:4), in fulfilment of a promise Christ had made to his disciples (Mark 16:17). What this gift actually was has been a subject of much discussion. Some have argued that it was merely an outward sign of the presence of the Holy Spirit among the disciples, typifying his manifold gifts, and showing that salvation was to be extended to all nations. But the words o......

TRACHONITIS
a rugged region, corresponds to the Heb. Argob (q.v.), the Greek name of a region on the east of Jordan (Luke 3:1); one of the five Roman provinces into which that district was divided. It was in the tetrarchy of Philip, and is now called the Lejah. ......

TRADITION
any kind of teaching, written or spoken, handed down from generation to generation. In Mark 7:3, Mark 7: 9, 13, Col. 2:8, Col. 2: this word refers to the arbitrary interpretations of the Jews. In 2-Thess 2:15;3:6, 3: it is used in a good sense. Peter (1-Pet 1:18) uses this word with reference to the degenerate Judaism of the "strangers scattered" whom he addresses (comp. Acts 15:10; Matt. 15:2; Ga......

TRANSFIGURATION, THE
of our Lord on a "high mountain apart," is described by each of the three evangelists (Matt. 17:1; Mark 9:2; Luke 9:28). The fullest account is given by Luke, who, no doubt, was informed by Peter, who was present on the occasion. What these evangelists record was an absolute historical reality, and not a mere vision. The concurrence between them in all the circumstances of the incident is exact. J......

TRIBULATION
trouble or affiction of any kind (Deut. 4:30; Matt. 13:21; 2-Cor 7:4). In Rom. 2:9 "tribulation and anguish" are the penal sufferings that shall overtake the wicked. In Matt. 24:21, Matt. 24: 29, the word denotes the calamities that were to attend the destruction of Jerusalem. ......

TYROPOEON VALLEY
(i.e., "Valley of the Cheesemongers"), the name given by Josephus the historian to the valley or rugged ravine which in ancient times separated Mount Moriah from Mount Zion. This valley, now filled up with a vast accumulation of rubbish, and almost a plain, was spanned by bridges, the most noted of which was Zion Bridge, which was probably the ordinary means of communication between the royal pala......

UNCTION
(1-John 2:20, 1-John 2:27; R.V., "anointing"). Kings, prophets, and priests were anointed, in token of receiving divine grace. All believers are, in a secondary sense, what Christ was in a primary sense, "the Lord's anointed." ......

VAGABOND
from Lat. vagabundus, "a wanderer," "a fugitive;" not used opprobriously (Gen. 4:12, Gen. 4: R.V., "wanderer;" Psa 109:10; Acts 19:13, Acts 19: R.V., "strolling"). ......

VERSION
a translation of the holy Scriptures. This word is not found in the Bible, nevertheless, as frequent references are made in this work to various ancient as well as modern versions, it is fitting that some brief account should be given of the most important of these. These versions are important helps to the right interpretation of the Word. (See SAMARITAN+PENTATEUCH.) 1. The Targums. After the r......

VISION
(Luke 1:22), a vivid apparition, not a dream (comp. Luke 24:23; Acts 26:19; 2-Cor 12:1). ......

WAGON
Heb. aghalah; so rendered in Gen. 45:19, Gen. 45: 21, 27;46:5; Num. 7:3, Num. 7: 7,8, but elsewhere rendered "cart" (1-Sam 6:7, 1-Sam 6: etc.). This vehicle was used for peaceful purposes. In Ezek. 23:24, Ezek. 23: however, it is the rendering of a different Hebrew word, and denotes a war-chariot. ......

WATER OF PURIFICATION
used in cases of ceremonial cleansings at the consecration of the Levites (Num. 8:7). It signified, figuratively, that purifying of the heart which must characterize the servants of God. ......

WATER OF SEPARATION
used along with the ashes of a red heifer for the ceremonial cleansing of persons defiled by contact with a dead body (Num. 19). ......

ZABULON
(Matt. 4:13, Matt. 4: 15; Rev. 7:8). See ZEBULUN.......

ZALMON
shady. (1.) One of David's warriors, called the Ahohite (2-Sam 23:28); called also Ilai (1-Chr 11:29). (2.) A wood near Shechem, from which Abimelech and his party brought boughs and "put them to the hold" of Shechem, "and set the hold on fire" (Judg. 9:48). Probably the southern peak of Gerizim, now called Jebel Sulman. (See SALMON.)......

ZALMONAH
shady, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:41, Num. 33: 42).......

ZEBULONITE
the designation of Elon, the judge who belonged to the tribe of Zebulun (Judg. 12:11, Judg. 12: 12).......

ZIBEON
robber; or dyed. (1.) A Hivite (Gen. 36:2). (2.) A Horite, and son of Seir (Gen. 36:20).......

ZIDON
a fishery, a town on the Mediterranean coast, about 25 miles north of Tyre. It received its name from the "first-born" of Canaan, the grandson of Noah (Gen. 10:15, Gen. 10: 19). It was the first home of the Phoenicians on the coast of Palestine, and from its extensive commercial relations became a "great" city (Josh. 11:8;19:28). It was the mother city of Tyre. It lay within the lot of the tribe o......

ZION
sunny; height, one of the eminences on which Jerusalem was built. It was surrounded on all sides, except the north, by deep valleys, that of the Tyropoeon (q.v.) separating it from Moriah (q.v.), which it surpasses in height by 105 feet. It was the south-eastern hill of Jerusalem. When David took it from the Jebusites (Josh. 15:63; 2-Sam 5:7) he built on it a citadel and a palace, and it became ......

ZIPHRON
sweet odour, a city on the northern border of Palestine (Num. 34:9), south-east of Hamath.......