搜尋 shalt thou be in the earth 共找到 457 項結果

THOUSANDS
(Micah 5:2), another name for "families" or "clans" (see Num. 1:16;10:4; Josh. 22:14, Josh. 22: 21). Several "thousands" or "families" made up a "tribe." ......

ABEDNEGO
servant of Nego=Nebo, the Chaldee name given to Azariah, one of Daniel's three companions (Dan. 2:49). With Shadrach and Meshach, he was delivered from the burning fiery furnace (3:12).......

ABEL
(Heb. Hebhel), a breath, or vanity, the second son of Adam and Eve. He was put to death by his brother Cain (Gen. 4:1). Guided by the instruction of their father, the two brothers were trained in the duty of worshipping God. "And in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days", i.e., on the Sabbath) each of them offered up to God of the first-fruits of his labours. Cain, as a husbandman, offered t......

ABEL-BETH-MAACHAH
meadow of the house of Maachah, a city in the north of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Dan and Ijon, in the tribe of Naphtali. It was a place of considerable strength and importance. It is called a "mother in Israel", i.e., a metropolis (2-Sam 20:19). It was besieged by Joab (2-Sam 20:14), by Benhadad (1-Kings 15:20), and by Tiglath-pileser (2-Kings 15:29) about B.C. 734. It is elsewhere called......

ABEL-CHERAMIM
(Judg. 11:33, Judg. 11: R.V.; A. V., "plain of the vineyards"), a village of the Ammonites, whither Jephthah pursued their forces.......

ABEL-MEHOLAH
meadow of dancing, or the dancing-meadow, the birth-place and residence of the prophet Elisha, not far from Beth-shean (1-Kings 4:12), in the tribe of Issachar, near where the Wady el-Maleh emerges into the valley of the Jordan, "the rich meadow-land which extends about 4 miles south of Beth-shean; moist and luxuriant." Here Elisha was found at his plough by Elijah on his return up the Jordan vall......

ABEL-MIZRAIM
meadow of Egypt, or mourning of Egypt, a place "beyond," i.e., on the west of Jordan, at the "threshing-floor of Atad." Here the Egyptians mourned seventy days for Jacob (Gen. 50:4). Its site is unknown.......

ABEL-SHITTIM
meadow of the acacias, frequently called simply "Shittim" (Num. 25:1; Josh. 2:1; Micah 6:5), a place on the east of Jordan, in the plain of Moab, nearly opposite Jericho. It was the forty-second encampment of the Israelites, their last resting-place before they crossed the Jordan (Num. 33:49;22:1;26:3;31:12; 25:1;31:16).......

ABEZ
tin, or white, a town in the tribe of Issachar (Josh. 19:20), at the north of the plain of Esdraelon. It is probably identified with the ruins of el-Beida.......

ADBEEL
miracle of God, the third of the twelve sons of Ishmael, and head of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 25:13; 1-Chr 1:29). ......

ADONIBEZEK
lord of Bezek, a Canaanitish king who, having subdued seventy of the chiefs that were around him, made an attack against the armies of Judah and Simeon, but was defeated and brought as a captive to Jerusalem, where his thumbs and great toes were cut off. He confessed that God had requited him for his like cruelty to the seventy kings whom he had subdued (Judg. 1:4; comp. 1-Sam 15:33). ......

AMBER
(Ezek. 1:4, Ezek. 1: 27;8:2. Heb., hashmal, rendered by the LXX. elektron, and by the Vulgate electrum), a metal compounded of silver and gold. Some translate the word by "polished brass," others "fine brass," as in Rev. 1:15;2:18. It was probably the mixture now called electrum. The word has no connection, however, with what is now called amber, which is a gummy substance, reckoned as belonging t......

ARMOUR-BEARER
an officer selected by kings and generals because of his bravery, not only to bear their armour, but also to stand by them in the time of danger. They were the adjutants of our modern armies (Judg. 9:54; 1-Sam 14:7;16:21;31:6).......

BAAL-BERITH
covenant lord, the name of the god worshipped in Shechem after the death of Gideon (Judg. 8:33;9:4). 9:46 he is called simply "the god Berith." The name denotes the god of the covenant into which the Israelites entered with the Canaanites, contrary to the command of Jehovah (Exo 34:12), when they began to fall away to the worship of idols.......

BAALATH-BEER
Baalah of the well, (Josh. 19:8, Josh. 19: probably the same as Baal, mentioned in 1-Chr 4:33, 1-Chr 4: a city of Simeon.......

BAALBEC
called by the Greeks Heliopolis i.e., "the city of the sun", because of its famous Temple of the Sun, has by some been supposed to be Solomon's "house of the forest of Lebanon" (1-Kings 7:2;10:17; 2-Chr 9:16); by others it is identified with Baal-gad (q.v.). It was a city of Coele-Syria, on the lowest declivity of Anti-Libanus, about 42 miles north-west of Damascus. It was one of the most splendid......

BABE
used of children generally (Matt. 11:25;21:16; Luke 10:21; Rom. 2:20). It is used also of those who are weak in Christian faith and knowledge (1-Cor 3:1; Heb. 5:13; 1-Pet 2:2). In Isa. 3:4 the word "babes" refers to a succession of weak and wicked princes who reigned over Judah from the death of Josiah downward to the destruction of Jerusalem.......

BABEL, TOWER OF
the name given to the tower which the primitive fathers of our race built in the land of Shinar after the Deluge (Gen. 11:1). Their object in building this tower was probably that it might be seen as a rallying-point in the extensive plain of Shinar, to which they had emigrated from the uplands of Armenia, and so prevent their being scattered abroad. But God interposed and defeated their design by......

BARACHIAS, BERECHIAH
4 (q.v.), whom Jehovah hath blessed, father of the prophet Zechariah (Zech. 1:1, Zech. 1:7; Matt. 23:35).......

BARBER
Found only once, in Ezek. 5:1, Ezek. 5: where reference is made to the Jewish custom of shaving the head as a sign of mourning. The Nazarites were untouched by the razor from their birth (Num. 6:5). Comp. Judg. 16:19.......

BEACON
a pole (Heb. to'ren) used as a standard or ensign set on the tops of mountains as a call to the people to assemble themselves for some great national purpose (Isa. 30:17). In Isa. 33:23 and Ezek. 27:5, Ezek. 27: the same word is rendered "mast." (See Banner.) ......

BEALIAH
whose Lord is Jehovah, a Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes of the sling and bow (1-Chr 12:5). ......

BEALOTH
citizens, a town in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:24); probably the same as Baalath-beer (19:8). In 1-Kings 4:16, 1-Kings 4: the Authorized Version has "in Aloth," the Revised Version "Bealoth." ......

BEAM
occurs in the Authorized Version as the rendering of various Hebrew words. In 1-Sam 17:7, 1-Sam 17: it means a weaver's frame or principal beam; in Hab. 2:11, Hab. 2: a crossbeam or girder; 2-Kings 6:2, 2-Kings 6: 5, a cross-piece or rafter of a house; 1-Kings 7:6, 1-Kings 7: an architectural ornament as a projecting step or moulding; Ezek. 41:25, Ezek. 41: a thick plank. In the New Testament the ......

BEANS
mentioned in 2-Sam 17:28 as having been brought to David when flying from Absalom. They formed a constituent in the bread Ezekiel (4:9) was commanded to make, as they were in general much used as an article of diet. They are extensively cultivated in Egypt and Arabia and Syria. ......

BEAR
a native of the mountain regions of Western Asia, frequently mentioned in Scripture. David defended his flocks against the attacks of a bear (1-Sam 17:34). Bears came out of the wood and destroyed the children who mocked the prophet Elisha (2-Kings 2:24). Their habits are referred to in Isa. 59:11; Prov. 28:15; Lam. 3:10. The fury of the female bear when robbed of her young is spoken of (2-Sam 17:......

BEARD
The mode of wearing it was definitely prescribed to the Jews (Lev. 19:27;21:5). Hence the import of Ezekiel's (5:1) description of the "razor" i.e., the agents of an angry providence being used against the guilty nation of the Jews. It was a part of a Jew's daily toilet to anoint his beard with oil and perfume (Psa 133:2). Beards were trimmed with the most fastidious care (2-Sam 19:24), and their ......

BEAST
This word is used of flocks or herds of grazing animals (Exo 22:5; Num. 20:4, Num. 20: 8, 11; Psa 78:48); of beasts of burden (Gen. 45:17); of eatable beasts (Prov. 9:2); and of swift beasts or dromedaries (Isa. 60:6). In the New Testament it is used of a domestic animal as property (Rev. 18:13); as used for food (1-Cor 15:39), for service (Luke 10:34; Acts 23:24), and for sacrifice (Acts 7:42). ......

BEATEN GOLD
in Num. 8:4, Num. 8: means "turned" or rounded work in gold. The Greek Version, however, renders the word "solid gold;" the Revised Version, "beaten work of gold." In 1-Kings 10:16, 1-Kings 10: 17, it probably means "mixed" gold, as the word ought to be rendered, i.e., not pure gold. Others render the word in these places "thin plates of gold." ......

BEATEN OIL
(Exo 27:20;29:40), obtained by pounding olives in a mortar, not by crushing them in a mill. It was reckoned the best. (See OLIVE.) ......

BEAUTIFUL GATE
the name of one of the gates of the temple (Acts 3:2). It is supposed to have been the door which led from the court of the Gentiles to the court of the women. It was of massive structure, and covered with plates of Corinthian brass. ......

BECHER
first-born; a youth, the second son of Benjamin (Gen. 46:21), who came down to Egypt with Jacob. It is probable that he married an Ephraimitish heiress, and that his descendants were consequently reckoned among the tribe of Ephraim (Num. 26:35; 1-Chr 7:20, 1-Chr 7: 21). They are not reckoned among the descendants of Benjamin (Num. 26:38). ......

BED
(Heb. mittah), for rest at night (Exo 8:3; 1-Sam 19:13, 1-Sam 19: 15, 16, etc.); during sickness (Gen. 47:31;48:2;49:33, 49: etc.); as a sofa for rest (1-Sam 28:23; Amos 3:12). Another Hebrew word (er'es) so rendered denotes a canopied bed, or a bed with curtains (Deut. 3:11; Psa 132:3), for sickness (Psa 6:6;41:3). In the New Testament it denotes sometimes a litter with a coverlet (Matt. 9:2, M......

BED-CHAMBER
an apartment in Eastern houses, furnished with a slightly elevated platform at the upper end and sometimes along the sides, on which were laid mattresses. This was the general arrangement of the public sleeping-room for the males of the family and for guests, but there were usually besides distinct bed-chambers of a more private character (2-Kings 4:10; Exo 8:3; 2-Kings 6:12). In 2-Kings 11:2 this......

BEDAN
one of the judges of Israel (1-Sam 12:11). It is uncertain who he was. Some suppose that Barak is meant, others Samson, but most probably this is a contracted form of Abdon (Judg. 12:13). ......

BEDSTEAD
used in Deut. 3:11, Deut. 3: but elsewhere rendered "couch," "bed." In 2-Kings 1:4;16:2; Psa 132:3; Amos 3:12, Amos 3: the divan is meant by this word. ......

BEE
First mentioned in Deut. 1:44. Swarms of bees, and the danger of their attacks, are mentioned in Psa 118:12. Samson found a "swarm of bees" in the carcass of a lion he had slain (Judg. 14:8). Wild bees are described as laying up honey in woods and in clefts of rocks (Deut. 32:13; Psa 81:16). In Isa. 7:18 the "fly" and the "bee" are personifications of the Egyptians and Assyrians, the inveterate en......

BEELZEBUB
(Gr. form Beel'zebul), the name given to Satan, and found only in the New Testament (Matt. 10:25;12:24, 12: 27; Mark 3:22). It is probably the same as Baalzebub (q.v.), the god of Ekron, meaning "the lord of flies," or, as others think, "the lord of dung," or "the dung-god." ......

BEER
well. (1.) A place where a well was dug by the direction of Moses, at the forty-fourth station of the Hebrews in their wanderings (Num. 21:16) in the wilderness of Moab. (See WELL.) (2.) A town in the tribe of Judah to which Jotham fled for fear of Abimelech (Judg. 9:21). Some have identified this place with Beeroth.......

BEER-ELIM
well of heroes, probably the name given to Beer, the place where the chiefs of Israel dug a well (Num. 21:16; Isa. 15:8).......

BEER-LAHAI-ROI
i.e., "the well of him that liveth and seeth me," or, as some render it, "the well of the vision of life", the well where the Lord met with Hagar (Gen. 16:7). Isaac dwelt beside this well (24:62;25:11). It has been identified with 'Ain Muweileh, or Moilahhi, south-west of Beersheba, and about 12 miles W. from Kadesh-barnea.......

BEERI
illustrious, or the well-man. (1.) The father of Judith, one of the wives of Esau (Gen. 26:34), the same as Adah (Gen. 36:2). (2.) The father of the prophet Hosea (1:1).......

BEEROTH
wells, one of the four cities of the Hivites which entered by fraud into a league with Joshua. It belonged to Benjamin (Josh. 18:25). It has by some been identified with el-Bireh on the way to Nablus, 10 miles north of Jerusalem.......

BEEROTH OF THE CHILDREN OF JAAKAN
(Deut. 10:6). The same as Bene-jaakan (Num. 33:31).......

BEERSHEBA
well of the oath, or well of seven, a well dug by Abraham, and so named because he and Abimelech here entered into a compact (Gen. 21:31). On re-opening it, Isaac gave it the same name (Gen. 26:31). It was a favourite place of abode of both of these patriarchs (21:33:1, 19;26:33;28:10). It is mentioned among the "cities" given to the tribe of Simeon (Josh. 19:2; 1-Chr 4:28). From Dan to Beersheba,......

BEETLE
(Heb. hargol, meaning "leaper"). Mention of it is made only in Lev. 11:22, Lev. 11: where it is obvious the word cannot mean properly the beetle. It denotes some winged creeper with at least four feet, "which has legs above its feet, to leap withal." The description plainly points to the locust (q.v.). This has been an article of food from the earliest times in the East to the present day. The wor......

BEEVES
(an old English plural of the word beef), a name applicable to all ruminating animals except camels, and especially to the Bovidce, or horned cattle (Lev. 22:19, Lev. 22: 21; Num. 31:28, Num. 31: 30, 33, 38, 44).......

BEG
That the poor existed among the Hebrews we have abundant evidence (Exo 23:11; Deut. 15:11), but there is no mention of beggars properly so called in the Old Testament. The poor were provided for by the law of Moses (Lev. 19:10; Deut. 12:12;14:29). It is predicted of the seed of the wicked that they shall be beggars (Psa 37:25;109:10). In the New Testament we find not seldom mention made of begga......

BEHEAD
a method of taking away life practised among the Egyptians (Gen. 40:17). There are instances of this mode of punishment also among the Hebrews (2-Sam 4:8;20:21, 20:22; 2-Kings 10:6). It is also mentioned in the New Testament (Matt. 14:8; Acts 12:2).......

BEHEMOTH
(Job 40:15). Some have supposed this to be an Egyptian word meaning a "water-ox." The Revised Version has here in the margin "hippopotamus," which is probably the correct rendering of the word. The word occurs frequently in Scripture, but, except here, always as a common name, and translated "beast" or "cattle."......

BEKAH
Both the name and its explanation, "a half shekel," are given in Exo 38:26. The word properly means a "division," a "part." (R.V., "beka.")......

BEL
the Aramaic form of Baal, the national god of the Babylonians (Isa. 46:1; Jer. 50:2;51:44). It signifies "lord." (See BAAL.)......

BELA
a thing swallowed. (1.) A city on the shore of the Dead Sea, not far from Sodom, called also Zoar. It was the only one of the five cities that was spared at Lot's intercession (Gen. 19:20, Gen. 19:23). It is first mentioned in Gen. 14:2, Gen. 14:8. (2.) The eldest son of Benjamin (Num. 26:38; "Belah," Gen. 46:21). (3.) The son of Beor, and a king of Edom (Gen. 36:32, Gen. 36: 33; 1-Chr 1:43). ......

BELIAL
worthlessness, frequently used in the Old Testament as a proper name. It is first used in Deut. 13:13. In the New Testament it is found only in 2-Cor 6:15, 2-Cor 6: where it is used as a name of Satan, the personification of all that is evil. It is translated "wicked" in Deut. 15:9; Psa 41:8 (R.V. marg.);101:3; Prov. 6:12, Prov. 6: etc. The expression "son" or "man of Belial" means simply a worthl......

BELL
The bells first mentioned in Scripture are the small golden bells attached to the hem of the high priest's ephod (Exo 28:33, Exo 28: 34, 35). The "bells of the horses" mentioned by Zechariah (14:20) were attached to the bridles or belts round the necks of horses trained for war, so as to accustom them to noise and tumult.......

BELLOWS
occurs only in Jer. 6:29, Jer. 6: in relation to the casting of metal. Probably they consisted of leather bags similar to those common in Egypt.......

BELLY
the seat of the carnal affections (Titus 1:12; Phil. 3:19; Rom. 16:18). The word is used symbolically for the heart (Prov. 18:8;20:27;22:18, 22: marg.). The "belly of hell" signifies the grave or underworld (Jonah 2:2).......

BELSHAZZAR
Bel protect the king!, the last of the kings of Babylon (Dan. 5:1). He was the son of Nabonidus by Nitocris, who was the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar and the widow of Nergal-sharezer. When still young he made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and when heated with wine sent for the sacred vessels his "father" (Dan. 5:2), or grandfather, Nebuchadnezzar had carried away from the temple in Jerus......

BELTESHAZZAR
Beltis protect the king!, the Chaldee name given to Daniel by Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:7).......

BEN-AMMI
son of my kindred; i.e., "born of incest", the son of Lot by his youngest daughter (Gen. 19:38).......

BEN-HADAD
the standing title of the Syrian kings, meaning "the son of Hadad." (See HADADEZER.) (1.) The king of Syria whom Asa, king of Judah, employed to invade Israel (1-Kings 15:18). (2.) Son of the preceding, also king of Syria. He was long engaged in war against Israel. He was murdered probably by Hazael, by whom he was succeeded (2-Kings 8:7), after a reign of some thirty years. (3.) King of Dam......

BENAIAH
built up by Jehovah. (1.) The son of Jehoiada, chief priest (1-Chr 27:5). He was set by David over his body-guard of Cherethites and Pelethites (2-Sam 8:18; 1-Kings 1:32; 1-Chr 18:17). His exploits are enumerated in 2-Sam 23:20, 2-Sam 23: 21, 22; 1-Chr 11:22. He remained faithful to Solomon (1-Kings 1:8, 1-Kings 1: 10, 26), by whom he was raised to the rank of commander-in-chief (1-Kings 2:25, 1-K......

BENCH
deck of a Tyrian ship, described by Ezekiel (27:6) as overlaid with box-wood.......

BENE-JAAKAN
children of Jaakan (Num. 33:31, Num. 33: 32), the same as Beeroth.......

BENJAMIN
son of my right hand. (1.) The younger son of Jacob by Rachel (Gen. 35:18). His birth took place at Ephrath, on the road between Bethel and Bethlehem, at a short distance from the latter place. His mother died in giving him birth, and with her last breath named him Ben-oni, son of my pain, a name which was changed by his father into Benjamin. His posterity are called Benjamites (Gen. 49:27; Deut. ......

BEOR
a torch. (1.) The father of Bela, one of the kings of Edom (Gen. 36:32). (2.) The father of Balaam (Num. 22:5;24:3, 24: 15;31:8). In 2-Pet 2:15 he is called Bosor.......

BERA
gift, or son of evil, king of Sodom at the time of the invasion of the four kings under Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2, Gen. 14: 8, 17, 21).......

BERACHAH
blessing. (1.) A valley not far from Engedi, where Jehoshaphat overthrew the Moabites and Ammonites (2-Chr 20:26). It has been identified with the valley of Bereikut. (R.V., "Beracah.") (2.) One of the Benjamite warriors, Saul's brethren, who joined David when at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:3).......

BEREA
a city of Macedonia to which Paul with Silas and Timotheus went when persecuted at Thessalonica (Acts 17:10, Acts 17: 13), and from which also he was compelled to withdraw, when he fled to the sea-coast and thence sailed to Athens (14, 15). Sopater, one of Paul's companions belonged to this city, and his conversion probably took place at this time (Acts 20:4). It is now called Verria.......

BERECHIAH
blessed by Jehovah. (1.) Son of Shimea, and father of Asaph the musician (1-Chr 6:39;15:17). (2.) One of the seven Ephraimite chieftains, son of Meshillemoth (2-Chr 28:12). (3.) The fourth of the five sons of Zerubbabel, of the royal family of Judah (1-Chr 3:20). (4.) The father of the prophet Zechariah (1:1, 1:7).......

BERED
hail. (1.) A town in the south of Palestine (Gen. 16:14), in the desert of Shur, near Lahai-roi. (2.) A son of Shuthelah, and grandson of Ephraim (1-Chr 7:20).......

BERIAH
a gift, or in evil. (1.) One of Asher's four sons, and father of Heber (Gen. 46:17). (2.) A son of Ephraim (1-Chr 7:20), born after the slaughter of his brothers, and so called by his father "because it went evil with his house" at that time. (3.) A Benjamite who with his brother Shema founded Ajalon and expelled the Gittites (1-Chr 8:13).......

BERNICE
bearer of victory, the eldest daughter of Agrippa I., the Herod Agrippa of Acts 12:20. After the early death of her first husband she was married to her uncle Herod, king of Chalcis. After his death (A.D. 40) she lived in incestuous connection with her brother Agrippa II. (Acts 25:13, Acts 25: 23;26:30). They joined the Romans at the outbreak of the final war between them and the Jews, and lived a......

BERODACH-BALADAN
the king of Babylon who sent a friendly deputation to Hezekiah (2-Kings 20:12). In Isa. 39:1 he is called Merodach-baladan (q.v.).......

BERYL
the rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew word _tarshish_, a precious stone; probably so called as being brought from Tarshish. It was one of the stones on the breastplate of the high priest (Exo 28:20; R.V. marg., "chalcedony;"39:13). The colour of the wheels in Ezekiel's vision was as the colour of a beryl stone (1:16;10:9; R.V., "stone of Tarshish"). It is mentioned in 5:14; Dan. 10......

BESOM
the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning sweeper, occurs only in Isa. 14:23, Isa. 14: of the sweeping away, the utter ruin, of Babylon.......

BESOR
cold, a ravine or brook in the extreme south-west of Judah, where 200 of David's men stayed behind because they were faint, while the other 400 pursued the Amalekites (1-Sam 30:9, 1-Sam 30: 10, 21). Probably the Wadyes Sheriah, south of Gaza.......

BESTEAD
the rendering in Isa. 8:21, Isa. 8: where alone it occurs, of a Hebrew word meaning to oppress, or be in circumstances of hardship.......

BETAH
confidence, a city belonging to Hadadezer, king of Zobah, which yielded much spoil of brass to David (2-Sam 8:8). In 1-Chr 18:8 it is called Tibhath.......

BETH
occurs frequently as the appellation for a house, or dwelling-place, in such compounds as the words immediately following:......

BETH-ANATH
house of response, one of the fenced cities of Naphtali (Josh. 19:38). It is perhaps identical with the modern village 'Ainata, 6 miles west of Kedesh.......

BETH-ANOTH
house of answers, a city in the mountainous district of Judah (Josh. 15:59). It has been identified with the modern Beit-'Anun, about 3 miles northeast of Hebron.......

BETH-ARABAH
house of the desert, one of the six cities of Judah, situated in the sunk valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea (Josh. 18:22). In Josh. 15:61 it is said to have been "in the wilderness." It was afterwards included in the towns of Benjamin. It is called Arabah (Josh. 18:18).......

BETH-ARAM
house of the height; i.e., "mountain-house", one of the towns of Gad, 3 miles east of Jordan, opposite Jericho (Josh. 13:27). Probably the same as Beth-haran in Num. 32:36. It was called by king Herod, Julias, or Livias, after Livia, the wife of Augustus. It is now called Beit-haran.......

BETH-ARBEL
house of God's court, a place alluded to by Hosea (10:14) as the scene of some great military exploit, but not otherwise mentioned in Scripture. The Shalman here named was probably Shalmaneser, the king of Assyria (2-Kings 17:3).......

BETH-AVEN
house of nothingness; i.e., "of idols", a place in the mountains of Benjamin, east of Bethel (Josh. 7:2;18:12; 1-Sam 13:5). In Hos. 4:15;5:8;10:5 it stands for "Bethel" (q.v.), and it is so called because it was no longer the "house of God," but "the house of idols," referring to the calves there worshipped.......

BETH-BARAH
house of crossing, a place south of the scene of Gideon's victory (Judg. 7:24). It was probably the chief ford of the Jordan in that district, and may have been that by which Jacob crossed when he returned from Mesopotamia, near the Jabbok (Gen. 32:22), and at which Jephthah slew the Ephraimites (Judg. 12:4). Nothing, however, is certainly known of it. (See BETHABARA.) ......

BETH-CAR
sheep-house, a place to which the Israelites pursued the Philistines west from Mizpeh (1-Sam 7:11). ......

BETH-DAGON
house of Dagon. (1.) A city in the low country or plain of Judah, near Philistia (Josh. 15:41); the modern Beit Degan, about 5 miles from Lydda. (2.) A city near the south-east border of Asher (Josh. 19:27). It was a Philistine colony. It is identical with the modern ruined village of Tell D'auk. ......

BETH-DIBLATHAIM
house of two cakes of figs, a city of Moab, upon which Jeremiah (8:22) denounced destruction. It is called also Almon-diblathaim (Num. 33:46) and Diblath (Ezek. 6:14). (R.V., "Diblah.") ......

BETH-GAMUL
camel-house, a city in the "plain country" of Moab denounced by the prophet (Jer. 48:23); probably the modern Um-el-Jemal, near Bozrah, one of the deserted cities of the Hauran. ......

BETH-GILGAL
house of Gilgal, a place from which the inhabitants gathered for the purpose of celebrating the rebuilding of the walls on the return exile (Neh. 12:29). (See GILGAL.) ......

BETH-HACCEREM
house of a vineyard, a place in the tribe of Judah (Neh. 3:14) where the Benjamites were to set up a beacon when they heard the trumpet against the invading army of the Babylonians (Jer. 6:1). It is probable that this place is the modern 'Ain Karim, or "well of the vineyards," near which there is a ridge on which are cairns which may have served as beacons of old, one of which is 40 feet high and ......

BETH-HORON
house of the hollow, or of the cavern, the name of two towns or villages (2-Chr 8:5; 1-Chr 7:24) in the territory of Ephraim, on the way from Jerusalem to Joppa. They are distinguished as Beth-horon "the upper" and Beth-horon "the nether." They are about 2 miles apart, the former being about 10 miles north-west of Jerusalem. Between the two places was the ascent and descent of Beth-horon, leading ......

BETH-JESHIMOTH
house of wastes, or deserts, a town near Abel-shittim, east of Jordan, in the desert of Moab, where the Israelites encamped not long before crossing the Jordan (Num. 33:49; A.V., "Bethjesimoth"). It was within the territory of Sihon, king of the Amorites (Josh. 12:3). ......

BETH-LE-APHRAH
(R.V. Micah 1:10), house of dust. The Authorized Version reads "in the house of Aphrah." This is probably the name of a town in the Shephelah, or "low country," between Joppa and Gaza. ......

BETH-PEOR
house of Peor; i.e., "temple of Baal-peor", a place in Moab, on the east of Jordan, opposite Jericho. It was in the tribe of Reuben (Josh. 13:20; Deut. 3:29;4:46). In the "ravine" or valley over against Beth-peor Moses was probably buried (Deut. 34:6). ......

BETH-PHAGE
house of the unripe fig, a village on the Mount of Olives, on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho (Matt. 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29), and very close to Bethany. It was the limit of a Sabbath-day's journey from Jerusalem, i.e., 2,000 cubits. It has been identified with the modern Kefr-et-Tur. ......

BETH-SHEAN
house of security or rest, a city which belonged to Manasseh (1-Chr 7:29), on the west of Jordan. The bodies of Saul and his sons were fastened to its walls. In Solomon's time it gave its name to a district (1-Kings 4:12). The name is found in an abridged form, Bethshan, in 1-Sam 31:10, 1-Sam 31: 12 and 2-Sam 21:12. It is on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus, about 5 miles from the Jordan, and 1......

BETH-SHEMESH
house of the sun. (1.) A sacerdotal city in the tribe of Dan (Josh. 21:16; 1-Sam 6:15), on the north border of Judah (Josh. 15:10). It was the scene of an encounter between Jehoash, king of Israel, and Amaziah, king of Judah, in which the latter was made prisoner (2-Kings 14:11, 2-Kings 14: 13). It was afterwards taken by the Philistines (2-Chr 28:18). It is the modern ruined Arabic village 'Ain-s......

BETH-TAPPUAH
house of apples, a town of Judah, now Tuffuh, 5 miles west of Hebron (Josh. 15:53). ......

BETHABARA
house of the ford, a place on the east bank of the Jordan, where John was baptizing (John 1:28). It may be identical with Bethbarah, the ancient ford of Jordan of which the men of Ephraim took possession (Judg. 7:24). The Revised Version reads "Bethany beyond Jordan." It was the great ford, and still bears the name of "the ford," Makhadhet 'Abarah, "the ford of crossing over," about 25 miles from ......

BETHANY
house of dates. (1.) The Revised Version in John 1:28 has this word instead of Bethabara, on the authority of the oldest manuscripts. It appears to have been the name of a place on the east of Jordan. (2.) A village on the south-eastern slope of the Mount of Olives (Mark 11:1), about 2 miles east of Jerusalem, on the road to Jericho. It derived its name from the number of palm-trees which grew t......

BETHEL
house of God. (1.) A place in Central Palestine, about 10 miles north of Jerusalem, at the head of the pass of Michmash and Ai. It was originally the royal Canaanite city of Luz (Gen. 28:19). The name Bethel was at first apparently given to the sanctuary in the neighbourhood of Luz, and was not given to the city itself till after its conquest by the tribe of Ephraim. When Abram entered Canaan he f......

BETHELITE
a designation of Hiel (q.v.), who rebuilt Jericho and experienced the curse pronounced long before (1-Kings 16:34). ......

BETHER
dissection or separation, certain mountains mentioned in 2:17; probably near Lebanon. ......

BETHESDA
house of mercy, a reservoir (Gr. kolumbethra, "a swimming bath") with five porches, close to the sheep-gate or market (Neh. 3:1; John 5:2). Eusebius the historian (A.D. 330) calls it "the sheep-pool." It is also called "Bethsaida" and "Beth-zatha" (John 5:2, John 5: R.V. marg.). Under these "porches" or colonnades were usually a large number of infirm people waiting for the "troubling of the water......

BETHLEHEM
house of bread. (1.) A city in the "hill country" of Judah. It was originally called Ephrath (Gen. 35:16, Gen. 35: 19;48:7; Ruth 4:11). It was also called Beth-lehem Ephratah (Micah 5:2), Beth-lehem-judah (1-Sam 17:12), and "the city of David" (Luke 2:4). It is first noticed in Scripture as the place where Rachel died and was buried "by the wayside," directly to the north of the city (Gen. 48:7). ......

BETHSAIDA
house of fish. (1.) A town in Galilee, on the west side of the sea of Tiberias, in the "land of Gennesaret." It was the native place of Peter, Andrew, and Philip, and was frequently resorted to by Jesus (Mark 6:45; John 1:44;12:21). It is supposed to have been at the modern 'Ain Tabighah, a bay to the north of Gennesaret. (2.) A city near which Christ fed 5,000 (Luke 9:10; comp. John 6:17; Matt.......

BETHUEL
man of God, or virgin of God, or house of God. (1.) The son of Nahor by Milcah; nephew of Abraham, and father of Rebekah (Gen. 22:22, Gen. 22: 23;24:15, 24: 24, 47). He appears in person only once (24:50). (2.) A southern city of Judah (1-Chr 4:30); called also Bethul (Josh. 19:4) and Bethel (12:16; 1-Sam 30:27). ......

BETHZUR
house of rock, a town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:58), about 4 miles to the north of Hebron. It was built by Rehoboam for the defence of his kingdom (2-Chr 11:7). It stood near the modern ed-Dirweh. Its ruins are still seen on a hill which bears the name of Beit-Sur, and which commands the road from Beer-sheba and Hebron to Jerusalem from the south. ......

BETROTH
to promise "by one's truth." Men and women were betrothed when they were engaged to be married. This usually took place a year or more before marriage. From the time of betrothal the woman was regarded as the lawful wife of the man to whom she was betrothed (Deut. 28:30; Judg. 14:2, Judg. 14: 8; Matt. 1:18). The term is figuratively employed of the spiritual connection between God and his people (......

BEULAH
married, is used in Isa. 62:4 metaphorically as the name of Judea: "Thy land shall be married," i.e., favoured and blessed of the Lord. ......

BEWRAY
to reveal or disclose; an old English word equivalent to "betray" (Prov. 27:16;29:24, 29: R.V., "uttereth;" Isa. 16:3; Matt. 26:73). ......

BEYOND
when used with reference to Jordan, signifies in the writings of Moses the west side of the river, as he wrote on the east bank (Gen. 50:10, Gen. 50: 11; Deut. 1:1, Deut. 1: 5;3:8, 3: 20;4:46); but in the writings of Joshua, after he had crossed the river, it means the east side (Josh. 5:1;12:7;22:7). ......

BEZALEEL
in the shadow of God; i.e., "under his protection", the artificer who executed the work of art in connection with the tabernacle in the wilderness (Exo 31:2;35:30). He was engaged principally in works of metal, wood, and stone; while Aholiab, who was associated with him and subordinate to him, had the charge of the textile fabrics (36:1, 36: 2;38:22). He was of the tribe of Judah, the son of Uri, ......

BEZEK
lightning. (1.) The residence of Adoni-bezek, in the lot of Judah (Judg. 1:5). It was in the mountains, not far from Jerusalem. Probably the modern Bezkah, 6 miles south-east of Lydda. (2.) The place where Saul numbered the forces of Israel and Judah (1-Sam 11:8); somewhere in the centre of the country, near the Jordan valley. Probably the modern Ibzik, 13 miles north-east of Shechem. ......

BEZER
ore of gold or silver. (1.) A city of the Reubenites; one of the three cities of refuge on the east of Jordan (Deut. 4:43; Josh. 20:8). It has been identified with the modern ruined village of Burazin, some 12 miles north of Heshbon; also with Kasur-el-Besheir, 2 miles south-west of Dibon. (2.) A descendant of Asher (1-Chr 7:37). ......

BRIBE
None to be taken; "for the gift maketh open eyes blind, and perverteth the cause of the righteous" (Exo 23:8, Exo 23: literally rendered). ......

CHAMBER
"on the wall," which the Shunammite prepared for the prophet Elisha (2-Kings 4:10), was an upper chamber over the porch through the hall toward the street. This was the "guest chamber" where entertainments were prepared (Mark 14:14). There were also "chambers within chambers" (1-Kings 22:25; 2-Kings 9:2). To enter into a chamber is used metaphorically of prayer and communion with God (Isa. 26:20).......

CHAMBERING
(Rom. 13:13), wantonness, impurity. ......

CHAMBERLAIN
a confidential servant of the king (Gen. 37:36;39:1). In Rom. 16:23 mention is made of "Erastus the chamberlain." Here the word denotes the treasurer of the city, or the quaestor, as the Romans styled him. He is almost the only convert from the higher ranks of whom mention is made (comp. Acts 17:34). Blastus, Herod's "chamberlain" (Acts 12:20), was his personal attendant or valet-de-chambre. The H......

CUCUMBERS
(Heb. plur. kishshuim; i.e., "hard," "difficult" of digestion, only in Num. 11:5). This vegetable is extensively cultivated in the East at the present day, as it appears to have been in earlier times among the Hebrews. It belongs to the gourd family of plants. In the East its cooling pulp and juice are most refreshing. "We need not altogether wonder that the Israelites, wearily marching through th......

CUP-BEARER
an officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian, Assyrian, and Jewish monarchs. The cup-bearer of the king of Egypt is mentioned in connection with Joseph's history (Gen. 40:1;41:9). Rabshakeh (q.v.) was cup-bearer in the Assyrian court (2-Kings 18:17). Nehemiah filled this office to the king of Persia (Neh. 1:11). We read also of Solomon's cup-bearers (1-Kings 10:5; 2-Chr 9:4). ......

DABERATH
pasture, a Levitical town of Issachar (Josh. 19:12;21:28), near the border of Zebulum. It is the modern small village of Deburich, at the base of Mount Tabor. Tradition has incorrectly made it the scene of the miracle of the cure of the lunatic child (Matt. 17:14). ......

DERBE
a small town on the eastern part of the upland plain of Lycaonia, about 20 miles from Lystra. Paul passed through Derbe on his route from Cilicia to Iconium, on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:1), and probably also on his third journey (18:23;19:1). On his first journey (14:20, 14: 21) he came to Derbe from the other side; i.e., from Iconium. It was the native place of Gaius, one of Paul's ......

EBED
slave, the father of Gaal, in whom the men of Shechem "put confidence" in their conspiracy against Abimelech (Judg. 9:26, Judg. 9: 26, 30, 31). ......

EBED-MELECH
a servant of the king; probably an official title, an Ethiopian, "one of the eunuchs which was in the king's house;" i.e., in the palace of Zedekiah, king of Judah. He interceded with the king in Jeremiah's behalf, and was the means of saving him from death by famine (Jer. 38:7: 39:15). ......

EBEN-EZER
stone of help, the memorial stone set up by Samuel to commemorate the divine assistance to Israel in their great battle against the Philistines, whom they totally routed (1-Sam 7:7) at Aphek, in the neighbourhood of Mizpeh, in Benjamin, near the western entrance of the pass of Beth-horon. On this very battle-field, twenty years before, the Philistines routed the Israelites, "and slew of the army i......

EBER
beyond. (1.). The third post-duluvian patriach after Shem (Gen. 10:24;11:14). He is regarded as the founder of the Hebrew race (10:21; Num. 24:24). In Luke 3:35 he is called Heber. (2.) One of the seven heads of the families of the Gadites (1-Chr 5:13). (3.) The oldest of the three sons of Elpaal the Benjamite (8:12). (4.) One of the heads of the familes of Benjamites in Jerusalem (22). (5......

EL-BETHEL
God of Bethel, the name of the place where Jacob had the vision of the ladder, and where he erected an altar (Gen. 31:13;35:7). ......

ELISABETH
God her oath, the mother of John the Baptist (Luke 1:5). She was a descendant of Aaron. She and her husband Zacharias (q.v.) "were both righteous before God" (Luke 1:5, Luke 1: 13). Mary's visit to Elisabeth is described 1:39.......

EPHRAIM, THE TRIBE OF
took precedence over that of Manasseh by virtue of Jacob's blessing (Gen. 41:52;48:1). The descendants of Joseph formed two of the tribes of Israel, whereas each of the other sons of Jacob was the founder of only one tribe. Thus there were in reality thirteen tribes; but the number twelve was preserved by excluding that of Levi when Ephraim and Manasseh are mentioned separately (Num. 1:32; Josh. 1......

EZION-GEBER
the giant's backbone (so called from the head of a mountain which runs out into the sea), an ancient city and harbour at the north-east end of the Elanitic branch of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Akabah, near Elath or Eloth (Num. 33:35; Deut. 2:8). Here Solomon built ships, "Tarshish ships," like those trading from Tyre to Tarshish and the west, which traded with Ophir (1-Kings 9:26; 2-Chr 8:17); and h......

GEBER
a valiant man, (1-Kings 4:19), one of Solomon's purveyors, having jurisdiction over a part of Gilead, comprising all the kingdom of Sihon and part of the kingdom of Og (Deut. 2; 31).......

GIBBETHON
a height, a city of the Philistines in the territory of Dan, given to the Kohathites (Josh. 19:44;21:23). Nadab the king of Israel, while besieging it, was slain under its walls by Baasha, one of his own officers (1-Kings 15:27). It was in the possession of the Philistines after the secession of the ten tribes (2-Chr 11:13, 2-Chr 11: 14). ......

GIBEAH
a hill or hill-town, "of Benjamin" (1-Sam 13:15), better known as "Gibeah of Saul" (11:4; Isa. 10:29). It was here that the terrible outrage was committed on the Levite's concubine which led to the almost utter extirpation of the tribe of Benjamin (Judg. 19; 20), only six hundred men surviving after a succession of disastrous battles. This was the birthplace of Saul, and continued to be his reside......

GIBEAH OF JUDAH
(Josh. 15:57), a city in the mountains of Judah, the modern Jeba, on a hill in the Wady Musurr, about 7 1/2 miles west-south-west of Bethlehem. ......

GIBEAH OF PHINEHAS
(Josh. 15:57, Josh. 15: R.V. marg.), a city on Mount Ephraim which had been given to Phinehas (24:33 "hill," A.V.; R.V. marg. and Heb., "Gibeah."). Here Eleazar the son of Aaron was buried. It has been identified with the modern Khurbet Jibia, 5 miles north of Guphna towards Shechem. ......

GIBEAH-HAARALOTH
(Josh. 5:3, Josh. 5: marg.), hill of the foreskins, a place at Gilgal where those who had been born in the wilderness were circumcised. All the others, i.e., those who were under twenty years old at the time of the sentence at Kadesh, had already been circumcised. ......

GIBEON
hill-city, "one of the royal cities, greater than Ai, and all the men thereof were mighty" (Josh. 10:2). Its inhabitants were Hivites (11:19). It lay within the territory of Benjamin, and became a priest-city (18:25;21:17). Here the tabernacle was set up after the destruction of Nob, and here it remained many years till the temple was built by Solomon. It is represented by the modern el-Jib, to th......

GUEST-CHAMBER
the spare room on the upper floor of an Eastern dwelling (Mark 14:14; Luke 22:11). In Luke 2:7 the word is translated "inn" (q.v.).......

HABERGEON
an Old English word for breastplate. In Job 41:26 (Heb. shiryah) it is properly a "coat of mail;" the Revised Version has "pointed shaft." In Exo 28:32, Exo 28:39:23, 39: it denotes a military garment strongly and thickly woven and covered with mail round the neck and breast. Such linen corselets have been found in Egypt. The word used in these verses is _tahra_, which is of Egyptian origin. The R......

HEBER
passing over. (1.) Son of Beriah and grandson of Asher (Gen. 46:17; 1-Chr 7:31, 1-Chr 7: 32). (2.) The Kenite (Judg. 4:11, Judg. 4: 17;5:24), a descendant of Hobab. His wife Jael received Sisera (q.v.) into her tent and then killed him. (3.) 1-Chr 4:18. (4.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 8:17). (5.) A Gadite (5:13). (See EBER.) ......

ISHBI-BENOB
my seat at Nob, one of the Rephaim, whose spear was three hundred shekels in weight. He was slain by Abishai (2-Sam 21:16, 2-Sam 21: 17). ......

JABESH
dry. (1.) For Jabesh-Gilead (1-Sam 11:3, 1-Sam 11:9, 1-Sam 11:10). (2.) The father of Shallum (2-Kings 15:10, 2-Kings 15: 13, 14), who usurped the throne of Israel on the death of Zachariah. ......

JABESH-GILEAD
a town on the east of Jordan, on the top of one of the green hills of Gilead, within the limits of the half tribe of Manasseh, and in full view of Beth-shan. It is first mentioned in connection with the vengeance taken on its inhabitants because they had refused to come up to Mizpeh to take part with Israel against the tribe of Benjamin (Judg. 21:8). After the battles at Gibeah, that tribe was alm......

JABEZ
affiction. (1.) A descendant of Judah, of whom it is recorded that "God granted him that which he requested" (1-Chr 4:9, 1-Chr 4: 10). (2.) A place inhabited by several families of the scribes (1-Chr 2:55). ......

JASHOBEAM
dweller among the people; or to whom the people turn, the Hachmonite (1-Chr 11:11), one of David's chief heroes who joined him at Ziklag (12:6). He was the first of the three who broke through the host of the Philistines to fetch water to David from the well of Bethlehem (2-Sam 23:13). He is also called Adino the Eznite (8). ......

JERUBBESHETH
contender with the shame; i.e., idol, a surname also of Gideon (2-Sam 11:21). ......

JESHEBEAB
seat of his father, the head of the fourteenth division of priests (1-Chr 24:13). ......

JEZEBEL
chaste, the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Zidonians, and the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel (1-Kings 16:31). This was the "first time that a king of Israel had allied himself by marriage with a heathen princess; and the alliance was in this case of a peculiarly disastrous kind. Jezebel has stamped her name on history as the representative of all that is designing, crafty, malicious, reven......

JOCHEBED
Jehovah is her glory, the wife of Amram, and the mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Num. 26:59). She is spoken of as the sister of Kohath, Amram's father (Exo 6:20; comp. 16, 18;2:1). ......

JUDAH, TRIBE OF
Judah and his three surviving sons went down with Jacob into Egypt (Gen. 46:12; Exo 1:2). At the time of the Exodus, when we meet with the family of Judah again, they have increased to the number of 74,000 males (Num. 1:26, Num. 1: 27). Its number increased in the wilderness (26:22). Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, represented the tribe as one of the spies (13:6;34:19). This tribe marched at the van ......

LIBERTINE
found only Acts 6:9, Acts 6: one who once had been a slave, but who had been set at liberty, or the child of such a person. In this case the name probably denotes those descendants of Jews who had been carried captives to Rome as prisoners of war by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, and had afterwards been liberated. In A.D. 19 these manumitted Jews were banished from Rome. Many ......

MACCABEES
This word does not occur in Scripture. It was the name given to the leaders of the national party among the Jews who suffered in the persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes, who succeeded to the Syrian throne B.C. 175. It is supposed to have been derived from the Hebrew word (makkabah) meaning "hammer," as suggestive of the heroism and power of this Jewish family, who are, however, more properly cal......

MACCABEES, BOOKS OF THE
There were originally five books of the Maccabees. The first contains a history of the war of independence, commencing (B.C. 175) in a series of patriotic struggles against the tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes, and terminating B.C. 135. It became part of the Vulgate Version of the Bible, and was thus retained among the Apocrypha. The second gives a history of the Maccabees' struggle from B.C. 176 ......

MEHETABEEL
whose benefactor is God, the father of Delaiah, and grandfather of Shemaiah, who joined Sanballat against Nehemiah (Neh. 6:10). ......

MEHETABEL
wife of Hadad, one of the kings of Edom (Gen. 36:39). ......

MOUNT OF BEATITUDES
See SERMON. ......

MULBERRY
Heb. bakah, "to weep;" rendered "Baca" (R.V., "weeping") in Psa 84:6. The plural form of the Hebrew bekaim is rendered "mulberry trees" in 2-Sam 5:23, 2-Sam 5: 24 and 1-Chr 14:14, 1-Chr 14: 15. The tree here alluded to was probably the aspen or trembling poplar. "We know with certainty that the black poplar, the aspen, and the Lombardy poplar grew in Palestine. The aspen, whose long leaf-stalks ca......

MUTH-LABBEN
occurring only in the title of Psalm 9. Some interpret the words as meaning "on the death of Labben," some unknown person. Others render the word, "on the death of the son;" i.e., of Absalom (2-Sam 18:33). Others again have taken the word as the name of a musical instrument, or as the name of an air to which the psalm was sung. ......

NAPHTALI, TRIBE OF
On this tribe Jacob pronounced the patriarchal blessing, "Naphtali is a hind let loose: he giveth goodly words" (Gen. 49:21). It was intended thus to set forth under poetic imagery the future character and history of the tribe. At the time of the Exodus this tribe numbered 53,400 adult males (Num. 1:43), but at the close of the wanderings they numbered only 45,400 (26:48). Along with Dan and Ash......

NUMBERING OF THE PEOPLE
Besides the numbering of the tribes mentioned in the history of the wanderings in the wilderness, we have an account of a general census of the whole nation from Dan to Beersheba, which David gave directions to Joab to make (1-Chr 21:1). Joab very reluctantly began to carry out the king's command. This act of David in ordering a numbering of the people arose from pride and a self-glorifying spir......

NUMBERS, BOOK OF
the fourth of the books of the Pentateuch, called in the Hebrew be-midbar, i.e., "in the wilderness." In the LXX. version it is called "Numbers," and this name is now the usual title of the book. It is so called because it contains a record of the numbering of the people in the wilderness of Sinai (1-4), and of their numbering afterwards on the plain of Moab (26). This book is of special histori......

OBED
serving; worshipping. (1.) A son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:21, Ruth 4: 22), and the grandfather of David (Matt. 1:5). (2.) 1-Chr 2:34. (3.) 1-Chr 26:7. (4.) 2-Chr 23:1. ......

OBED-EDOM
servant of Edom. (1.) "The Gittite" (probably so called because he was a native of Gath-rimmon), a Levite of the family of the Korhites (1-Chr 26:1, 1-Chr 26: 4-8), to whom was specially intrusted the custody of the ark (1-Chr 15:18). When David was bringing up the ark "from the house of Abinadab, that was in Gibeah" (probably some hill or eminence near Kirjath-jearim), and had reached Nachon's th......

OBEISANCE
homage or reverence to any one (Gen. 37:7;43:28). ......

PHEBE
a "deaconess of the church at Cenchrea," the port of Corinth. She was probably the bearer of Paul's epistle to the Romans. Paul commended her to the Christians at Rome; "for she hath been," says he, "a succourer of many, and of myself also" (Rom. 16:1, Rom. 16: 2). ......

PI-BESETH
(Ezek. 30:17), supposed to mean. "a cat," or a deity in the form of a cat, worshipped by the Egyptians. It was called by the Greeks Bubastis. The hieroglyphic name is "Pe-bast", i.e., the house of Bast, the Artemis of the Egyptians. The town of Bubasts was situated on the Pelusian branch, i.e., the easternmost branch, of the Delta. It was the seat of one of the chief annual festivals of the Egypti......

REBEKAH
a noose, the daughter of Bethuel, and the wife of Isaac (Gen. 22:23;24:67). The circumstances under which Abraham's "steward" found her at the "city of Nahor," in Padan-aram, are narrated in Gen. 24-27. "She can hardly be regarded as an amiable woman. When we first see her she is ready to leave her father's house for ever at an hour's notice; and her future life showed not only a full share of her......

REUBEN
behold a son!, the eldest son of Jacob and Leah (Gen. 29:32). His sinful conduct, referred to in Gen. 35:22, Gen. 35: brought down upon him his dying father's malediction (8:4). He showed kindness to Joseph, and was the means of saving his life when his other brothers would have put him to death (37:21, 37:22). It was he also who pledged his life and the life of his sons when Jacob was unwilling t......

REUBEN, TRIBE OF
at the Exodus numbered 46,500 male adults, from twenty years old and upwards (Num. 1:20, Num. 1: 21), and at the close of the wilderness wanderings they numbered only 43,730 (26:7). This tribe united with that of Gad in asking permission to settle in the "land of Gilead," "on the other side of Jordan" (32:1). The lot assigned to Reuben was the smallest of the lots given to the trans-Jordanic tribe......

ROBBERY
Practised by the Ishmaelites (Gen. 16:12), the Chaldeans and Sabeans (Job 1:15, Job 1: 17), and the men of Shechem (Judg. 9:25. See also 1-Sam 27:6; 30; Hos. 4:2;6:9). Robbers infested Judea in our Lord's time (Luke 10:30; John 18:40; Acts 5:36, Acts 5: 37;21:38; 2-Cor 11:26). The words of the Authorized Version, "counted it not robbery to be equal," etc. (Phil. 2:6, Phil. 2: 7), are better render......

SABEANS
descendants of Seba (Gen. 10:7); Africans (Isa. 43:3). They were "men of stature," and engaged in merchandise (Isa. 45:14). Their conversion to the Lord was predicted (Psa 72:10). This word, in Ezek. 23:42, Ezek. 23: should be read, as in the margin of the Authorized Version, and in the Revised Version, "drunkards." Another tribe, apparently given to war, is mentioned in Job 1:15. ......

SCRIBES
anciently held various important offices in the public affairs of the nation. The Hebrew word so rendered (sopher) is first used to designate the holder of some military office (Judg. 5:14; A.V., "pen of the writer;" R.V., "the marshal's staff;" marg., "the staff of the scribe"). The scribes acted as secretaries of state, whose business it was to prepare and issue decrees in the name of the king (......

SHABBETHAI
Sabbath-born, a Levite who assisted in expounding the law and investigating into the illegal marriages of the Jews (Ezra 10:15; Neh. 8:7;11:16). ......

SHEMEBER
soaring on high, the king of Zeboiim, who joined with the other kings in casting off the yoke of Chedorlaomer. After having been reconquered by him, he was rescued by Abraham (Gen. 14:2).......

SIBBECAI
the Lord sustains, one of David's heroes (1-Chr 11:29), general of the eighth division of the army (27:11). He slew the giant Saph in the battle of Gob (2-Sam 21:18; R.V., "Sibbechai"). Called also Mebunnai (23:27). ......

SIMEON, THE TRIBE OF
was "divided and scattered" according to the prediction in Gen. 49:5. They gradually dwindled in number, and sank into a position of insignificance among the other tribes. They decreased in the wilderness by about two-thirds (comp. Num. 1:23;26:14). Moses pronounces no blessing on this tribe. It is passed by in silence (Deut. 33). This tribe received as their portion a part of the territory alre......

SUCCOTH-BENOTH
tents of daughters, supposed to be the name of a Babylonian deity, the goddess Zir-banit, the wife of Merodach, worshipped by the colonists in Samaria (2-Kings 17:30). ......

TABEAL
goodness of God, the father of one whom the kings of Syria and Samaria in vain attempted to place on the throne of Ahaz (Isa. 7:6). ......

TABEEL
a Persian governor of Samaria, who joined others in the attempt to prevent the rebuilding of Jerusalem (Ezra 4:7). ......

TABERAH
burning, a place in the wilderness of Paran, where the "fire of the Lord" consumed the murmuring Israelites (Num. 11:3; Deut. 9:22). It was also called Kibroth-hattaavah (q.v.). ......

TABERING
playing on a small drum or tabret. In Nahum 2:7, Nahum 2: where alone it occurs, it means beating on the breast, as players beat on the tabret. ......

TABERNACLE
(1.) A house or dwelling-place (Job 5:24;18:6, 18: etc.). (2.) A portable shrine (comp. Acts 19:24) containing the image of Moloch (Amos 5:26; marg. and R.V., "Siccuth"). (3.) The human body (2-Cor 5:1, 2-Cor 5: 4); a tent, as opposed to a permanent dwelling. (4.) The sacred tent (Heb. mishkan, "the dwelling-place"); the movable tent-temple which Moses erected for the service of God, accordi......

TABERNACLES, FEAST OF
the third of the great annual festivals of the Jews (Lev. 23:33). It is also called the "feast of ingathering" (Exo 23:16; Deut. 16:13). It was celebrated immediately after the harvest, in the month Tisri, and the celebration lasted for eight days (Lev. 23:33). During that period the people left their homes and lived in booths formed of the branches of trees. The sacrifices offered at this time ar......

TEBETH
(Esther 2:16), a word probably of Persian origin, denoting the cold time of the year; used by the later Jews as denoting the tenth month of the year. Assyrian tebituv, "rain." ......

TESTIMONY, TABERNACLE OF
the tabernacle, the great glory of which was that it contained "the testimony", i.e., the "two tables" (Exo 38:21). The ark in which these tables were deposited was called the "ark of the testimony" (0:3), and also simply the "testimony" (27:21;30:6). ......

THEBEZ
brightness, a place some 11 miles north-east of Shechem, on the road to Scythopolis, the modern Tabas. Abimelech led his army against this place, because of its participation in the conspiracy of the men of Shechem; but as he drew near to the strong tower to which its inhabitants had fled for safety, and was about to set fire to it, a woman cast a fragment of millstone at him, and "all to brake hi......

TIBERIAS
a city, the modern Tubarich, on the western shore of the Sea of Tiberias. It is said to have been founded by Herod Antipas (A.D. 16), on the site of the ruins of an older city called Rakkath, and to have been thus named by him after the Emperor Tiberius. It is mentioned only three times in the history of our Lord (John 6:1, John 6:23;21:1). In 1837 about one-half of the inhabitants perished by a......

TIBERIAS, SEA OF
called also the Sea of Galilee (q.v.) and of Gennesaret. In the Old Testament it is called the Sea of Chinnereth or Chinneroth. John (21:1) is the only evangelist who so designates this lake. His doing so incidentally confirms the opinion that he wrote after the other evangelists, and at a period subsequent to the taking of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). Tiberias had by this time become an important city, h......

TIBERIUS CAESAR
i.e., as known in Roman history, Tiberius Claudius Nero, only mentioned in Luke 3:1. He was the stepson of Augustus, whom he succeeded on the throne, A.D. 14. He was noted for his vicious and infamous life. In the fifteenth year of his reign John the Baptist entered on his public ministry, and under him also our Lord taught and suffered. He died A.D. 37. He is frequently referred to simply as "Cae......

TRIBE
a collection of families descending from one ancestor. The "twelve tribes" of the Hebrews were the twelve collections of families which sprang from the sons of Jacob. In Matt. 24:30 the word has a wider significance. The tribes of Israel are referred to as types of the spiritual family of God (Rev. 7). (See ISRAEL,+KINGDOM+OF; JUDAH,+KINGDOM+OF.) ......

ZEBEDEE
a Galilean fisherman, the husband of Salome (q.v.), and the father of James and John, two of our Lord's disciples (Matt. 4:21;27:56; Mark 15:40). He seems to have been a man of some position in Capernaum, for he had two boats (Luke 5:4) and "hired servants" (Mark 1:20) of his own. No mention is made of him after the call of his two sons by Jesus.......

ZEBULUN, TRIBE OF
numbered at Sinai (Num. 1:31) and before entering Canaan (26:27). It was one of the tribes which did not drive out the Canaanites, but only made them tributary (Judg. 1:30). It took little interest in public affairs. It responded, however, readily to the summons of Gideon (6:35), and afterwards assisted in enthroning David at Hebron (1-Chr 12:33, 1-Chr 12: 40). Along with the other northern tribes......

ZERUBBABEL
the seed of Babylon, the son of Salathiel or Shealtiel (Hag. 1:1; Zorobabel, Matt. 1:12); called also the son of Pedaiah (1-Chr 3:17), i.e., according to a frequent usage of the word "son;" the grandson or the nephew of Salathiel. He is also known by the Persian name of Sheshbazzar (Ezra 1:8, Ezra 1: 11). In the first year of Cyrus, king of Persia, he led the first band of Jews, numbering 42,360 (......

ZIBEON
robber; or dyed. (1.) A Hivite (Gen. 36:2). (2.) A Horite, and son of Seir (Gen. 36:20).......

ABINADAB
father of nobleness; i.e., "noble." (1.) A Levite of Kirjath-jearim, in whose house the ark of the covenant was deposited after having been brought back from the land of the Philistines (1-Sam 7:1). It remained there twenty years, till it was at length removed by David (1-Sam 7:1, 1-Sam 7:2; 1-Chr 13:7). (2.) The second of the eight sons of Jesse (1-Sam 16:8). He was with Saul in the campaign ag......

ABINOAM
father of kindness, the father of Barak (Judg. 4:6;5:1).......

ABOMINATION
This word is used, (1.) To express the idea that the Egyptians considered themselves as defiled when they ate with strangers (Gen. 43:32). The Jews subsequently followed the same practice, holding it unlawful to eat or drink with foreigners (John 18:28; Acts 10:28;11:3). (2.) Every shepherd was "an abomination" unto the Egyptians (Gen. 46:34). This aversion to shepherds, such as the Hebrews, aro......

ADIN
effeminate. (1.) Ezra 8:6. (2.) Neh. 10:16. ......

ADINA
slender, one of David's warriors (1-Chr 11:42), a Reubenite. ......

ADINO
the Eznite, one of David's mighty men (2-Sam 23:8). (See JASHOBEAM.) ......

AFFINITY
relationship by alliance (2-Chr 18:1) or by marriage (1-Kings 3:1). Marriages are prohibited within certain degrees of affinity, enumerated Lev. 18:6. Consanguinity is relationship by blood.......

AHINADAB
brother of liberality = liberal, one of the twelve commissariat officers appointed by Solomon in so many districts of his kingdom to raise supplies by monthly rotation for his household. He was appointed to the district of Mahanaim (1-Kings 4:14), east of Jordan.......

AHINOAM
brother of pleasantness = pleasant. (1.) The daughter of Ahimaaz, and wife of Saul (1-Sam 14:50). (2.) A Jezreelitess, the first wife of David (1-Sam 25:43;27:3). She was the mother of Amnon (2-Sam 3:2). (See 1-Sam 30:5, 1-Sam 30: 18; 2-Sam 2:2.)......

AMMINADAB
kindred of the prince. (1.) The father of Nahshon, who was chief of the tribe of Judah (Num. 1:7;2:3;7:12, 7: 17;10:14). His daughter Elisheba was married to Aaron (Exo 6:23). (2.) A son of Kohath, the second son of Levi (1-Chr 6:22), called also Izhar (2, 18). (3.) Chief of the 112 descendants of Uzziel the Levite (1-Chr 15:10, 1-Chr 15: 11).......

AMMINADIB
a person mentioned in 6:12, 6: whose chariots were famed for their swiftness. It is rendered in the margin "my willing people," and in the Revised Version "my princely people."......

ANOINT
The practice of anointing with perfumed oil was common among the Hebrews. (1.) The act of anointing was significant of consecration to a holy or sacred use; hence the anointing of the high priest (Exo 29:29; Lev. 4:3) and of the sacred vessels (Exo 30:26). The high priest and the king are thus called "the anointed" (Lev. 4:3, Lev. 4: 5, 16;6:20; Psa 132:10). Anointing a king was equivalent to crow......

BABYLON, KINGDOM OF
called "the land of the Chaldeans" (Jer. 24:5; Ezek,12:13), was an extensive province in Central Asia along the valley of the Tigris from the Persian Gulf northward for some 300 miles. It was famed for its fertility and its riches. Its capital was the city of Babylon, a great commercial centre (Ezek. 17:4; Isa. 43:14). Babylonia was divided into the two districts of Accad in the north, and Summer ......

BASIN
or Bason. (1.) A trough or laver (Heb. aggan') for washing (Exo 24:6); rendered also "goblet" (7:2) and "cups" (Isa. 22:24). (2.) A covered dish or urn (Heb. k'for) among the vessels of the temple (1-Chr 28:17; Ezra 1:10;8:27). (3.) A vase (Heb. mizrak) from which to sprinkle anything. A metallic vessel; sometimes rendered "bowl" (Amos 6:6; Zech. 9:15). The vessels of the tabernacle were of br......

BASTINADO
beating, a mode of punishment common in the East. It is referred to by "the rod of correction" (Prov. 22:15), "scourging" (Lev. 19:20), "chastising" (Deut. 22:18). The number of blows could not exceed forty (Deut. 25:2, Deut. 25: 3). ......

BATTERING-RAM
(Ezek. 4:2;21:22), a military engine, consisting of a long beam of wood hung upon a frame, for making breaches in walls. The end of it which was brought against the wall was shaped like a ram's head. ......

BLAINS
occurs only in connection with the sixth plague of Egypt (Exo 9:9, Exo 9: 10). In Deut. 28:27, Deut. 28: 35, it is called "the botch of Egypt." It seems to have been the fearful disease of black leprosy, a kind of elephantiasis, producing burning ulcers. ......

BLIND
Blind beggars are frequently mentioned (Matt. 9:27;12:22;20:30; John 5:3). The blind are to be treated with compassion (Lev. 19:14; Deut. 27:18). Blindness was sometimes a punishment for disobedience (1-Sam 11:2; Jer. 39:7), sometimes the effect of old age (Gen. 27:1; 1-Kings 14:4; 1-Sam 4:15). Conquerors sometimes blinded their captives (2-Kings 25:7; 1-Sam 11:2). Blindness denotes ignorance as t......

BOWING
a mode of showing respect. Abraham "bowed himself to the people of the land" (Gen. 23:7); so Jacob to Esau (Gen. 33:3); and the brethren of Joseph before him as the governor of the land (Gen. 43:28). Bowing is also frequently mentioned as an act of adoration to idols (Josh. 23:7; 2-Kings 5:18; Judg. 2:19; Isa. 44:15), and to God (Josh. 5:14; Psa 22:29;72:9; Micah 6:6; Psa 95:6; Eph. 3:14). ......

BRIGANDINE
(Jer. 46:4;51:3), an obsolete English word denoting a scale coat of armour, or habergeon, worn by light-armed "brigands." The Revised Version has "coat of mail."......

BUILDING
among the Jews was suited to the climate and conditions of the country. They probably adopted the kind of architecture for their dwellings which they found already existing when they entered Canaan (Deut. 6:10; Num. 13:19). Phoenician artists (2-Sam 5:11; 1-Kings 5:6, 1-Kings 5: 18) assisted at the erection of the royal palace and the temple at Jerusalem. Foreigners also assisted at the restoratio......

BURNT OFFERING
Hebrew _olah_; i.e., "ascending," the whole being consumed by fire, and regarded as ascending to God while being consumed. Part of every offering was burnt in the sacred fire, but this was wholly burnt, a "whole burnt offering." It was the most frequent form of sacrifice, and apparently the only one mentioned in the book of Genesis. Such were the sacrifices offered by Abel (Gen. 4:3, Gen. 4: 4, he......

CABINS
only in Jer. 37:16 (R.V., "cells"), arched vaults or recesses off a passage or room; cells for the closer confinement of prisoners.......

CAIN
a possession; a spear. (1.) The first-born son of Adam and Eve (Gen. 4). He became a tiller of the ground, as his brother Abel followed the pursuits of pastoral life. He was "a sullen, self-willed, haughty, vindictive man; wanting the religious element in his character, and defiant even in his attitude towards God." It came to pass "in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days"), i.e., probably ......

CAINAN
possession; smith. (1.) The fourth antediluvian patriarch, the eldest son of Enos. He was 70 years old at the birth of his eldest son Mahalaleel, after which he lived 840 years (Gen. 5:9), and was 910 years old when he died. He is also called Kenan (1-Chr 1:2). (2.) The son of Arphaxad (Luke 3:36). He is nowhere named in the Old Testament. He is usually called the "second Cainan."......

CALLING
a profession, or as we usually say, a vocation (1-Cor 7:20). The "hope of your calling" in Eph. 4:4 is the hope resulting from your being called into the kingdom of God.......

CAPTAIN
(1.) Heb. sar (1-Sam 22:2; 2-Sam 23:19). Rendered "chief," Gen. 40:2;41:9; rendered also "prince," Dan. 1:7; "ruler," Judg. 9:30; "governor,' 1-Kings 22:26. This same Hebrew word denotes a military captain (Exo 18:21; 2-Kings 1:9; Deut. 1:15; 1-Sam 18:13, 1-Sam 18: etc.), the "captain of the body-guard" (Gen. 37:36;39:1;41:10; Jer. 40:1), or, as the word may be rendered, "chief of the executioners......

CEILING
the covering (1-Kings 7:3, 1-Kings 7:7) of the inside roof and walls of a house with planks of wood (2-Chr 3:5; Jer. 22:14). Ceilings were sometimes adorned with various ornaments in stucco, gold, silver, gems, and ivory. The ceilings of the temple and of Solomon's palace are described 1-Kings 6:9, 1-Kings 6: 15;7:3; 2-Chr 3:5, 2-Chr 3:9.......

CHAIN
(1.) A part of the insignia of office. A chain of gold was placed about Joseph's neck (Gen. 41:42); and one was promised to Daniel (5:7). It is used as a symbol of sovereignty (Ezek. 16:11). The breast-plate of the high-priest was fastened to the ephod by golden chains (Exo 39:17, Exo 39: 21). (2.) It was used as an ornament (Prov. 1:9; 1:10). The Midianites adorned the necks of their camels wit......

CHINNERETH
lyre, the singular form of the word (Deut. 3:17; Josh. 19:35), which is also used in the plural form, Chinneroth, the name of a fenced city which stood near the shore of the lake of Galilee, a little to the south of Tiberias. The town seems to have given its name to a district, as appears from 1-Kings 15:20, 1-Kings 15: where the plural form of the word is used. The Sea of Chinnereth (Num. 34:11......

CHORAZIN
named along with Bethsaida and Capernaum as one of the cities in which our Lord's "mighty works" were done, and which was doomed to woe because of signal privileges neglected (Matt. 11:21; Luke 10:13). It has been identified by general consent with the modern Kerazeh, about 2 1/2 miles up the Wady Kerazeh from Capernaum; i.e., Tell Hum. ......

CHRONICLES OF KING DAVID
(1-Chr 27:24) were statistical state records; one of the public sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles derived information on various public matters. ......

CINNAMON
Heb. kinamon, the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of botanists, a tree of the Laurel family, which grows only in India on the Malabar coast, in Ceylon, and China. There is no trace of it in Egypt, and it was unknown in Syria. The inner rind when dried and rolled into cylinders forms the cinnamon of commerce. The fruit and coarser pieces of bark when boiled yield a fragrant oil. It was one of the principal i......

CINNERETH
a harp, one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35; comp. Deut. 3:17). It also denotes, apparently, a district which may have taken its name from the adjacent city or lake of Gennesaret, anciently called "the sea of Chinnereth" (q.v.), and was probably that enclosed district north of Tiberias afterwards called "the plain of Gennesaret." Called Chinneroth (R.V., Chinnereth) Josh. 11:2. The......

COCK-CROWING
In our Lord's time the Jews had adopted the Greek and Roman division of the night into four watches, each consisting of three hours, the first beginning at six o'clock in the evening (Luke 12:38; Matt. 14:25; Mark 6:48). But the ancient division, known as the first and second cock-crowing, was still retained. The cock usually crows several times soon after midnight (this is the first crowing), and......

COFFIN
used in Gen. 50:26 with reference to the burial of Joseph. Here, it means a mummy-chest. The same Hebrew word is rendered "chest" in 2-Kings 12:9, 2-Kings 12: 10. ......

COIN
Before the Exile the Jews had no regularly stamped money. They made use of uncoined shekels or talents of silver, which they weighed out (Gen. 23:16; Exo 38:24; 2-Sam 18:12). Probably the silver ingots used in the time of Abraham may have been of a fixed weight, which was in some way indicated on them. The "pieces of silver" paid by Abimelech to Abraham (Gen. 20:16), and those also for which Josep......

COMING OF CHRIST
(1) with reference to his first advent "in the fulness of the time" (1-John 5:20; 2-John 1:7), or (2) with reference to his coming again the second time at the last day (Acts 1:11;3:20, 3: 21; 1-Thess 4:15; 2-Tim 4:1; Heb. 9:28). The expression is used metaphorically of the introduction of the gospel into any place (John 15:22; Eph. 2:17), the visible establishment of his kingdom in the world (M......

CONCUBINE
in the Bible denotes a female conjugally united to a man, but in a relation inferior to that of a wife. Among the early Jews, from various causes, the difference between a wife and a concubine was less marked than it would be amongst us. The concubine was a wife of secondary rank. There are various laws recorded providing for their protection (Exo 21:7; Deut. 21:10), and setting limits to the rela......

CORINTH
a Grecian city, on the isthmus which joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. It is about 48 miles west of Athens. The ancient city was destroyed by the Romans (B.C. 146), and that mentioned in the New Testament was quite a new city, having been rebuilt about a century afterwards and peopled by a colony of freedmen from Rome. It became under the Romans the seat of government for Southern ......

CORINTHIANS, FIRST EPISTLE TO THE
was written from Ephesus (1-Cor 16:8) about the time of the Passover in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there (Acts 19:10;20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57). The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had arisen among them, first from A......

CORINTHIANS, SECOND EPISTLE TO THE
Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the chu......

COVERING OF THE EYES
occurs only in Gen. 20:16. In the Revised Version the rendering is "it (i.e., Abimelech's present of 1,000 pieces of silver to Abraham) is for thee a covering of the eyes." This has been regarded as an implied advice to Sarah to conform to the custom of married women, and wear a complete veil, covering the eyes as well as the rest of the face. ......

CRISPING-PIN
(Isa. 3:22; R.V., "satchel"), some kind of female ornament, probably like the modern reticule. The Hebrew word _harit_ properly signifies pouch or casket or purse. It is rendered "bag" in 2-Kings 5:23. ......

CUMMIN
(Heb. kammon; i.e., a "condiment"), the fruit or seed of an umbelliferous plant, the Cuminum sativum, still extensively cultivated in the East. Its fruit is mentioned in Isa. 28:25, Isa. 28: 27. In the New Testament it is mentioned in Matt. 23:23, Matt. 23: where our Lord pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who were zealous in paying tithes of "mint and anise and cummin," while they o......

CURTAIN
(1.) Ten curtains, each twenty-eight cubits long and four wide, made of fine linen, also eleven made of goat's hair, covered the tabernacle (Exo 26:1;36:8). (2.) The sacred curtain, separating the holy of holies from the sanctuary, is designated by a different Hebrew word (peroketh). It is described as a "veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning work" (Exo 26:31; L......

CUTTING
the flesh in various ways was an idolatrous practice, a part of idol-worship (Deut. 14:1; 1-Kings 18:28). The Israelites were commanded not to imitate this practice (Lev. 19:28;21:5; Deut. 14:1). The tearing of the flesh from grief and anguish of spirit in mourning for the dead was regarded as a mark of affection (Jer. 16:6;41:5;48:37). Allusions are made in Revelation (13:16;17:5;19:20) to the ......

DALE, THE KING'S
the name of a valley, the alternative for "the valley of Shaveh" (q.v.), near the Dead Sea, where the king of Sodom met Abraham (Gen. 14:17). Some have identified it with the southern part of the valley of Jehoshaphat, where Absalom reared his family monument (2-Sam 18:18). ......

DARLING
Psa 22:20;35:17) means an "only one." ......

DAYSPRING
(Job 38:12; Luke 1:78), the dawn of the morning; daybreak. (Comp. Isa. 60:1, Isa. 60: 2; Mal. 4:2; Rev. 22:16.) ......

DESOLATION, ABOMINATION OF
(Matt. 24:15; Mark 13:14; comp. Luke 21:20), is interpreted of the eagles, the standards of the Roman army, which were an abomination to the Jews. These standards, rising over the site of the temple, were a sign that the holy place had fallen under the idolatrous Romans. The references are to Dan. 9:27. (See ABOMINATION.) ......

DINAH
judged; vindicated, daughter of Jacob by Leah, and sister of Simeon and Levi (Gen. 30:21). She was seduced by Shechem, the son of Hamor, the Hivite chief, when Jacob's camp was in the neighbourhood of Shechem. This led to the terrible revenge of Simeon and Levi in putting the Shechemites to death (Gen. 34). Jacob makes frequent reference to this deed of blood with abhorrence and regret (Gen. 34:30......

DINE
(Gen. 43:16). It was the custom in Egypt to dine at noon. But it is probable that the Egyptians took their principal meal in the evening, as was the general custom in the East (Luke 14:12). ......

DINHABAH
robbers' den, an Edomitish city, the capital of king Bela (Gen. 36:32). It is probably the modern Dibdiba, a little north-east of Petra. ......

DIVINATION
of false prophets (Deut. 18:10, Deut. 18: 14; Micah 3:6, Micah 3: 7, 11), of necromancers (1-Sam 28:8), of the Philistine priests and diviners (1-Sam 6:2), of Balaam (Josh. 13:22). Three kinds of divination are mentioned in Ezek. 21:21, Ezek. 21: by arrows, consulting with images (the teraphim), and by examining the entrails of animals sacrificed. The practice of this art seems to have been encour......

DRINK
The drinks of the Hebrews were water, wine, "strong drink," and vinegar. Their drinking vessels were the cup, goblet or "basin," the "cruse" or pitcher, and the saucer. To drink water by measure (Ezek. 4:11), and to buy water to drink (Lam. 5:4), denote great scarcity. To drink blood means to be satiated with slaughter. The Jews carefully strained their drinks through a sieve, through fear of ......

DRINK, STRONG
(Heb. shekar'), an intoxicating liquor (Judg. 13:4; Luke 1:15; Isa. 5:11; Micah 2:11) distilled from corn, honey, or dates. The effects of the use of strong drink are referred to in Psa 107:27; Isa. 24:20;49:26;51:17. Its use prohibited, Prov. 20:1. (See WINE.)......

DRINK-OFFERING
consisted of wine (Num. 15:5; Hos. 9:4) poured around the altar (Exo 30:9). Joined with meat-offerings (Num. 6:15, Num. 6: 17; 2-Kings 16:13; Joel 1:9, Joel 1: 13;2:14), presented daily (Exo 29:40), on the Sabbath (Num. 28:9), and on feast-days (28:14). One-fourth of an hin of wine was required for one lamb, one-third for a ram, and one-half for a bullock (Num. 15:5;28:7, 28: 14). "Drink offerings......

DWELLINGS
The materials used in buildings were commonly bricks, sometimes also stones (Lev. 14:40, Lev. 14: 42), which were held together by cement (Jer. 43:9) or bitumen (Gen. 11:3). The exterior was usually whitewashed (Lev. 14:41; Ezek. 13:10; Matt. 23:27). The beams were of sycamore (Isa. 9:10), or olive-wood, or cedar (1-Kings 7:2; Isa. 9:10). The form of Eastern dwellings differed in many respects f......

EARING
an Old English word (from the Latin aro, I plough), meaning "ploughing." It is used in the Authorized Version in Gen. 45:6; Exo 34:21; 1-Sam 8:12; Deut. 21:4; Isa. 30:24; but the Revised Version has rendered the original in these places by the ordinary word to plough or till. ......

EARRINGS
rings properly for the ear (Gen. 35:4; Num. 31:50; Ezek. 16:12). In Gen. 24:47 the word means a nose-jewel, and is so rendered in the Revised Version. In Isa. 3:20 the Authorized Version has "ear-rings," and the Revised Version "amulets," which more correctly represents the original word (lehashim), which means incantations; charms, thus remedies against enchantment, worn either suspended from the......

EAST WIND
the wind coming from the east (Job 27:21; Isa. 27:8, Isa. 27: etc.). Blight caused by this wind, "thin ears" (Gen. 41:6); the withered "gourd" (Jonah 4:8). It was the cause and also the emblem of evil (Ezek. 17:10;19:12; Hos. 13:15). In Palestine this wind blows from a burning desert, and hence is destitute of moisture necessary for vegetation. ......

EATING
The ancient Hebrews would not eat with the Egyptians (Gen. 43:32). In the time of our Lord they would not eat with Samaritans (John 4:9), and were astonished that he ate with publicans and sinners (Matt. 9:11). The Hebrews originally sat at table, but afterwards adopted the Persian and Chaldean practice of reclining (Luke 7:36). Their principal meal was at noon (Gen. 43:16; 1-Kings 20:16; Ruth 2:1......

EMBALMING
the process of preserving a body by means of aromatics (Gen. 50:2, Gen. 50: 3, 26). This art was practised by the Egyptians from the earliest times, and there brought to great perfection. This custom probably originated in the belief in the future reunion of the soul with the body. The process became more and more complicated, and to such perfection was it carried that bodies embalmed thousands of......

ENGINES
(1.) Heb. hishalon i.e., "invention" (as in Eccl. 7:29) contrivances indicating ingenuity. In 2-Chr 26:15 it refers to inventions for the purpose of propelling missiles from the walls of a town, such as stones (the Roman balista) and arrows (the catapulta). (2.) Heb. mechi kobollo, i.e., the beating of that which is in front a battering-ram (Ezek. 26:9), the use of which was common among the Egy......

ENTERTAIN
Entertainments, "feasts," were sometimes connected with a public festival (Deut. 16:11, Deut. 16: 14), and accompanied by offerings (1-Sam 9:13), in token of alliances (Gen. 26:30); sometimes in connection with domestic or social events, as at the weaning of children (Gen. 21:8), at weddings (Gen. 29:22; John 2:1), on birth-days (Matt. 14:6), at the time of sheep-shearing (2-Sam 13:23), and of vin......

EPHRAIM IN THE WILDERNESS
(John 11:54), a town to which our Lord retired with his disciples after he had raised Lazarus, and when the priests were conspiring against him. It lay in the wild, uncultivated hill-country to the north-east of Jerusalem, betwen the central towns and the Jordan valley.......

EVENING
the period following sunset with which the Jewish day began (Gen. 1:5; Mark 13:35). The Hebrews reckoned two evenings of each day, as appears from Exo 16:12:30:8;12:6 (marg.); Lev. 23:5 (marg. R.V., "between the two evenings"). The "first evening" was that period when the sun was verging towards setting, and the "second evening" the moment of actual sunset. The word "evenings" in Jer. 5:6 should b......

EVERLASTING
eternal, applied to God (Gen. 21:33; Deut. 33:27; Psa 41:13;90:2). We also read of the "everlasting hills" (Gen. 49:26); an "everlasting priesthood" (Exo 40:15; Num. 25:13). (See ETERNAL.) ......

EVIL-SPEAKING
is expressly forbidden (Titus 3:2; James 4:11), and severe punishments are denounced against it (1-Cor 5:11;6:10). It is spoken of also with abhorrence (Psa 15:3; Prov. 18:6, Prov. 18: 7), and is foreign to the whole Christian character and the example of Christ. ......

FAMINE
The first mentioned in Scripture was so grievous as to compel Abraham to go down to the land of Egypt (Gen. 26:1). Another is mentioned as having occurred in the days of Isaac, causing him to go to Gerar (Gen. 26:1, Gen. 26: 17). But the most remarkable of all was that which arose in Egypt in the days of Joseph, which lasted for seven years (Gen. 41-45). Famines were sent as an effect of God's a......

FARTHING
(1.) Matt. 10:29; Luke 12:6. Greek assarion, i.e., a small _as_, which was a Roman coin equal to a tenth of a denarius or drachma, nearly equal to a halfpenny of our money. (2.) Matt. 5:26; Mark 12:42 (Gr. kodrantes), the quadrant, the fourth of an _as_, equal to two lepta, mites. The lepton (mite) was the very smallest copper coin. ......

FATLING
(1.) A fatted animal for slaughter (2-Sam 6:13; Isa. 11:6; Ezek. 39:18. Comp. Matt. 22:4, Matt. 22: where the word used in the original, sitistos, means literally "corn-fed;" i.e., installed, fat). (2.) Psa 66:15 (Heb. meah, meaning "marrowy," "fat," a species of sheep). (3.) 1-Sam 15:9 (Heb. mishneh, meaning "the second," and hence probably "cattle of a second quality," or lambs of the second bir......

FINER
a worker in silver and gold (Prov. 25:4). In Judg. 17:4 the word (tsoreph) is rendered "founder," and in Isa. 41:7 "goldsmith." ......

FINING POT
a crucible, melting-pot (Prov. 17:3;27:21). ......

FIRKIN
Used only in John 2:6; the Attic amphora, equivalent to the Hebrew bath (q.v.), a measure for liquids containing about 8 7/8 gallons. ......

FISHING, THE ART OF
was prosecuted with great industry in the waters of Palestine. It was from the fishing-nets that Jesus called his disciples (Mark 1:16), and it was in a fishing-boat he rebuked the winds and the waves (Matt. 8:26) and delivered that remarkable series of prophecies recorded in Matt. 13. He twice miraculously fed multitudes with fish and bread (Matt. 14:19;15:36). It was in the mouth of a fish that ......

FLINT
abounds in all the plains and valleys of the wilderness of the forty years' wanderings. In Isa. 50:7 and Ezek. 3:9 the expressions, where the word is used, means that the "Messiah would be firm and resolute amidst all contempt and scorn which he would meet; that he had made up his mind to endure it, and would not shrink from any kind or degree of suffering which would be necessary to accomplish th......

FORGIVENESS OF SIN
one of the constituent parts of justification. In pardoning sin, God absolves the sinner from the condemnation of the law, and that on account of the work of Christ, i.e., he removes the guilt of sin, or the sinner's actual liability to eternal wrath on account of it. All sins are forgiven freely (Acts 5:31;13:38; 1-John 1:6). The sinner is by this act of grace for ever freed from the guilt and pe......

FOUNTAIN
(Heb. 'ain; i.e., "eye" of the water desert), a natural source of living water. Palestine was a "land of brooks of water, of fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and hills" (Deut. 8:7;11:11). These fountains, bright sparkling "eyes" of the desert, are remarkable for their abundance and their beauty, especially on the west of Jordan. All the perennial rivers and streams of the country......

FOUNTAIN OF THE VIRGIN
the perennial source from which the Pool of Siloam (q.v.) is supplied, the waters flowing in a copious stream to it through a tunnel cut through the rock, the actual length of which is 1,750 feet. The spring rises in a cave 20 feet by 7. A serpentine tunnel 67 feet long runs from it toward the left, off which the tunnel to the Pool of Siloam branches. It is the only unfailing fountain in Jerusalem......

FRANKINCENSE
(Heb. lebonah; Gr. libanos, i.e., "white"), an odorous resin imported from Arabia (Isa. 60:6; Jer. 6:20), yet also growing in Palestine (4:14). It was one of the ingredients in the perfume of the sanctuary (Exo 30:34), and was used as an accompaniment of the meat-offering (Lev. 2:1, Lev. 2: 16;6:15;24:7). When burnt it emitted a fragrant odour, and hence the incense became a symbol of the Divine n......

FREE-WILL OFFERING
a spontaneous gift (Exo 35:29), a voluntary sacrifice (Lev. 22:23; Ezra 3:5), as opposed to one in consequence of a vow, or in expiation of some offence. ......

FRYING-PAN
(Heb. marhesheth, a "boiler"), a pot for boiling meat (Lev. 2:7;7:9). ......

GIN
a trap. (1.) Psa 140:5, Psa 140:141:9, 141: Amos 3:5, Amos 3: the Hebrew word used, _mokesh_, means a noose or "snare," as it is elsewhere rendered (Psa 18:5; Prov. 13:14, Prov. 13: etc.). (2.) Job 18:9, Job 18: Isa. 8:14, Isa. 8: Heb. pah, a plate or thin layer; and hence a net, a snare, trap, especially of a fowler (Psa 69:22, Psa 69: "Let their table before them become a net;" Amos 3:5, Amos ......

GODLINESS
the whole of practical piety (1-Tim 4:8; 2-Pet 1:6). "It supposes knowledge, veneration, affection, dependence, submission, gratitude, and obedience." In 1-Tim 3:16 it denotes the substance of revealed religion. ......

GRAIN
used, in Amos 9:9, Amos 9: of a small stone or kernel; in Matt. 13:31, Matt. 13: of an individual seed of mustard; in John 12:24, John 12: 1-Cor 15:37, 1-Cor 15: of wheat. The Hebrews sowed only wheat, barley, and spelt; rye and oats are not mentioned in Scripture. ......

GRAVING
(1.) Heb. hatsabh. Job 19:24, Job 19: rendered "graven," but generally means hewn stone or wood, in quarry or forest. (2.) Heb. harush. Jer. 17:1, Jer. 17: rendered "graven," and indicates generally artistic work in metal, wood, and stone, effected by fine instruments. (3.) Heb. haqaq. Ezek. 4:1, Ezek. 4: engraving a plan or map, rendered "pourtray;" Job 19:23, Job 19: "written." (4.) Heb. p......

GRIND
(Exo 32:20; Deut. 9:21; Judg. 16:21), to crush small (Heb. tahan); to oppress the poor (Isa. 3:5). The hand-mill was early used by the Hebrews (Num. 11:8). It consisted of two stones, the upper (Deut. 24:6; 2-Sam 11:21) being movable and slightly concave, the lower being stationary. The grinders mentioned Eccl. 12:3 are the teeth. (See MILL.)......

HANDWRITING
(Col. 2:14). The "blotting out the handwriting" is the removal by the grace of the gospel of the condemnation of the law which we had broken.......

HANGING
(as a punishment), a mark of infamy inflicted on the dead bodies of criminals (Deut. 21:23) rather than our modern mode of punishment. Criminals were first strangled and then hanged (Nu. 25:4; Deut. 21:22). (See 2-Sam 21:6 for the practice of the Gibeonites.) Hanging (as a curtain). (1.) Heb. masak, (a) before the entrance to the court of the tabernacle (Exo 35:17); (b) before the door of the ta......

HEAVE OFFERING
Heb. terumah, (Exo 29:27) means simply an offering, a present, including all the offerings made by the Israelites as a present. This Hebrew word is frequently employed. Some of the rabbis attach to the word the meaning of elevation, and refer it to the heave offering, which consisted in presenting the offering by a motion up and down, distinguished from the wave offering, which consisted in a repe......

HIND
Heb. 'ayalah (2-Sam 22:34; Psa 18:33, Psa 18: etc.) and 'ayeleth (Ps. 22, title), the female of the hart or stag. It is referred to as an emblem of activity (Gen. 49:21), gentleness (Prov. 5:19), feminine modesty (2:7;3:5), earnest longing (Psa 42:1), timidity (Psa 29:9). In the title of Ps. 22, the word probably refers to some tune bearing that name.......

HINGE
(Heb. tsir), that on which a door revolves. "Doors in the East turn rather on pivots than on what we term hinges. In Syria, and especially in the Hauran, there are many ancient doors, consisting of stone slabs with pivots carved out of the same piece inserted in sockets above and below, and fixed during the building of the house" (Prov. 26:14).......

HINNOM
a deep, narrow ravine separating Mount Zion from the so-called "Hill of Evil Counsel." It took its name from "some ancient hero, the son of Hinnom." It is first mentioned in Josh. 15:8. It had been the place where the idolatrous Jews burned their children alive to Moloch and Baal. A particular part of the valley was called Tophet, or the "fire-stove," where the children were burned. After the Exil......

HIRELING
a labourer employed on hire for a limited time (Job 7:1;14:6; Mark 1:20). His wages were paid as soon as his work was over (Lev. 19:13). In the time of our Lord a day's wage was a "penny" (q.v.) i.e., a Roman denarius (Matt. 20:1).......

HOLINESS
in the highest sense belongs to God (Isa. 6:3; Rev. 15:4), and to Christians as consecrated to God's service, and in so far as they are conformed in all things to the will of God (Rom. 6:19, Rom. 6: 22; Eph. 1:4; Titus 1:8; 1-Pet 1:15). Personal holiness is a work of gradual development. It is carried on under many hindrances, hence the frequent admonitions to watchfulness, prayer, and perseveranc......

HUNTING
mentioned first in Gen. 10:9 in connection with Nimrod. Esau was "a cunning hunter" (Gen. 25:27). Hunting was practised by the Hebrews after their settlement in the "Land of Promise" (Lev. 17:15; Prov. 12:27). The lion and other ravenous beasts were found in Palestine (1-Sam 17:34; 2-Sam 23:20; 1-Kings 13:24; Ezek. 19:3), and it must have been necessary to hunt and destroy them. Various snares and......

INCARNATION
that act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1-Cor 2:8; Heb. 2:11; 1-Tim 3:16; Gal. 4:4, Gal. 4: etc.). The union is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; t......

INCENSE
a fragrant composition prepared by the "art of the apothecary." It consisted of four ingredients "beaten small" (Exo 30:34). That which was not thus prepared was called "strange incense" (30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place, and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest in the holy of holies (30:......

INDIA
occurs only in Esther 1:1 8:9, 8: where the extent of the dominion of the Persian king is described. The country so designated here is not the peninsula of Hindustan, but the country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab. The people and the products of India were well known to the Jews, who seem to have carried on an active trade with that country (Ezek. 27:15, Ezek. 27: 24). ......

INKHORN
The Hebrew word so rendered means simply a round vessel or cup for containing ink, which was generally worn by writers in the girdle (Ezek. 9:2, Ezek. 9: 3,11). The word "inkhorn" was used by the translators, because in former times in this country horns were used for containing ink. ......

INN
in the modern sense, unknown in the East. The khans or caravanserais, which correspond to the European inn, are not alluded to in the Old Testament. The "inn" mentioned in Exo 4:24 was just the halting-place of the caravan. In later times khans were erected for the accommodation of travellers. In Luke 2:7 the word there so rendered denotes a place for loosing the beasts of their burdens. It is ren......

INSPIRATION
that extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings infallible. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God" (R.V., "Every scripture inspired of God"), 2-Tim 3:16. This is true of all the "sacred writings," not in the sense of their being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as "theopneustic," i.e., "breathed ......

INTERCESSION OF CHRIST
Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual intercession for us. When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34; John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence of God for us (Heb. 9:12, Heb. 9:24). His advocacy with ......

INTERCESSION OF THE SPIRIT
(Rom. 8:26, Rom. 8: 27; John 14:26). "Christ is a royal Priest (Zech. 6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven, a......

ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF
(B.C. 975-B.C. 722). Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah's prophecy (1-Kings 11:31) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2, 12:3). Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten ......

JABIN
discerner; the wise. (1.) A king of Hazor, at the time of the entrance of Israel into Canaan (Josh. 11:1), whose overthrow and that of the northern chief with whom he had entered into a confederacy against Joshua was the crowning act in the conquest of the land (11:21; 14:6). This great battle, fought at Lake Merom, was the last of Joshua's battles of which we have any record. Here for the first t......

JACHIN
firm. (1.) The fourth son of Simeon (Gen. 46:10), called also Jarib (1-Chr 4:24). (2.) The head of one of the courses (the twenty-first) of priests (1-Chr 24:17). (3.) One of the priests who returned from the Exile (1-Chr 9:10). ......

JACHIN AND BOAZ
the names of two brazen columns set up in Solomon's temple (1-Kings 7:15). Each was eighteen cubits high and twelve in circumference (Jer. 52:21, Jer. 52: 23; 1-Kings 7:17). They had doubtless a symbolical import. ......

JACINTH
properly a flower of a reddish blue or deep purple (hyacinth), and hence a precious stone of that colour (Rev. 21:20). It has been supposed to designate the same stone as the ligure (Heb. leshem) mentioned in Exo 28:19 as the first stone of the third row in the high priest's breast-plate. In Rev. 9:17 the word is simply descriptive of colour. ......

JAVELIN
(1.) Heb. hanith, a lance, from its flexibility (1-Sam 18:10, 1-Sam 18: 11;19:9, 19: 10;20:33). (2.) Heb. romah, a lance for heavy-armed troops, so called from its piercing (Num. 25:7). (See ARMS.) ......

JEALOUSY OFFERING
the name of the offering the husband was to bring when he charged his wife with adultery (Num. 5:11). ......

JEHOIACHIN
succeeded his father Jehoiakin (B.C. 599) when only eight years of age, and reigned for one hundred days (2-Chr 36:9). He is also called Jeconiah (Jer. 24:1;27:20, 27: etc.), and Coniah (22:24;37:1). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah = Zedekiah (q.v.). He was the last direct heir to the Jewish crown. He was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, along with the flower of the nobility,......

JEZREEL, FOUNTAIN OF
where Saul encamped before the battle of Gilboa (1-Sam 29:1). In the valley under Zerin there are two considerable springs, one of which, perhaps that here referred to, "flows from under a sort of cavern in the wall of conglomerate rock which here forms the base of Gilboa. The water is excellent; and issuing from crevices in the rocks, it spreads out at once into a fine limpid pool forty or fifty ......

JUDAH, KINGDOM OF
When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Josh. 18:28), which was called the kingdom of Judah. It was very small in extent, being only about the size of the Scottish county of Perth. For the first sixty years the ......

JUDGMENT, THE FINAL
the sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, Rom. 14: 11; 2-Cor 5:10; 2-Thess 1:7). The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, John 5: 27; Rev. 1:7). "It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorio......

KINAH
an elegy, a city in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:22). It was probably not far from the Dead Sea, in the Wady Fikreh.......

KINE
(Heb. sing. parah, i.e., "fruitful"), mentioned in Pharaoh's dream (Gen. 41:18). Here the word denotes "buffaloes," which fed on the reeds and sedge by the river's brink.......

KING
is in Scripture very generally used to denote one invested with authority, whether extensive or limited. There were thirty-one kings in Canaan (Josh. 12:9, Josh. 12: 24), whom Joshua subdued. Adonibezek subdued seventy kings (Judg. 1:7). In the New Testament the Roman emperor is spoken of as a king (1-Pet 2:13, 1-Pet 2: 17); and Herod Antipas, who was only a tetrarch, is also called a king (Matt. ......

KING'S DALE
mentioned only in Gen. 14:17; 2-Sam 18:18, 2-Sam 18: the name given to "the valley of Shaveh," where the king of Sodom met Abram.......

KINGDOM OF GOD
(Matt. 6:33; Mark 1:14, Mark 1: 15; Luke 4:43) = "kingdom of Christ" (Matt. 13:41;20:21) = "kingdom of Christ and of God" (Eph. 5:5) = "kingdom of David" (Mark 11:10) = "the kingdom" (Matt. 8:12;13:19) = "kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 3:2;4:17;13:41), all denote the same thing under different aspects, viz.: (1) Christ's mediatorial authority, or his rule on the earth; (2) the blessings and advantages ......

KINGLY OFFICE OF CHRIST
one of the three special relations in which Christ stands to his people. Christ's office as mediator comprehends three different functions, viz., those of a prophet, priest, and king. These are not three distinct offices, but three functions of the one office of mediator. Christ is King and sovereign Head over his Church and over all things to his Church (Eph. 1:22;4:15; Col. 1:18;2:19). He exec......

KINGS, THE BOOKS OF
The two books of Kings formed originally but one book in the Hebrew Scriptures. The present division into two books was first made by the LXX., which now, with the Vulgate, numbers them as the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel being the first and second books of Kings. They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon till the subjugation of ......

KINSMAN
Heb. goel, from root meaning to redeem. The goel among the Hebrews was the nearest male blood relation alive. Certain important obligations devolved upon him toward his next of kin. (1.) If any one from poverty was unable to redeem his inheritance, it was the duty of the kinsman to redeem it (Lev. 25:25, Lev. 25:28; Ruth 3:9, Ruth 3: 12). He was also required to redeem his relation who had sold hi......

KNEADING-TROUGH
the vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened, was left to swell or ferment (Exo 8:3;12:34; Deut. 28:5, Deut. 28: 7). The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in haste. ......

LAPPING
of water like a dog, i.e., by putting the hand filled with water to the mouth. The dog drinks by shaping the end of his long thin tongue into the form of a spoon, thus rapidly lifting up water, which he throws into his mouth. The three hundred men that went with Gideon thus employed their hands and lapped the water out of their hands (Judg. 7:7). ......

LAPWING
the name of an unclean bird, mentioned only in Lev. 11:19 and Deut. 14:18. The Hebrew name of this bird, _dukiphath_, has been generally regarded as denoting the hoope (Upupa epops), an onomatopoetic word derived from the cry of the bird, which resembles the word "hoop;" a bird not uncommon in Palestine. Others identify it with the English peewit. ......

LATIN
the vernacular language of the ancient Romans (John 19:20). ......

LEASING
(Psa 4:2;5:6) an Old English word meaning lies, or lying, as the Hebrew word _kazabh_ is generally rendered. ......

LIGHTNING
frequently referred to by the sacred writers (Nah. 1:3). Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God's wrath (2-Sam 22:15; Job 28:26;37:4; Psa 135:7;144:6; Zech. 9:14). They represent God's glorious and awful majesty (Rev. 4:5), or some judgment of God on the world (20:9). ......

LINEN
(1.) Heb., pishet, pishtah, denotes "flax," of which linen is made (Isa. 19:9); wrought flax, i.e., "linen cloth", Lev. 13:47, Lev. 13: 48, 52, 59; Deut. 22:11. Flax was early cultivated in Egypt (Exo 9:31), and also in Palestine (Josh. 2:6; Hos. 2:9). Various articles were made of it: garments (2-Sam 6:14), girdles (Jer. 13:1), ropes and thread (Ezek. 40:3), napkins (Luke 24:12; John 20:7), tur......

LINEN-YARN
(See YARN.) ......

LINES
were used for measuring and dividing land; and hence the word came to denote a portion or inheritance measured out; a possession (Psa 16:6). ......

LINTEL
(1.) Heb. mashkoph, a projecting cover (Exo 12:22, Exo 12: 23; ver. 7, "upper door post," but R.V. "lintel"); the head-piece of a door, which the Israelites were commanded to mark with the blood of the paschal lamb. (2.) Heb. kaphtar. Amos 9:1; Zeph. 2:14 (R.V. correctly "chapiters," as in A.V. marg.). ......

LIVING CREATURES
as represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev. 15:7); they join the elders in the "new song" (5:8, 5: 9); they warn of danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3), and deliver the commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, Ezek. 10: 7); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who ......

LUKE, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best sources of information within his reach, and to have written an orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1). The authors of the first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Each ......

MAIN-SAIL
(Gr. artemon), answering to the modern "mizzen-sail," as some suppose. Others understand the "jib," near the prow, or the "fore-sail," as likely to be most useful in bringing a ship's head to the wind in the circumstances described (Acts 27:40). ......

MAN OF SIN
a designation of Antichrist given in 2-Thess 2:3, 2-Thess 2: usually regarded as descriptive of the Papal power; but "in whomsoever these distinctive features are found, whoever wields temporal and spiritual power in any degree similar to that in which the man of sin is here described as wielding it, he, be he pope or potentate, is beyond all doubt a distinct type of Antichrist." ......

MARK, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
It is the current and apparently well-founded tradition that Mark derived his information mainly from the discourses of Peter. In his mother's house he would have abundant opportunities of obtaining information from the other apostles and their coadjutors, yet he was "the disciple and interpreter of Peter" specially. As to the time when it was written, the Gospel furnishes us with no definite in......

MATTHEW, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
The author of this book was beyond a doubt the Matthew, an apostle of our Lord, whose name it bears. He wrote the Gospel of Christ according to his own plans and aims, and from his own point of view, as did also the other "evangelists." As to the time of its composition, there is little in the Gospel itself to indicate. It was evidently written before the destruction of Jerusalem (Matt. 24), and......

MEAT-OFFERING
(Heb. minhah), originally a gift of any kind. This Hebrew word came latterly to denote an "unbloody" sacrifice, as opposed to a "bloody" sacrifice. A "drink-offering" generally accompanied it. The law regarding it is given in Lev. 2, 6:14. It was a recognition of the sovereignty of God and of his bounty in giving all earthly blessings (1-Chr 29:10; Deut. 26:5). It was an offering which took for gr......

MIAMIN
=Mijamin, from the right hand. (1.) The head of one of the divisions of the priests (1-Chr 24:9). (2.) A chief priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:5), called Mijamin (10:7) and Miniamin (12:17). ......

MIDDIN
measures, one of the six cities "in the wilderness," on the west of the Dead Sea, mentioned along with En-gedi (Josh. 15:61). ......

MINCING
(Heb. taphoph, Isa. 3:16), taking affectedly short and quick steps. Luther renders the word by "wag" or "waggle," thus representing "the affected gait of coquettish females." ......

MINE
The process of mining is described in Job 28:1. Moses speaks of the mineral wealth of Palestine (Deut. 8:9). Job 28:4 is rightly thus rendered in the Revised Version, "He breaketh open a shaft away from where men sojourn; they are forgotten of the foot [that passeth by]; they hang afar from men, they swing to and fro." These words illustrate ancient mining operations. ......

MINISTER
one who serves, as distinguished from the master. (1.) Heb. meshereth, applied to an attendant on one of superior rank, as to Joshua, the servant of Moses (Exo 33:11), and to the servant of Elisha (2-Kings 4:43). This name is also given to attendants at court (2-Chr 22:8), and to the priests and Levites (Jer. 33:21; Ezek. 44:11). (2.) Heb. pelah (Ezra 7:24), a "minister" of religion. Here used o......

MINNI
only in Jer. 51:27, Jer. 51: as the name of a province in Armenia, which was at this time under the Median kings. Armenia is regarded by some as = Har-minni i.e., the mountainous country of Minni. (See ARMENIA.) ......

MINNITH
distribution, an Ammonitish town (Judg. 11:33) from which wheat was exported to Tyre (Ezek. 27:17). It was probably somewhere in the Mishor or table-land on the east of Jordan. There is a gentle valley running for about 4 miles east of Dhiban called Kurm Dhiban, "the vineyards of Dibon." Tristram supposes that this may be the "vineyards" mentioned in Judg. (l.c.). ......

MINSTREL
(Matt. 9:23), a flute-player. Such music was a usual accompaniment of funerals. In 2-Kings 3:15 it denotes a player on a stringed instrument. ......

MINT
(Gr. heduosmon, i.e., "having a sweet smell"), one of the garden herbs of which the Pharisees paid tithes (Matt. 23:23; Luke 11:42). It belongs to the labiate family of plants. The species most common in Syria is the Mentha sylvestris, the wild mint, which grows much larger than the garden mint (M. sativa). It was much used in domestic economy as a condiment, and also as a medicine. The paying of ......

MOWING
(Heb. gez), rendered in Psa 72:6 "mown grass." The expression "king's mowings" (Amos 7:1) refers to some royal right of early pasturage, the first crop of grass for the cavalry (comp. 1-Kings 18:5). ......

MURMURING
of the Hebrews in the wilderness, called forth the displeasure of God, which was only averted by the earnest prayer of Moses (Num. 11:33, Num. 11: 34; 12;14:27, 14: 30, 31;16:3;21:4; Psa 106:25). Forbidden by Paul (1-Cor 10:10). ......

MURRAIN
Heb. deber, "destruction," a "great mortality", the fifth plague that fell upon the Egyptians (Exo 9:3). It was some distemper that resulted in the sudden and widespread death of the cattle. It was confined to the cattle of the Egyptians that were in the field (9:6). ......

MUSIC, INSTRUMENTAL
Among instruments of music used by the Hebrews a principal place is given to stringed instruments. These were, (1.) The kinnor, the "harp." (2.) The nebel, "a skin bottle," rendered "psaltery." (3.) The sabbeka, or "sackbut," a lute or lyre. (4.) The gittith, occurring in the title of Ps. 8; 8; 84. (5.) Minnim (Psa 150:4), rendered "stringed instruments;" in Psa 45:8, Psa 45: in the form _minni_, ......

NAIN
(from Heb. nain, "green pastures," "lovely"), the name of a town near the gate of which Jesus raised to life a widow's son (Luke 7:11). It is identified with the village called Nein, standing on the north-western slope of Jebel ed-Duhy (=the "hill Moreh" = "Little hermon"), about 4 miles from Tabor and 25 southwest of Capernaum. At the foot of the slope on which it stands is the great plain of Esd......

NAPKIN
(Gr. soudarion, John 11:44;20:7; Lat. sudarium, a "sweat-cloth"), a cloth for wiping the sweat from the face. But the word is used of a wrapper to fold money in (Luke 19:20), and as an article of dress, a "handkerchief" worn on the head (Acts 19:12).......

NEGINAH
in the title of Ps. 61, denotes the music of stringed instruments (1-Sam 16:16; Isa. 38:20). It is the singular form of Neginoth.......

NEGINOTH
i.e., songs with instrumental accompaniment, found in the titles of Ps. 4; 6; 54; 55; 67; 76; rendered "stringed instruments," Hab. 3:19, Hab. 3: A.V. It denotes all kinds of stringed instruments, as the "harp," "psaltery," "viol," etc. The "chief musician on Neginoth" is the leader of that part of the temple choir which played on stringed instruments.......

NETHINIM
the name given to the hereditary temple servants in all the post-Exilian books of Scripture. The word means given, i.e., "those set apart", viz., to the menial work of the sanctuary for the Levites. The name occurs seventeen times, and in each case in the Authorized Version incorrectly terminates in "s", "Nethinims;" in the Revised Version, correctly without the "s" (Ezra 2:70;7:7, 7: 24;8:20, 8: ......

NINEVEH
First mentioned in Gen. 10:11, Gen. 10: which is rendered in the Revised Version, "He [i.e., Nimrod] went forth into Assyria and builded Nineveh." It is not again noticed till the days of Jonah, when it is described (Jonah 3:3;4:11) as a great and populous city, the flourishing capital of the Assyrian empire (2-Kings 19:36; Isa. 37:37). The book of the prophet Nahum is almost exclusively taken up ......

OFFERING
an oblation, dedicated to God. Thus Cain consecrated to God of the first-fruits of the earth, and Abel of the firstlings of the flock (Gen. 4:3, Gen. 4: 4). Under the Levitical system different kinds of offerings are specified, and laws laid down as to their presentation. These are described under their distinctive names. ......

OINTMENT
Various fragrant preparations, also compounds for medical purposes, are so called (Exo 30:25; Psa 133:2; Isa. 1:6; Amos 6:6; John 12:3; Rev. 18:13). ......

PAINT
Jezebel "painted her face" (2-Kings 9:30); and the practice of painting the face and the eyes seems to have been common (Jer. 4:30; Ezek. 23:40). An allusion to this practice is found in the name of Job's daughter (2:14) Kerenhappuch (q.v.). Paintings in the modern sense of the word were unknown to the ancient Jews.......

PALESTINE
originally denoted only the sea-coast of the land of Canaan inhabited by the Philistines (Exo 15:14; Isa. 14:29, Isa. 14: 31; Joel 3:4), and in this sense exclusively the Hebrew name Pelesheth (rendered "Philistia" in Psa 60:8;83:7;87:4;108:9) occurs in the Old Testament. Not till a late period in Jewish history was this name used to denote "the land of the Hebrews" in general (Gen. 40:15). It i......

PEACE OFFERINGS
(Heb. shelamim), detailed regulations regarding given in Lev. 3;7:11, 7: 29-34. They were of three kinds, (1) eucharistic or thanksgiving offerings, expressive of gratitude for blessings received; (2) in fulfilment of a vow, but expressive also of thanks for benefits recieved; and (3) free-will offerings, something spontaneously devoted to God.......

PERSEVERANCE OF THE SAINTS
their certain continuance in a state of grace. Once justified and regenerated, the believer can neither totally nor finally fall away from grace, but will certainly persevere therein and attain everlasting life. This doctrine is clearly taught in these passages, John 10:28, John 10: 29; Rom. 11:29; Phil. 1:6; 1-Pet 1:5. It, moreover, follows from a consideration of (1) the immutability of the di......

PHILISTINES
(Gen. 10:14, Gen. 10: R.V.; but in A.V., "Philistim"), a tribe allied to the Phoenicians. They were a branch of the primitive race which spread over the whole district of the Lebanon and the valley of the Jordan, and Crete and other Mediterranean islands. Some suppose them to have been a branch of the Rephaim (2-Sam 21:16). In the time of Abraham they inhabited the south-west of Judea, Abimelech o......

PHINEHAS
mouth of brass, or from old Egypt, the negro. (1.) Son of Eleazar, the high priest (Exo 6:25). While yet a youth he distinguished himself at Shittim by his zeal against the immorality into which the Moabites had tempted the people (Num. 25:1), and thus "stayed the plague" that had broken out among the people, and by which twenty-four thousand of them perished. For his faithfulness on that occasion......

PINE TREE
Heb. tidhar, mentioned along with the fir-tree in Isa. 41:19;60:13. This is probably the cypress; or it may be the stone-pine, which is common on the northern slopes of Lebanon. Some suppose that the elm, others that the oak, or holm, or ilex, is meant by the Hebrew word. In Neh. 8:15 the Revised Version has "wild olive" instead of "pine." (See FIR.) ......

PINNACLE
a little wing, (Matt. 4:5; Luke 4:9). On the southern side of the temple court was a range of porches or cloisters forming three arcades. At the south-eastern corner the roof of this cloister was some 300 feet above the Kidron valley. The pinnacle, some parapet or wing-like projection, was above this roof, and hence at a great height, probably 350 feet or more above the valley. ......

PLAIN
(1.) Heb. 'abel (Judg. 11:33), a "grassy plain" or "meadow." Instead of "plains of the vineyards," as in the Authorized Version, the Revised Version has "Abel-cheramim" (q.v.), comp. Judg. 11:22; 2-Chr 16:4. (2.) Heb. 'elon (Gen. 12:6;13:18;14:13;18:1; Deut. 11:30; Judg. 9:6), more correctly "oak," as in the Revised Version; margin, "terebinth." (3.) Heb. bik'ah (Gen. 11:2; Neh. 6:2; Ezek. 3:2......

PLAIN OF MAMRE
(Gen. 13:18;14:13; R.V., "oaks of Mamre;" marg., "terebinths"). (See MAMRE; TEIL-TREE.) ......

PREDESTINATION
This word is properly used only with reference to God's plan or purpose of salvation. The Greek word rendered "predestinate" is found only in these six passages, Acts 4:28; Rom. 8:29, Rom. 8: 30; 1-Cor 2:7; Eph. 1:5, Eph. 1: 11; and in all of them it has the same meaning. They teach that the eternal, sovereign, immutable, and unconditional decree or "determinate purpose" of God governs all events.......

PRINCE
the title generally applied to the chief men of the state. The "princes of the provinces" (1-Kings 20:14) were the governors or lord-lieutenants of the provinces. So also the "princes" mentioned in Dan. 6:1, Dan. 6: 3, 4, 6, 7 were the officers who administered the affairs of the provinces; the "satraps" (as rendered in R.V.). These are also called "lieutenants" (Esther 3:12;8:9; R.V., "satraps").......

RAIN
There are three Hebrew words used to denote the rains of different seasons, (1.) Yoreh (Hos. 6:3), or moreh (Joel 2:23), denoting the former or the early rain. (2.) Melqosh, the "latter rain" (Prov. 16:15). (3.) Geshem, the winter rain, "the rains." The heavy winter rain is mentioned in Gen. 7:12; Ezra 10:9; 2:11. The "early" or "former" rains commence in autumn in the latter part of October or be......

RAINBOW
caused by the reflection and refraction of the rays of the sun shining on falling rain. It was appointed as a witness of the divine faithfulness (Gen. 9:12). It existed indeed before, but it was then constituted as a sign of the covenant. Others, however (as Delitzsch, Commentary on Pentateuch), think that it "appeared then for the first time in the vault and clouds of heaven." It is argued by tho......

RAISINS
dried grapes; mentioned 1-Sam 25:18;30:12; 2-Sam 16:1; 1-Chr 12:40.......

REFINER
The process of refining metals is referred to by way of illustrations in Isa. 1:25; Jer. 6:29; Zech. 13:9; Mal. 3:2, Mal. 3: 3.......

REINS
the kidneys, the supposed seat of the desires and affections; used metaphorically for "heart." The "reins" and the "heart" are often mentioned together, as denoting the whole moral constitution of man (Psa 7:9;16:7;26:2;139:13; Jer. 17:10, Jer. 17: etc.).......

REZIN
firm; a prince, a king of Syria, who joined Pekah (q.v.) in an invasion of the kingdom of Judah (2-Kings 15:37;16:5; Isa. 7:1). Ahaz induced Tiglath-pileser III. to attack Damascus, and this caused Rezin to withdraw for the purpose of defending his own kingdom. Damascus was taken, and Rezin was slain in battle by the Assyrian king, and his people carried into captivity, B.C. 732 (2-Kings 16:9). ......

RING
Used as an ornament to decorate the fingers, arms, wrists, and also the ears and the nose. Rings were used as a signet (Gen. 38:18). They were given as a token of investment with authority (Gen. 41:42; Esther 3:8;8:2), and of favour and dignity (Luke 15:22). They were generally worn by rich men (James 2:2). They are mentioned by Isiah (3:21) among the adornments of Hebrew women. ......

ROSIN
found only in Authorized Version, margin, Ezek. 27:17, Ezek. 27: Heb. tsori, uniformly rendered elsewhere "balm" (q.v.), as here in the text. The Vulgate has resinam, rendered "rosin" in the Douay Version. As used, however, by Jerome, the Lat. resina denotes some odoriferous gum or oil. ......

SAINT
one separated from the world and consecrated to God; one holy by profession and by covenant; a believer in Christ (Psa 16:3; Rom. 1:7;8:27; Phil. 1:1; Heb. 6:10). The "saints" spoken of in Jude 1:14 are probably not the disciples of Christ, but the "innumerable company of angels" (Heb. 12:22; Psa 68:17), with reference to Deut. 33:2. This word is also used of the holy dead (Matt. 27:52; Rev. 1......

SARDINE STONE
(Rev. 4:3, Rev. 4: R.V., "sardius;" Heb. 'odhem; LXX., Gr. sardion, from a root meaning "red"), a gem of a blood-red colour. It was called "sardius" because obtained from Sardis in Lydia. It is enumerated among the precious stones in the high priest's breastplate (Exo 28:17;39:10). It is our red carnelian. ......

SCOURGING
(1-Kings 12:11). Variously administered. In no case were the stripes to exceed forty (Deut. 25:3; comp. 2-Cor 11:24). In the time of the apostles, in consequence of the passing of what was called the Porcian law, no Roman citizen could be scourged in any case (Acts 16:22). (See BASTINADO.) In the scourging of our Lord (Matt. 27:26; Mark 15:15) the words of prophecy (Isa. 53:5) were fulfilled. ......

SEETHING POT
a vessel for boiling provisions in (Job 41:20; Jer. 1:13). ......

SEPTUAGINT
See VERSIONS. ......

SHAALABBIN
or Shaal'bim, a place of foxes, a town of the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:42; Judg. 1:35). It was one of the chief towns from which Solomon drew his supplies (1-Kings 4:9). It is probably the modern village of Selbit, 3 miles north of Ajalon. ......

SHEARING-HOUSE
(2-Kings 10:12, 2-Kings 10: 14; marg., "house of shepherds binding sheep." R.V., "the shearing-house of the shepherds;" marg., "house of gathering"), some place between Samaria and Jezreel, where Jehu slew "two and forty men" of the royal family of Judah. The Heb. word Beth-eked so rendered is supposed by some to be a proper name.......

SHECHINAH
a Chaldee word meaning resting-place, not found in Scripture, but used by the later Jews to designate the visible symbol of God's presence in the tabernacle, and afterwards in Solomon's temple. When the Lord led Israel out of Egypt, he went before them "in a pillar of a cloud." This was the symbol of his presence with his people. For references made to it during the wilderness wanderings, see Exo ......

SHEMINITH
eight; octave, a musical term, supposed to denote the lowest note sung by men's voices (1-Chr 15:21; Ps. 6; 12, title).......

SHINAB
cooling, the king of Adamah, in the valley of Siddim, who with his confederates was conquered by Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2).......

SHINAR, THE LAND OF
LXX. and Vulgate "Senaar;" in the inscriptions, "Shumir;" probably identical with Babylonia or Southern Mesopotamia, extending almost to the Persian Gulf. Here the tower of Babel was built (Gen. 11:1), and the city of Babylon. The name occurs later in Jewish history (Isa. 11:11; Zech. 5:11). Shinar was apparently first peopled by Turanian tribes, who tilled the land and made bricks and built citie......

SHRINES, SILVER
little models and medallions of the temple and image of Diana of Ephesus (Acts 19:24). The manufacture of these was a very large and profitable business. ......

SILVERLING
(Isa. 7:23). Literally the words are "at a thousand of silver", i.e., "pieces of silver," or shekels. ......

SIN
is "any want of conformity unto or transgression of the law of God" (1-John 3:4; Rom. 4:15), in the inward state and habit of the soul, as well as in the outward conduct of the life, whether by omission or commission (Rom. 6:12;7:5). It is "not a mere violation of the law of our constitution, nor of the system of things, but an offence against a personal lawgiver and moral governor who vindicates ......

SIN, WILDERNESS OF
lying between Elim and sinai (Exo 16:1; comp. Num. 33:11, Num. 33: 12). This was probably the narrow plain of el-Markha, which stretches along the eastern shore of the Red Sea for several miles toward the promontory of Ras Mohammed, the southern extremity of the Sinitic Peninsula. While the Israelites rested here for some days they began to murmur on account of the want of nourishment, as they had......

SIN-OFFERING
(Heb. hattath), the law of, is given in detail in Lev. 6:13;9:7, 9: 22-24;12:6;15:2, 15: 14, 25-30;14:19, 14: 31; Num. 6:10. On the day of Atonement it was made with special solemnity (Lev. 16:5, Lev. 16: 11, 15). The blood was then carried into the holy of holies and sprinkled on the mercy-seat. Sin-offerings were also presented at the five annual festivals (Num. 28, 29), and on the occasion of t......

SINAI
of Sin (the moon god), called also Horeb, the name of the mountain district which was reached by the Hebrews in the third month after the Exodus. Here they remained encamped for about a whole year. Their journey from the Red Sea to this encampment, including all the windings of the route, was about 150 miles. The last twenty-two chapters of Exodus, together with the whole of Leviticus and Num. ch.......

SINAITICUS CODEX
usually designated by the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet, is one of the most valuable of ancient MSS. of the Greek New Testament. On the occasion of a third visit to the convent of St. Catherine, on Mount Sinai, in 1859, it was discovered by Dr. Tischendorf. He had on a previous visit in 1844 obtained forty-three parchment leaves of the LXX., which he deposited in the university library of Le......

SINIM, THE LAND OF
(Isa. 49:12), supposed by some to mean China, but more probably Phoenicia (Gen. 10:17) is intended. ......

SINITE
an inhabitant of Sin, near Arka (Gen. 10:17; 1-Chr 1:15). (See ARKITE.) ......

SITTING
the attitude generally assumed in Palestine by those who were engaged in any kind of work. "The carpenter saws, planes, and hews with his hand-adze, sitting on the ground or upon the plank he is planning. The washerwoman sits by the tub; and, in a word, no one stands when it is possible to sit. Shopkeepers always sit, and Levi sitting at the receipt of custom (Matt. 9:9) is the exact way to state ......

SKIN, COATS MADE OF
(Gen. 3:21). Skins of rams and badgers were used as a covering for the tabernacle (Exo 25:5; Num. 4:8). ......

SLING
With a sling and a stone David smote the Philistine giant (1-Sam 17:40, 1-Sam 17: 49). There were 700 Benjamites who were so skilled in its use that with the left hand they "could sling stones at a hair breadth, and not miss" (Judg. 20:16; 1-Chr 12:2). It was used by the Israelites in war (2-Kings 3:25). (See ARMS.) The words in Prov. 26:8, Prov. 26: "As he that bindeth a stone in a sling," etc.......

SOLEMN MEETING
(Isa. 1:13), the convocation on the eighth day of the Feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:36; Num. 29:35, Num. 29: R.V., "solemn assembly;" marg., "closing festival"). It is the name given also to the convocation held on the seventh day of the Passover (Deut. 16:8). ......

SPAIN
Paul expresses his intention (Rom. 15:24, Rom. 15: 28) to visit Spain. There is, however, no evidence that he ever carried it into effect, although some think that he probably did so between his first and second imprisonment. (See TARSHISH.) ......

SPRING
(Heb. 'ain, "the bright open source, the eye of the landscape"). To be carefully distinguished from "well" (q.v.). "Springs" mentioned in Josh. 10:40 (Heb. 'ashdoth) should rather be "declivities" or "slopes" (R.V.), i.e., the undulating ground lying between the lowlands (the shephelah) and the central range of hills. ......

STAR, MORNING
a name figuratively given to Christ (Rev. 22:16; comp. 2-Pet 1:19). When Christ promises that he will give the "morning star" to his faithful ones, he "promises that he will give to them himself, that he will give to them himself, that he will impart to them his own glory and a share in his own royal dominion; for the star is evermore the symbol of royalty (Matt. 2:2), being therefore linked with ......

STEALING
See THEFT. ......

STONING
a form of punishment (Lev. 20:2;24:14; Deut. 13:10;17:5;22:21) prescribed for certain offences. Of Achan (Josh. 7:25), Naboth (1 Kings 21), Stephen (Acts 7:59), Paul (Acts 14:19; 2-Cor 11:25). ......

STRAIN AT
Simply a misprint for "strain out" (Matt. 23:24). ......

SWELLING
of Jordan (Jer. 12:5), literally the "pride" of Jordan (as in R.V.), i.e., the luxuriant thickets of tamarisks, poplars, reeds, etc., which were the lair of lions and other beasts of prey. The reference is not to the overflowing of the river banks. (49:19;50:44; Zech. 11:3). ......

SWINE
(Heb. hazir), regarded as the most unclean and the most abhorred of all animals (Lev. 11:7; Isa. 65:4;66:3, 66: 17; Luke 15:15, Luke 15: 16). A herd of swine were drowned in the Sea of Galilee (Luke 8:32, Luke 8: 33). Spoken of figuratively in Matt. 7:6 (see Prov. 11:22). It is frequently mentioned as a wild animal, and is evidently the wild boar (Arab. khanzir), which is common among the marshes ......

SYCAMINE TREE
mentioned only in Luke 17:6. It is rendered by Luther "mulberry tree" (q.v.), which is most probably the correct rendering. It is found of two species, the black mulberry (Morus nigra) and the white mulberry (Mourea), which are common in Palestine. The silk-worm feeds on their leaves. The rearing of them is one of the chief industries of the peasantry of Lebanon and of other parts of the land. It ......

TACKLING
(Isa. 33:23), the ropes attached to the mast of a ship. In Acts 27:19 this word means generally the furniture of the ship or the "gear" (27:17), all that could be removed from the ship. ......

TAXING
(Luke 2:2; R.V., "enrolment"), "when Cyrenius was governor of Syria," is simply a census of the people, or an enrolment of them with a view to their taxation. The decree for the enrolment was the occasion of Joseph and Mary's going up to Bethlehem. It has been argued by some that Cyrenius (q.v.) was governor of Cilicia and Syria both at the time of our Lord's birth and some years afterwards. This ......

TEREBINTH
(R.V. marg. of Deut. 11:30, Deut. 11: etc.), the Pistacia terebinthus of botanists; a tree very common in the south and east of Palestine. (See OAK.) ......

THORN IN THE FLESH
(2-Cor 12:7). Many interpretations have been given of this passage. (1.) Roman Catholic writers think that it denotes suggestions to impiety. (2.) Luther, Calvin, and other Reformers interpret the expression as denoting temptation to unbelief. (3.) Others suppose the expression refers to "a pain in the ear or head," epileptic fits, or, in general, to some severe physical infirmity, which was a......

THRESHING
See AGRICULTURE. ......

THYINE WOOD
mentioned only in Rev. 18:12 among the articles which would cease to be purchased when Babylon fell. It was called citrus, citron wood, by the Romans. It was the Callitris quadrivalvis of botanists, of the cone-bearing order of trees, and of the cypress tribe of this order. The name of this wood is derived from the Greek word _thuein_, "to sacrifice," and it was so called because it was burnt in s......

TIN
Heb. bedil (Num. 31:22; Ezek. 22:18, Ezek. 22: 20), a metal well known in ancient times. It is the general opinion that the Phoenicians of Tyre and Sidon obtained their supplies of tin from the British Isles. In Ezek. 27:12 it is said to have been brought from Tarshish, which was probably a commercial emporium supplied with commodities from other places. In Isa. 1:25 the word so rendered is genera......

TINKLING ORNAMENTS
(Isa. 3:18), anklets of silver or gold, etc., such as are still used by women in Syria and the East. ......

TRESPASS OFFERING
(Heb. 'asham, "debt"), the law concerning, given in Lev. 5:14:7; also in Num. 5:5. The idea of sin as a "debt" pervades this legislation. The _asham_, which was always a ram, was offered in cases where sins were more private. (See OFFERING.) ......

TRINITY
a word not found in Scripture, but used to express the doctrine of the unity of God as subsisting in three distinct Persons. This word is derived from the Gr. trias, first used by Theophilus (A.D. 168-183), or from the Lat. trinitas, first used by Tertullian (A.D. 220), to express this doctrine. The propositions involved in the doctrine are these: 1. That God is one, and that there is but one God ......

TUBAL-CAIN
the son of Lamech and Zillah, "an instructor of every artificer in brass and iron" (Gen. 4:22; R.V., "the forger of every cutting instrument of brass and iron"). ......

UPHARSIN
and they divide, one of the words written by the mysterious hand on the wall of Belshazzar's palace (Dan. 5:25). It is a pure Chaldean word. "Peres" is only a simple form of the same word. ......

VINE
one of the most important products of Palestine. The first mention of it is in the history of Noah (Gen. 9:20). It is afterwards frequently noticed both in the Old and New Testaments, and in the ruins of terraced vineyards there are evidences that it was extensively cultivated by the Jews. It was cultivated in Palestine before the Israelites took possession of it. The men sent out by Moses brought......

VINE OF SODOM
referred to only in Deut. 32:32. Among the many conjectures as to this tree, the most probable is that it is the 'osher of the Arabs, which abounds in the region of the Dead Sea. Its fruit are the so-called "apples of Sodom," which, though beautiful to the eye, are exceedingly bitter to the taste. (See EN-GEDI.) The people of Israel are referred to here by Moses as being utterly corrupt, bringing ......

VINEGAR
Heb. hometz, Gr. oxos, Fr. vin aigre; i.e., "sour wine." The Hebrew word is rendered vinegar in Psa 69:21, Psa 69: a prophecy fulfilled in the history of the crucifixion (Matt. 27:34). This was the common sour wine (posea) daily made use of by the Roman soldiers. They gave it to Christ, not in derision, but from compassion, to assuage his thirst. Prov. 10:26 shows that there was also a stronger vi......

VIRGIN
In a prophecy concerning our Lord, Isaiah (7:14) says, "A virgin [R.V. marg., 'the virgin'] shall conceive, and bear a son" (comp. Luke 1:31). The people of the land of Zidon are thus referred to by Isaiah (23:12), "O thou oppressed virgin, daughter of Zidon;" and of the people of Israel, Jeremiah (18:13) says, "The virgin of Israel hath done a very horrible thing." ......

WAILING-PLACE, JEWS'
a section of the western wall of the temple area, where the Jews assemble every Friday afternoon to bewail their desolate condition (Psa 79:1, Psa 79: 4, 5). The stones in this part of the wall are of great size, and were placed, as is generally believed, in the position in which they are now found in the time of Solomon. "The congregation at the wailing-place is one of the most solemn gatherings ......

WANDERING
of the Israelites in the wilderness in consequence of their rebellious fears to enter the Promised Land (Num. 14:26). They wandered for forty years before they were permitted to cross the Jordan (Josh. 4:19;5:6). The record of these wanderings is given in Num. 33:1. Many of the stations at which they camped cannot now be identified. Questions of an intricate nature have been discussed regardin......

WASHING
(Mark 7:1). The Jews, like other Orientals, used their fingers when taking food, and therefore washed their hands before doing so, for the sake of cleanliness. Here the reference is to the ablutions prescribed by tradition, according to which "the disciples ought to have gone down to the side of the lake, washed their hands thoroughly, 'rubbing the fist of one hand in the hollow of the other, then......

WATCHINGS
(2-Cor 6:5), lit. "sleeplessnesses," the result of "manual labour, teaching, travelling, meditating, praying, cares, and the like" (Meyer's Com.). ......

WAVE OFFERINGS
parts of peace-offerings were so called, because they were waved by the priests (Exo 29:24, Exo 29: 26, 27; Lev. 7:20;8:27;9:21;10:14, 10: 15, etc.), in token of a solemn special presentation to God. They then became the property of the priests. The first-fruits, a sheaf of barley, offered at the feast of Pentecost (Lev. 23:17), and wheat-bread, the first-fruits of the second harvest, offered at t......

WEAVING, WEAVERS
Weaving was an art practised in very early times (Exo 35:35). The Egyptians were specially skilled in it (Isa. 19:9; Ezek. 27:7), and some have regarded them as its inventors. In the wilderness, the Hebrews practised it (Exo 26:1, Exo 26: 8;28:4, 28: 39; Lev. 13:47). It is referred to in subsequent times as specially the women's work (2-Kings 23:7; Prov. 31:13, Prov. 31: 24). No mention of the l......

WINDOW
properly only an opening in a house for the admission of light and air, covered with lattice-work, which might be opened or closed (2-Kings 1:2; Acts 20:9). The spies in Jericho and Paul at Damascus were let down from the windows of houses abutting on the town wall (Josh. 2:15; 2-Cor 11:33). The clouds are metaphorically called the "windows of heaven" (Gen. 7:11; Mal. 3:10). The word thus rendered......

WINDS
blowing from the four quarters of heaven (Jer. 49:36; Ezek. 37:9; Dan. 8:8; Zech. 2:6). The east wind was parching (Ezek. 17:10;19:12), and is sometimes mentioned as simply denoting a strong wind (Job 27:21; Isa. 27:8). This wind prevails in Palestine from February to June, as the west wind (Luke 12:54) does from November to February. The south was a hot wind (Job 37:17; Luke 12:55). It swept over......

WINE
The common Hebrew word for wine is _yayin_, from a root meaning "to boil up," "to be in a ferment." Others derive it from a root meaning "to tread out," and hence the juice of the grape trodden out. The Greek word for wine is _oinos_, and the Latin _vinun_. But besides this common Hebrew word, there are several others which are thus rendered. (1.) Ashishah (2-Sam 6:19; 1-Chr 16:3; 2:5; Hos. 3:1)......

WINE-PRESS
Consisted of two vats or receptacles, (1) a trough (Heb. gath, Gr. lenos) into which the grapes were thrown and where they were trodden upon and bruised (Isa. 16:10; Lam. 1:15; Joel 3:13); and (2) a trough or vat (Heb. yekebh, Gr. hypolenion) into which the juice ran from the trough above, the gath (Neh. 13:15; Job 24:11; Isa. 63:2, Isa. 63: 3; Hag. 2:16; Joel 2:24). Wine-presses are found in almo......

WINEFAT
(Mark 12:1). The original word (hypolenion) so rendered occurs only here in the New Testament. It properly denotes the trough or lake (lacus), as it was called by the Romans, into which the juice of the grapes ran from the trough above it. It is here used, however, of the whole apparatus. In the parallel passage in Matt. 21:33 the Greek word _lenos_ is used. This properly denotes the upper one of ......

WINNOW
Corn was winnowed, (1.) By being thrown up by a shovel against the wind. As a rule this was done in the evening or during the night, when the west wind from the sea was blowing, which was a moderate breeze and fitted for the purpose. The north wind was too strong, and the east wind came in gusts. (2.) By the use of a fan or van, by which the chaff was blown away (Ruth 3:2; Isa. 30:24; Jer. 4:11, J......

WOOD-OFFERING
(Neh. 10:34;13:31). It would seem that in the time of Nehemiah arrangements were made, probably on account of the comparative scarcity of wood, by which certain districts were required, as chosen by lot, to furnish wood to keep the altar fire perpetually burning (Lev. 6:13). ......

WRITING
The art of writing must have been known in the time of the early Pharaohs. Moses is commanded "to write for a memorial in a book" (Exo 17:14) a record of the attack of Amalek. Frequent mention is afterwards made of writing (28:11, 28: 21, 29, 36;31:18;32:15, 32: 16;34:1, 34: 28;39:6, 39: 14, 30). The origin of this art is unknown, but there is reason to conclude that in the age of Moses it was wel......

ZIN
a low palm-tree, the south-eastern corner of the desert et-Tih, the wilderness of Paran, between the Gulf of Akabah and the head of the Wady Guraiyeh (Num. 13:21). To be distinguished from the wilderness of Sin (q.v.).......

ZINA
ornament, one of the sons of Shimei (1-Chr 23:10).......

DEARTH
a scarcity of provisions (1 Kings 17). There were frequent dearths in Palestine. In the days of Abram there was a "famine in the land" (Gen. 12:10), so also in the days of Jacob (7:4, 7: 13). We read also of dearths in the time of the judges (Ruth 1:1), and of the kings (2-Sam 21:1; 1-Kings 18:2; 2-Kings 4:38;8:1). In New Testament times there was an extensive famine in Palestine (Acts 11:28) in......

EARTH
(1.) In the sense of soil or ground, the translation of the word _adamah'_. In Gen. 9:20 "husbandman" is literally "man of the ground or earth." Altars were to be built of earth (Exo 20:24). Naaman asked for two mules' burden of earth (2-Kings 5:17), under the superstitious notion that Jehovah, like the gods of the heathen, could be acceptably worshipped only on his own soil. (2). As the renderi......

EARTHQUAKE
mentioned among the extraordinary phenomena of Palestine (Psa 18:7; comp. Hab. 3:6; Nah. 1:5; Isa. 5:25). The first earthquake in Palestine of which we have any record happened in the reign of Ahab (1-Kings 19:11, 1-Kings 19: 12). Another took place in the days of Uzziah, King of Judah (Zech. 14:5). The most memorable earthquake taking place in New Testament times happened at the crucifixion of ......

HEARTH
Heb. ah (Jer. 36:22, Jer. 36: 23; R.V., "brazier"), meaning a large pot like a brazier, a portable furnace in which fire was kept in the king's winter apartment. Heb. kiyor (Zech. 12:6; R.V., "pan"), a fire-pan. Heb. moqed (Psa 102:3; R.V., "fire-brand"), properly a fagot. Heb. yaqud (Isa. 30:14), a burning mass on a hearth. ......