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A
Alpha, the first letter of the Greek alphabet, as Omega is the last. These letters occur in the text of Rev. 1:8, Rev. 1:11;21:6;22:13, 22: and are represented by "Alpha" and "Omega" respectively (omitted in R.V.,1:11). They mean "the first and last." (Comp. Heb. 12:2; Isa. 41:4;44:6; Rev. 1:11, Rev. 1:17;2:8.) In the symbols of the early Christian Church these two letters are frequently combined ......

AARON
the eldest son of Amram and Jochebed, a daughter of Levi (Exo 6:20). Some explain the name as meaning mountaineer, others mountain of strength, illuminator. He was born in Egypt three years before his brother Moses, and a number of years after his sister Miriam (2:1, 2:4;7:7). He married Elisheba, the daughter of Amminadab of the house of Judah (6:23; 1-Chr 2:10), by whom he had four sons, Nadab a......

AARONITES
the descendants of Aaron, and therefore priests. Jehoiada, the father of Benaiah, led 3,700 Aaronites as "fighting men" to the support of David at Hebron (1-Chr 12:27). Eleazar (Num. 3:32), and at a later period Zadok (1-Chr 27:17), was their chief.......

ABADDON
destruction, the Hebrew name (equivalent to the Greek Apollyon, i.e., destroyer) of "the angel of the bottomless pit" (Rev. 9:11). It is rendered "destruction" in Job 28:22;31:12;26:6; Prov. 15:11;27:20. In the last three of these passages the Revised Version retains the word "Abaddon." We may regard this word as a personification of the idea of destruction, or as sheol, the realm of the dead.......

ABAGTHA
one of the seven eunuchs in Ahasuerus's court (Esther 1:10;2:21).......

ABANA
stony (Heb. marg. "Amanah," perennial), the chief river of Damascus (2-Kings 5:12). Its modern name is Barada, the Chrysorrhoas, or "golden stream," of the Greeks. It rises in a cleft of the Anti-Lebanon range, about 23 miles north-west of Damascus, and after flowing southward for a little way parts into three smaller streams, the central one flowing through Damascus, and the other two on each sid......

ABARIM
regions beyond; i.e., on the east of Jordan, a mountain, or rather a mountain-chain, over against Jericho, to the east and south-east of the Dead Sea, in the land of Moab. From "the top of Pisgah", i.e., Mount Nebo (q.v.), one of its summits, Moses surveyed the Promised Land (Deut. 3:27;32:49), and there he died (34:1, 34:5). The Israelites had one of their encampments in the mountains of Abarim (......

ABBA
This Syriac or Chaldee word is found three times in the New Testament (Mark 14:36; Rom. 8:15; Gal. 4:6), and in each case is followed by its Greek equivalent, which is translated "father." It is a term expressing warm affection and filial confidence. It has no perfect equivalent in our language. It has passed into European languages as an ecclesiastical term, "abbot."......

ABDA
servant. (1.) The father of Adoniram, whom Solomon set over the tribute (1-Kings 4:6); i.e., the forced labour (R.V., "levy"). (2.) A Levite of the family of Jeduthun (Neh. 11:17), also called Obadiah (1-Chr 9:16).......

ABDEEL
servant of God, (Jer. 36:26), the father of Shelemiah.......

ABDI
my servant. (1.) 1-Chr 6:44. (2.) 2-Chr 29:12. (3.) Ezra 10:26.......

ABDIEL
servant of God, (1-Chr 5:15), a Gadite chief.......

ABDON
servile. (1.) The son of Hillel, a Pirathonite, the tenth judge of Israel (Judg. 12:13). He is probably the Bedan of 1-Sam 12:11. (2.) The first-born of Gibeon of the tribe of Benjamin (1-Chr 8:30;9:36). (3.) The son of Micah, one of those whom Josiah sent to the prophetess Huldah to ascertain from her the meaning of the recently discovered book of the law (2-Chr 34:20). He is called Achbor in......

ABEDNEGO
servant of Nego=Nebo, the Chaldee name given to Azariah, one of Daniel's three companions (Dan. 2:49). With Shadrach and Meshach, he was delivered from the burning fiery furnace (3:12).......

ABEL
(Heb. Hebhel), a breath, or vanity, the second son of Adam and Eve. He was put to death by his brother Cain (Gen. 4:1). Guided by the instruction of their father, the two brothers were trained in the duty of worshipping God. "And in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days", i.e., on the Sabbath) each of them offered up to God of the first-fruits of his labours. Cain, as a husbandman, offered t......

ABEL-BETH-MAACHAH
meadow of the house of Maachah, a city in the north of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Dan and Ijon, in the tribe of Naphtali. It was a place of considerable strength and importance. It is called a "mother in Israel", i.e., a metropolis (2-Sam 20:19). It was besieged by Joab (2-Sam 20:14), by Benhadad (1-Kings 15:20), and by Tiglath-pileser (2-Kings 15:29) about B.C. 734. It is elsewhere called......

ABEL-CHERAMIM
(Judg. 11:33, Judg. 11: R.V.; A. V., "plain of the vineyards"), a village of the Ammonites, whither Jephthah pursued their forces.......

ABEL-MEHOLAH
meadow of dancing, or the dancing-meadow, the birth-place and residence of the prophet Elisha, not far from Beth-shean (1-Kings 4:12), in the tribe of Issachar, near where the Wady el-Maleh emerges into the valley of the Jordan, "the rich meadow-land which extends about 4 miles south of Beth-shean; moist and luxuriant." Here Elisha was found at his plough by Elijah on his return up the Jordan vall......

ABEL-MIZRAIM
meadow of Egypt, or mourning of Egypt, a place "beyond," i.e., on the west of Jordan, at the "threshing-floor of Atad." Here the Egyptians mourned seventy days for Jacob (Gen. 50:4). Its site is unknown.......

ABEL-SHITTIM
meadow of the acacias, frequently called simply "Shittim" (Num. 25:1; Josh. 2:1; Micah 6:5), a place on the east of Jordan, in the plain of Moab, nearly opposite Jericho. It was the forty-second encampment of the Israelites, their last resting-place before they crossed the Jordan (Num. 33:49;22:1;26:3;31:12; 25:1;31:16).......

ABEZ
tin, or white, a town in the tribe of Issachar (Josh. 19:20), at the north of the plain of Esdraelon. It is probably identified with the ruins of el-Beida.......

ABI-ALBON
father of strength; i.e., "valiant", one of David's body-guard of thirty mighty men (2-Sam 23:31); called also Abiel (1-Chr 11:32).......

ABIA
my father is the Lord, the Greek form of Abijah, or Abijam (Matt. 1:7), instead of Abiah (1-Chr 7:8). In Luke 1:5, Luke 1: the name refers to the head of the eighth of the twenty-four courses into which David divided the priests (1-Chr 24:10).......

ABIASAPH
father of gathering; the gatherer, the youngest of the three sons of Korah the Levite, head of a family of Korhites (Exo 6:24); called Ebisaph (1-Chr 6:37).......

ABIATHAR
father of abundance, or my father excels, the son of Ahimelech the high priest. He was the tenth high priest, and the fourth in descent from Eli. When his father was slain with the priests of Nob, he escaped, and bearing with him the ephod, he joined David, who was then in the cave of Adullam (1-Sam 22:20;23:6). He remained with David, and became priest of the party of which he was the leader (1-S......

ABIB
an ear of corn, the month of newly-ripened grain (Exo 13:4;23:15); the first of the Jewish ecclesiastical year, and the seventh of the civil year. It began about the time of the vernal equinox, on 21st March. It was called Nisan, after the Captivity (Neh. 2:1). On the fifteenth day of the month, harvest was begun by gathering a sheaf of barley, which was offered unto the Lord on the sixteenth (Lev......

ABIDA
or Abi'dah, father of knowledge; knowing, one of the five sons of Midian, who was the son of Abraham by Keturah (1-Chr 1:33), and apparently the chief of an Arab tribe.......

ABIDAN
father of judgment; judge, head of the tribe of Benjamin at the Exodus (Num. 1:11;2:22).......

ABIEEZER
father of help; i.e., "helpful." (1.) The second of the three sons of Hammoleketh, the sister of Gilead. He was the grandson of Manasseh (1-Chr 7:18). From his family Gideon sprang (Josh. 17:2; comp. Judg. 6:34;8:2). He was also called Jeezer (Num. 26:30). (2.) One of David's thirty warriors (2-Sam 23:27; comp. 1-Chr 27:12). (3.) The prince of the tribe of Dan at the Exodus (Num. 1:12).......

ABIEL
father (i.e., "possessor") of God = "pious." (1.) The son of Zeror and father of Ner, who was the grandfather of Saul (1-Sam 14:51; 1-Chr 8:33;9:39). In 1-Sam 9:1, 1-Sam 9: he is called the "father," probably meaning the grandfather, of Kish. (2.) An Arbathite, one of David's warriors (1-Chr 11:32); called also Abi-albon (2-Sam 23:31).......

ABIEZRITE
father of help, a descendant of Abiezer (Judg. 6:11, Judg. 6:24;8:32).......

ABIGAIL
father (i.e., "leader") of the dance, or "of joy." (1.) The sister of David, and wife of Jether an Ishmaelite (1-Chr 2:16, 1-Chr 2:17). She was the mother of Amasa (2-Sam 17:25). (2.) The wife of the churlish Nabal, who dwelt in the district of Carmel (1-Sam 25:3). She showed great prudence and delicate management at a critical period of her husband's life. She was "a woman of good understanding......

ABIHAIL
father of might. (1.) Num. 3:35. (2.) 1-Chr 2:29. (3.) 1-Chr 5:14. (4.) The second wife of King Rehoboam (2-Chr 11:18), a descendant of Eliab, David's eldest brother. (5.) The father of Esther and uncle of Mordecai (Esther 2:15).......

ABIHU
father of Him; i.e., "worshipper of God", the second of the sons of Aaron (Exo 6:23; Num. 3:2;26:60; 1-Chr 6:3). Along with his three brothers he was consecrated to the priest's office (Exo 28:1). With his father and elder brother he accompanied the seventy elders part of the way up the mount with Moses (Exo 24:1, Exo 24:9). On one occasion he and Nadab his brother offered incense in their censers......

ABIHUD
father (i.e., "possessor") of renown. (1.) One of the sons of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1-Chr 8:3); called also Ahihud (ver. 7). (2.) A descendant of Zerubbabel and father of Eliakim (Matt. 1:13, Matt. 1: "Abiud"); called also Juda (Luke 3:26), and Obadiah (1-Chr 3:21).......

ABIJAH
father (i.e., "possessor or worshipper") of Jehovah. (1.) 1-Chr 7:8. (2.) 1-Chr 2:24. (3.) The second son of Samuel (1-Sam 8:2; 1-Chr 6:28). His conduct, along with that of his brother, as a judge in Beer-sheba, to which office his father had appointed him, led to popular discontent, and ultimately provoked the people to demand a royal form of government. (4.) A descendant of Eleazar, the son ......

ABIJAM
father of the sea; i.e., "seaman" the name always used in Kings of the king of Judah, the son of Rehoboam, elsewhere called Abijah (1-Kings 15:1, 1-Kings 15:7, 1-Kings 15:8). (See ABIJAH, 5.)......

ABILENE
a plain, a district lying on the east slope of the Anti-Lebanon range; so called from its chief town, Abila (Luke 3:1), which stood in the Suk Wady Barada, between Heliopolis (Baalbec) and Damascus, 38 miles from the former and 18 from the latter. Lysanias was governor or tetrarch of this province.......

ABIMAEL
father of Mael, one of the sons or descendants of Joktan, in Northern Arabia (Gen. 10:28; 1-Chr 1:22).......

ABIMELECH
my father a king, or father of a king, a common name of the Philistine kings, as "Pharaoh" was of the Egyptian kings. (1.) The Philistine king of Gerar in the time of Abraham (Gen. 20:1). By an interposition of Providence, Sarah was delivered from his harem, and was restored to her husband Abraham. As a mark of respect he gave to Abraham valuable gifts, and offered him a settlement in any part of ......

ABINADAB
father of nobleness; i.e., "noble." (1.) A Levite of Kirjath-jearim, in whose house the ark of the covenant was deposited after having been brought back from the land of the Philistines (1-Sam 7:1). It remained there twenty years, till it was at length removed by David (1-Sam 7:1, 1-Sam 7:2; 1-Chr 13:7). (2.) The second of the eight sons of Jesse (1-Sam 16:8). He was with Saul in the campaign ag......

ABINOAM
father of kindness, the father of Barak (Judg. 4:6;5:1).......

ABIRAM
father of height; i.e., "proud." (1.) One of the sons of Eliab, who joined Korah in the conspiracy against Moses and Aaron. He and all the conspirators, with their families and possessions (except the children of Korah), were swallowed up by an earthquake (Num. 16:1;26:9; Psa 106:17). (2.) The eldest son of Hiel the Bethelite, who perished prematurely in consequence of his father's undertaking t......

ABISHAG
father of (i.e., "given to") error, a young woman of Shunem, distinguished for her beauty. She was chosen to minister to David in his old age. She became his wife (1-Kings 1:3, 1-Kings 1:4, 1-Kings 1:15). After David's death Adonijah persuaded Bathsheba, Solomon's mother, to entreat the king to permit him to marry Abishag. Solomon suspected in this request an aspiration to the throne, and therefor......

ABISHAI
father of (i.e., "desirous of") a gift, the eldest son of Zeruiah, David's sister. He was the brother of Joab and Asahel (2-Sam 2:18; 1-Chr 2:16). Abishai was the only one who accompanied David when he went to the camp of Saul and took the spear and the cruse of water from Saul's bolster (1-Sam 26:5). He had the command of one of the three divisions of David's army at the battle with Absalom (2-Sa......

ABISHUA
father of welfare; i.e., "fortunate." (1.) The grandson of Benjamin (1-Chr 8:4). (2.) The son of Phinehas the high priest (1-Chr 6:4, 1-Chr 6:5, 1-Chr 6:50; Ezra 7:5).......

ABISHUR
father of the wall; i.e., "mason", one of the two sons of Shammai of the tribe of Judah (1-Chr 2:28, 1-Chr 2:29).......

ABITAL
father of dew; i.e., "fresh", David's fifth wife (2-Sam 3:4).......

ABITUB
father of goodness, a Benjamite (1-Chr 8:11).......

ABJECTS
(Psa 35:15), the translation of a Hebrew word meaning smiters; probably, in allusion to the tongue, slanderers. (Comp. Jer. 18:18.) ......

ABLUTION
or washing, was practised, (1.) When a person was initiated into a higher state: e.g., when Aaron and his sons were set apart to the priest's office, they were washed with water previous to their investiture with the priestly robes (Lev. 8:6). (2.) Before the priests approached the altar of God, they were required, on pain of death, to wash their hands and their feet to cleanse them from the soi......

ABNER
father of light; i.e., "enlightening", the son of Ner and uncle of Saul. He was commander-in-chief of Saul's army (1-Sam 14:50;17:55;20:25). He first introduced David to the court of Saul after the victory over Goliath (1-Sam 17:57). After the death of Saul, David was made king over Judah, and reigned in Hebron. Among the other tribes there was a feeling of hostility to Judah; and Abner, at the he......

ABOMINATION
This word is used, (1.) To express the idea that the Egyptians considered themselves as defiled when they ate with strangers (Gen. 43:32). The Jews subsequently followed the same practice, holding it unlawful to eat or drink with foreigners (John 18:28; Acts 10:28;11:3). (2.) Every shepherd was "an abomination" unto the Egyptians (Gen. 46:34). This aversion to shepherds, such as the Hebrews, aro......

ABRAHAM
father of a multitude, son of Terah, named (Gen. 11:27) before his older brothers Nahor and Haran, because he was the heir of the promises. Till the age of seventy, Abram sojourned among his kindred in his native country of Chaldea. He then, with his father and his family and household, quitted the city of Ur, in which he had hitherto dwelt, and went some 300 miles north to Haran, where he abode f......

ABRAHAM'S BOSOM
(Luke 16:22, Luke 16:23) refers to the custom of reclining on couches at table, which was prevalent among the Jews, an arrangement which brought the head of one person almost into the bosom of the one who sat or reclined above him. To "be in Abraham's bosom" thus meant to enjoy happiness and rest (Matt. 8:11; Luke 16:23) at the banquet in Paradise. (See BANQUET; MEALS.) ......

ABRAM
exalted father. (see ABRAHAM.) ......

ABRONAH
R.V., one of Israel's halting-places in the desert (3:34, 3:35), just before Ezion-gaber. In A.V., "Ebronah." ......

ABSALOM
father of peace; i.e., "peaceful" David's son by Maacah (2-Sam 3:3; comp. 1-Kings 1:6). He was noted for his personal beauty and for the extra-ordinary profusion of the hair of his head (2-Sam 14:25, 2-Sam 14:26). The first public act of his life was the blood-revenge he executed against Amnon, David's eldest son, who had basely wronged Absalom's sister Tamar. This revenge was executed at the time......

ACACIA
(Heb. shittim) Exo 25:5, Exo 25: R.V. probably the Acacia seyal (the gum-arabic tree); called the "shittah" tree (Isa. 41:19). Its wood is called shittim wood (Exo 26:15, Exo 26:26;25:10, 25:13, 25:23, 25:28, 25: etc.). This species (A. seyal) is like the hawthorn, a gnarled and thorny tree. It yields the gum-arabic of commerce. It is found in abundance in the Sinaitic peninsula. ......

ACCAD
the high land or mountains, a city in the land of Shinar. It has been identified with the mounds of Akker Kuf, some 50 miles to the north of Babylon; but this is doubtful. It was one of the cities of Nimrod's kingdom (Ge 10:10). It stood close to the Euphrates, opposite Sippara. (See SEPHARVAIM.) It is also the name of the country of which this city was the capital, namely, northern or upper Bab......

ACCHO
sultry or sandy, a town and harbour of Phoenicia, in the tribe of Asher, but never acquired by them (Judg. 1:31). It was known to the ancient Greeks and Romans by the name of Ptolemais, from Ptolemy the king of Egypt, who rebuilt it about B.C. 100. Here Paul landed on his last journey to Jerusalem (Acts 21:7). During the crusades of the Middle Ages it was called Acra; and subsequently, on account ......

ACCUSER
Satan is styled the "accuser of the brethren" (Rev. 12:10. Comp. Job 1:6; Zech. 3:1), as seeking to uphold his influence among men by bringing false charges against Christians, with the view of weakening their influence and injuring the cause with which they are identified. He was regarded by the Jews as the accuser of men before God, laying to their charge the violations of the law of which they ......

ACELDAMA
the name which the Jews gave in their proper tongue, i.e., in Aramaic, to the field which was purchased with the money which had been given to the betrayer of our Lord. The word means "field of blood." It was previously called "the potter's field" (Matt. 27:7, Matt. 27: 8; Acts 1:19), and was appropriated as the burial-place for strangers. It lies on a narrow level terrace on the south face of the......

ACHAIA
the name originally of a narrow strip of territory in Greece, on the north-west of the Peloponnesus. Subsequently it was applied by the Romans to the whole Peloponnesus, now called the Morea, and the south of Greece. It was then one of the two provinces (Macedonia being the other) into which they divided the country when it fell under their dominion. It is in this latter enlarged meaning that the ......

ACHAICHUS
(1-Cor 16:17), one of the members of the church of Corinth who, with Fortunatus and Stephanas, visited Paul while he was at Ephesus, for the purpose of consulting him on the affairs of the church. These three probably were the bearers of the letter from Corinth to the apostle to which he alludes in 1-Cor 7:1. ......

ACHAN
called also Achar, i.e., one who troubles (1-Chr 2:7), in commemoration of his crime, which brought upon him an awful destruction (Josh. 7:1). On the occasion of the fall of Jericho, he seized, contrary to the divine command, an ingot of gold, a quantity of silver, and a costly Babylonish garment, which he hid in his tent. Joshua was convinced that the defeat which the Israelites afterwards sustai......

ACHBOR
gnawing = mouse. (1.) An Edomitish king (Gen. 36:38; 1-Chr 1:49). (2.) One of Josiah's officers sent to the prophetess Huldah to inquire regarding the newly-discovered book of the law (2-Kings 22:12, 2-Kings 22: 14). He is also called Abdon (2-Chr 34:20). ......

ACHISH
angry, perhaps only a general title of royalty applicable to the Philistine kings. (1.) The king with whom David sought refuge when he fled from Saul (1-Sam 21:10). He is called Abimelech in the superscription of Ps. 34. It was probably this same king to whom David a second time repaired at the head of a band of 600 warriors, and who assigned him Ziklag, whence he carried on war against the surrou......

ACHMETHA
(Ezra 6:2), called Ecbatana by classical writers, the capital of northern Media. Here was the palace which was the residence of the old Median monarchs, and of Cyrus and Cambyses. In the time of Ezra, the Persian kings resided usually at Susa of Babylon. But Cyrus held his court at Achmetha; and Ezra, writing a century after, correctly mentions the place where the decree of Cyrus was found. ......

ACHOR
trouble, a valley near Jericho, so called in consequence of the trouble which the sin of Achan caused Israel (Josh. 7:24, Josh. 7:26). The expression "valley of Achor" probably became proverbial for that which caused trouble, and when Isaiah (Isa. 65:10) refers to it he uses it in this sense: "The valley of Achor, a place for herds to lie down in;" i.e., that which had been a source of calamity wo......

ACHSAH
anklet, Caleb's only daughter (1-Chr 2:49). She was offered in marriage to the man who would lead an attack on the city of Debir, or Kirjath-sepher. This was done by Othniel (q.v.), who accordingly obtained her as his wife (Josh. 15:16; Judg. 1:9). ......

ACHSHAPH
fascination, a royal city of the Canaanites, in the north of Palestine (Josh. 11:1;12:20;19:25). It was in the eastern boundary of the tribe of Asher, and is identified with the modern ruined village of Kesaf or Yasif, N.E. of Accho. ......

ACHZIB
falsehood. (1.) A town in the Shephelah, or plain country of Judah (Josh. 15:44); probably the same as Chezib of Gen. 38:5 = Ain Kezbeh. (2.) A Phoenician city (the Gr. Ecdippa), always retained in their possession though assigned to the tribe of Asher (Josh. 19:29; Judg. 1:31). It is identified with the modern es-Zib, on the Mediterranean, about 8 miles north of Accho. ......

ACRE
is the translation of a word (tse'med), which properly means a yoke, and denotes a space of ground that may be ploughed by a yoke of oxen in a day. It is about an acre of our measure (Isa. 5:10; 1-Sam 14:14). ......

ACTS OF THE APOSTLES
the title now given to the fifth and last of the historical books of the New Testament. The author styles it a "treatise" (1:1). It was early called "The Acts," "The Gospel of the Holy Ghost," and "The Gospel of the Resurrection." It contains properly no account of any of the apostles except Peter and Paul. John is noticed only three times; and all that is recorded of James, the son of Zebedee, is......

ADAH
ornament. (1.) The first of Lamech's two wives, and the mother of Jabal and Jubal (Gen. 4:19, Gen. 4: 20, 23). (2.) The first of Esau's three wives, the daughter of Elon the Hittite (Gen. 36:2, Gen. 36:4), called also Bashemath (26:34). ......

ADAM
red, a Babylonian word, the generic name for man, having the same meaning in the Hebrew and the Assyrian languages. It was the name given to the first man, whose creation, fall, and subsequent history and that of his descendants are detailed in the first book of Moses (Gen. 1:27ch. 5). "God created man [Heb., Adam] in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he th......

ADAM, A TYPE
The apostle Paul speaks of Adam as "the figure of him who was to come." On this account our Lord is sometimes called the second Adam. This typical relation is described in Rom. 5:14. ......

ADAM, THE CITY OF
is referred to in Josh. 3:16. It stood "beside Zarethan," on the west bank of Jordan (1-Kings 4:12). At this city the flow of the water was arrested and rose up "upon an heap" at the time of the Israelites' passing over (Josh. 3:16). ......

ADAMAH
red earth, a fortified city of Naphtali, probably the modern Damieh, on the west side of the sea of Tiberias (Josh. 19:33, Josh. 19: 36). ......

ADAMANT
(Heb. shamir), Ezek. 3:9. The Greek word adamas means diamond. This stone is not referred to, but corundum or some kind of hard steel. It is an emblem of firmness in resisting adversaries of the truth (Zech. 7:12), and of hard-heartedness against the truth (Jer. 17:1). ......

ADAR
large, the sixth month of the civil and the twelfth of the ecclesiastical year of the Jews (Esther 3:7, Esther 3: 13;8:12;9:1, 9: 15, 17, 19, 21). It included the days extending from the new moon of our March to the new moon of April. The name was first used after the Captivity. When the season was backward, and the lambs not yet of a paschal size, or the barley not forward enough for abib, then a......

ADBEEL
miracle of God, the third of the twelve sons of Ishmael, and head of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 25:13; 1-Chr 1:29). ......

ADDAR
ample, splendid, son of Bela (1-Chr 8:3); called also "Ard" (Gen. 46:21) ......

ADDER
(Psa 140:3; Rom. 3:13, Rom. 3: "asp") is the rendering of, (1.) Akshub ("coiling" or "lying in wait"), properly an asp or viper, found only in this passage. (2.) Pethen ("twisting"), a viper or venomous serpent identified with the cobra (Naja haje) (Psa 58:4;91:13); elsewhere "asp." (3.) Tziphoni ("hissing") (Prov. 23:32); elsewhere rendered "cockatrice," Isa. 11:8;14:29;59:5; Jer. 8:17, Jer. 8: a......

ADDI
ornament, (Luke 3:28), the son of Cosam, and father of Melchi, one of the progenitors of Christ. ......

ADDON
low, one of the persons named in Neh. 7:61 who could not "shew their father's house" on the return from captivity. This, with similar instances (ver. 63), indicates the importance the Jews attached to their genealogies. ......

ADIEL
ornament of God. (1.) The father of Azmaveth, who was treasurer under David and Solomon (1-Chr 27:25). (2.) A family head of the tribe of Simeon (1-Chr 4:36). (3.) A priest (1-Chr 9:12). ......

ADIN
effeminate. (1.) Ezra 8:6. (2.) Neh. 10:16. ......

ADINA
slender, one of David's warriors (1-Chr 11:42), a Reubenite. ......

ADINO
the Eznite, one of David's mighty men (2-Sam 23:8). (See JASHOBEAM.) ......

ADJURATION
a solemn appeal whereby one person imposes on another the obligation of speaking or acting as if under an oath (1-Sam 14:24; Josh. 6:26; 1-Kings 22:16). We have in the New Testament a striking example of this (Matt. 26:63; Mark 5:7), where the high priest calls upon Christ to avow his true character. It would seem that in such a case the person so adjured could not refuse to give an answer. Th......

ADMAH
earth, one of the five cities of the vale of Siddim (Gen. 10:19). It was destroyed along with Sodom and Gomorrah (19:24; Deut. 29:23). It is supposed by some to be the same as the Adam of Josh. 3:16, Josh. 3: the name of which still lingers in Damieh, the ford of Jordan. (See ZEBOIM.) ......

ADNAH
delight. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:20). (2.) A general under Jehoshaphat, chief over 300,000 men (2-Chr 17:14). ......

ADONI-ZEDEC
lord of justice or righteousness, was king in Jerusalem at the time when the Israelites invaded Palestine (Josh. 10:1, Josh. 10:3). He formed a confederacy with the other Canaanitish kings against the Israelites, but was utterly routed by Joshua when he was engaged in besieging the Gibeonites. The history of this victory and of the treatment of the five confederated kings is recorded in Josh. 10:1......

ADONIBEZEK
lord of Bezek, a Canaanitish king who, having subdued seventy of the chiefs that were around him, made an attack against the armies of Judah and Simeon, but was defeated and brought as a captive to Jerusalem, where his thumbs and great toes were cut off. He confessed that God had requited him for his like cruelty to the seventy kings whom he had subdued (Judg. 1:4; comp. 1-Sam 15:33). ......

ADONIJAH
my Lord is Jehovah. (1.) The fourth son of David (2-Sam 3:4). After the death of his elder brothers, Amnon and Absalom, he became heir-apparent to the throne. But Solomon, a younger brother, was preferred to him. Adonijah, however, when his father was dying, caused himself to be proclaimed king. But Nathan and Bathsheba induced David to give orders that Solomon should at once be proclaimed and adm......

ADONIKAM
whom the Lord sets up, one of those "which came with Zerubbabel" (Ezra 2:13). His "children," or retainers, to the number of 666, came up to Jerusalem (8:13). ......

ADONIRAM
(Adoram, 1-Kings 12:18), the son of Abda, was "over the tribute," i.e., the levy or forced labour. He was stoned to death by the people of Israel (1-Kings 4:6;5:14) ......

ADOPTION
the giving to any one the name and place and privileges of a son who is not a son by birth. (1.) Natural. Thus Pharaoh's daughter adopted Moses (Exo 2:10), and Mordecai Esther (Esther 2:7). (2.) National. God adopted Israel (Exo 4:22; Deut. 7:6; Hos. 11:1; Rom. 9:4). (3.) Spiritual. An act of God's grace by which he brings men into the number of his redeemed family, and makes them partakers ......

ADORAM
See ADONIRAM.......

ADORE
to worship; to express reverence and homage. The forms of adoration among the Jews were putting off the shoes (Exo 3:5; Josh. 5:15), and prostration (Gen. 17:3; Psa 95:6; Isa. 44:15, Isa. 44: 17, 19;46:6). To "kiss the Son" in Psa 2:12 is to adore and worship him. (See Dan. 3:5, Dan. 3: 6.) The word itself does not occur in Scripture.......

ADRAMMELECH
Adar the king. (1.) An idol; a form of the sun-god worshipped by the inhabitants of Sepharvaim (2-Kings 17:31), and brought by the Sepharvite colonists into Samaria. (2.) A son of Sennacherib, king of Assyria (2-Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38).......

ADRAMYTTIUM
a city of Asia Minor on the coast of Mysia, which in early times was called AEolis. The ship in which Paul embarked at Caesarea belonged to this city (Acts 27:2). He was conveyed in it only to Myra, in Lycia, whence he sailed in an Alexandrian ship to Italy. It was a rare thing for a ship to sail from any port of Palestine direct for Italy. It still bears the name Adramyti, and is a place of some ......

ADRIA
(Acts 27:27; R.V., "the sea of Adria"), the Adriatic Sea, including in Paul's time the whole of the Mediterranean lying between Crete and Sicily. It is the modern Gulf of Venice, the _Mare Superum_ of the Romans, as distinguished from the _Mare Inferum_ or Tyrrhenian Sea.......

ADRIEL
flock of God, the son of Barzillai, the Meholathite, to whom Saul gave in marriage his daughter Merab (1-Sam 18:19). The five sons that sprang from this union were put to death by the Gibeonites (2-Sam 21:8, 2-Sam 21: 9. Here it is said that Michal "brought up" [R.V., "bare"] these five sons, either that she treated them as if she had been their own mother, or that for "Michal" we should read "Mer......

ADULLAM
one of the royal cities of the Canaanites, now 'Aid-el-ma (Josh. 12:15;15:35). It stood on the old Roman road in the valley of Elah (q.v.), which was the scene of David's memorable victory over Goliath (1-Sam 17:2), and not far from Gath. It was one of the towns which Rehoboam fortified against Egypt (2-Chr 11:7). It was called "the glory of Israel" (Micah 1:15). The Cave of Adullam has been dis......

ADULLAMITE
an inhabitant of the city of Adullam (Gen. 38:1, Gen. 38: 12, 20).......

ADULTERY
conjugal infidelity. An adulterer was a man who had illicit intercourse with a married or a betrothed woman, and such a woman was an adulteress. Intercourse between a married man and an unmarried woman was fornication. Adultery was regarded as a great social wrong, as well as a great sin. The Mosaic law (Num. 5:11) prescribed that the suspected wife should be tried by the ordeal of the "water of......

ADUMMIM
the red ones, a place apparently on the road between Jericho and Jerusalem, "on the south side of the torrent" Wady Kelt, looking toward Gilgal, mentioned Josh. 15:7;18:17. It was nearly half-way between Jerusalem and Jericho, and now bears the name of Tal-at-ed-Dumm. It is supposed to have been the place referred to in the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 10:30). Recently a new carriage-road h......

ADVERSARY
(Heb. satan), an opponent or foe (1-Kings 5:4;11:14, 11: 23, 25; Luke 13:17); one that speaks against another, a complainant (Matt. 5:25; Luke 12:58); an enemy (Luke 18:3), and specially the devil (1-Pet 5:8).......

ADVOCATE
(Gr. parakletos), one who pleads another's cause, who helps another by defending or comforting him. It is a name given by Christ three times to the Holy Ghost (John 14:16;15:26;16:7, 16: where the Greek word is rendered "Comforter," q.v.). It is applied to Christ in 1-John 2:1, 1-John 2: where the same Greek word is rendered "Advocate," the rendering which it should have in all the places where it......

AENON
springs, a place near Salim where John baptized (John 3:23). It was probably near the upper source of the Wady Far'ah, an open valley extending from Mount Ebal to the Jordan. It is full of springs. A place has been found called 'Ainun, four miles north of the springs.......

AFFECTION
feeling or emotion. Mention is made of "vile affections" (Rom. 1:26) and "inordinate affection" (Col. 3:5). Christians are exhorted to set their affections on things above (Col. 3:2). There is a distinction between natural and spiritual or gracious affections (Ezek. 33:32).......

AFFINITY
relationship by alliance (2-Chr 18:1) or by marriage (1-Kings 3:1). Marriages are prohibited within certain degrees of affinity, enumerated Lev. 18:6. Consanguinity is relationship by blood.......

AFFLICTIONS
common to all (Job 5:7;14:1; Psa 34:19); are for the good of men (James 1:2, James 1: 3, 12; 2-Cor 12:7) and the glory of God (2-Cor 12:7; 1-Pet 4:14), and are to be borne with patience by the Lord's people (Psa 94:12; Prov. 3:12). They are all directed by God (Lam. 3:33), and will result in the everlasting good of his people (2-Cor 4:16) in Christ Jesus (Rom. 8:35).......

AGABUS
a "prophet," probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He prophesied at Antioch of an approaching famine (Acts 11:27, Acts 11: 28). Many years afterwards he met Paul at Caesarea, and warned him of the bonds and affliction that awaited him at Jerusalem should he persist in going thither (Acts 21:10).......

AGAG
flame, the usual title of the Amalekite kings, as "Pharaoh" was of the Egyptian. (1.) A king of the Amalekites referred to by Balaam (Num. 24:7). He lived at the time of the Exodus. (2.) Another king of the Amalekites whom Saul spared unlawfully, but whom Samuel on his arrival in the camp of Saul ordered, in retributive justice (Judg. 1), to be brought out and cut in pieces (1-Sam 15:8. Comp. Ex......

AGAGITE
a name applied to Haman and also to his father (Esther 3:1, Esther 3: 10;8:3, 8: 5). Probably it was equivalent to Amalekite.......

AGATE
(Heb. shebo), a precious stone in the breast-plate of the high priest (Exo 28:19;39:12), the second in the third row. This may be the agate properly so called, a semi-transparent crystallized quartz, probably brought from Sheba, whence its name. In Isa. 54:12 and Ezek. 27:16, Ezek. 27: this word is the rendering of the Hebrew cadcod, which means "ruddy," and denotes a variety of minutely crystalli......

AGE
used to denote the period of a man's life (Gen. 47:28), the maturity of life (John 9:21), the latter end of life (Job 11:17), a generation of the human race (Job 8:8), and an indefinite period (Eph. 2:7;3:5, 3: 21; Col. 1:26). Respect to be shown to the aged (Lev. 19:32). It is a blessing to communities when they have old men among them (Isa. 65:20; Zech. 8:4). The aged supposed to excel in unders......

AGEE
fugitive, the father of Shammah, who was one of David's mighty men (2-Sam 23:11)......

AGONY
contest; wrestling; severe struggling with pain and suffering. Anguish is the reflection on evil that is already past, while agony is a struggle with evil at the time present. It is only used in the New Testament by Luke (22:44) to describe our Lord's fearful struggle in Gethsemane. The verb from which the noun "agony" is derived is used to denote an earnest endeavour or striving, as "Strive [ag......

AGRICULTURE
Tilling the ground (Gen. 2:15;4:2, 4: 3, 12) and rearing cattle were the chief employments in ancient times. The Egyptians excelled in agriculture. And after the Israelites entered into the possession of the Promised Land, their circumstances favoured in the highest degree a remarkable development of this art. Agriculture became indeed the basis of the Mosaic commonwealth. The year in Palestine ......

AGRIPPA I.
the grandson of Herod the Great, and son of Aristobulus and Bernice. The Roman emperor Caligula made him governor first of the territories of Philip, then of the tetrarchy of Lysanias, with the title of king ("king Herod"), and finally of that of Antipas, who was banished, and of Samaria and Judea. Thus he became ruler over the whole of Palestine. He was a persecutor of the early Christians. He sl......

AGRIPPA II.
son of the foregoing, was born at Rome, A.D. 27. He was the brother of Bernice and Drusilla. The Emperor Claudius (A.D. 48) invested him with the office of superintendent of the Temple of Jerusalem, and made him governor (A.D. 50) of Chalcis. He was afterwards raised to the rank of king, and made governor over the tetrarchy of Philip and Lysanias (Acts 25:13;26:2, 26: 7). It was before him that Pa......

AGUE
the translation in Lev. 26:16 (R.V., "fever") of the Hebrew word kaddah'ath, meaning "kindling", i.e., an inflammatory or burning fever. In Deut. 28:22 the word is rendered "fever."......

AGUR
gatherer; the collector, mentioned as author of the sayings in Prov. 30. Nothing is known of him beyond what is there recorded.......

AH!
an exclamation of sorrow or regret (Psa 35:25; Isa. 1:4, Isa. 1: 24; Jer. 1:6;22:18; Mark 15:29).......

AHA!
an exclamation of ridicule (Psa 35:21;40:15;70:3). In Isa. 44:16 it signifies joyful surprise, as also in Job 39:25, Job 39: R.V.......

AHAB
father's brother. (1.) The son of Omri, whom he succeeded as the seventh king of Israel. His history is recorded in 1 Kings 16-22. His wife was Jezebel (q.v.), who exercised a very evil influence over him. To the calf-worship introduced by Jeroboam he added the worship of Baal. He was severely admonished by Elijah (q.v.) for his wickedness. His anger was on this account kindled against the prophet......

AHASUERUS
There are three kings designated by this name in Scripture. (1.) The father of Darius the Mede, mentioned in Dan. 9:1. This was probably the Cyaxares I. known by this name in profane history, the king of Media and the conqueror of Nineveh. (2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 4:6, Ezra 4: probably the Cambyses of profane history, the son and successor of Cyrus (B.C. 529). (3.) The son of Darius Hys......

AHAVA
water, the river (Ezra 8:21) by the banks of which the Jewish exiles assembled under Ezra when about to return to Jerusalem from Babylon. In all probability this was one of the streams of Mesopotamia which flowed into the Euphrates somewhere in the north-west of Babylonia. It has, however, been supposed to be the name of a place (Ezra 8:15) now called Hit, on the Euphrates, east of Damascus.......

AHAZ
possessor. (1.) A grandson of Jonathan (1-Chr 8:35;9:42). (2.) The son and successor of Jotham, king of Judah (2 Kings 16; Isa. 7-9; 2 Chr. 28). He gave himself up to a life of wickedness and idolatry. Notwithstanding the remonstrances and warnings of Isaiah, Hosea, and Micah, he appealed for help against Rezin, king of Damascus, and Pekah, king of Israel, who threatened Jerusalem, to Tiglath-pi......

AHAZIAH
held by Jehovah. (1.) The son and successor of Ahab. He followed the counsels of his mother Jezebel, and imitated in wickedness the ways of his father. In his reign the Moabites revolted from under his authority (2-Kings 3:5). He united with Jehoshaphat in an attempt to revive maritime trade by the Red Sea, which proved a failure (2-Chr 20:35). His messengers, sent to consult the god of Ekron rega......

AHIAM
mother's brother, one of David's thirty heroes (2-Sam 23:33; 1-Chr 11:35).......

AHIEZER
brother of help; i.e., "helpful." (1.) The chief of the tribe of Dan at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12;2:25;10:25). (2.) The chief of the Benjamite slingers that repaired to David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:3).......

AHIHUD
brother (i.e., "friend") of union. (1.) A son of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1-Chr 8:7). (2.) Name different in Hebrew, meaning brother of Judah. Chief of the tribe of Asher; one of those appointed by Moses to superintend the division of Canaan among the tribe (Num. 34:27).......

AHIJAH
brother (i.e., "friend") of Jehovah. (1.) One of the sons of Bela (1-Chr 8:7, 1-Chr 8: R.V.). In A.V. called "Ahiah." (2.) One of the five sons of Jerahmeel, who was great-grandson of Judah (1-Chr 2:25). (3.) Son of Ahitub (1-Sam 14:3, 1-Sam 14: 18), Ichabod's brother; the same probably as Ahimelech, who was high priest at Nob in the reign of Saul (1-Sam 22:11). Some, however, suppose that Ahi......

AHIKAM
brother of support = helper, one of the five whom Josiah sent to consult the prophetess Huldah in connection with the discovery of the book of the law (2-Kings 22:12; 2-Chr 34:20). He was the son of Shaphan, the royal secretary, and the father of Gedaliah, governor of Judea after the destruction of Jerusalem by the Babylonians (2-Kings 25:22; Jer. 40:5;43:6). On one occasion he protected Jeremiah ......

AHIMAAZ
brother of anger = irascible. (1.) The father Ahinoam, the wife of Saul (1-Sam 14:50). (2.) The son and successor of Zadok in the office of high priest (1-Chr 6:8, 1-Chr 6: 53). On the occasion of the revolt of Absalom he remained faithful to David, and was of service to him in conveying to him tidings of the proceedings of Absalom in Jerusalem (2-Sam 15:24;17:15). He was swift of foot, and was ......

AHIMAN
brother of a gift = liberal. (1.) One of the three giant Anakim brothers whom Caleb and the spies saw in Mount Hebron (Num. 13:22) when they went in to explore the land. They were afterwards driven out and slain (Josh. 15:14; Judg. 1:10). (2.) One of the guardians of the temple after the Exile (1-Chr 9:17).......

AHIMELECH
brother of the king, the son of Ahitub and father of Abiathar (1-Sam 22:20). He descended from Eli in the line of Ithamar. In 1-Chr 18:16 he is called Abimelech, and is probably the same as Ahiah (1-Sam 14:3, 1-Sam 14: 18). He was the twelfth high priest, and officiated at Nob, where he was visited by David (to whom and his companions he gave five loaves of the showbread) when he fled from Saul (1......

AHINADAB
brother of liberality = liberal, one of the twelve commissariat officers appointed by Solomon in so many districts of his kingdom to raise supplies by monthly rotation for his household. He was appointed to the district of Mahanaim (1-Kings 4:14), east of Jordan.......

AHINOAM
brother of pleasantness = pleasant. (1.) The daughter of Ahimaaz, and wife of Saul (1-Sam 14:50). (2.) A Jezreelitess, the first wife of David (1-Sam 25:43;27:3). She was the mother of Amnon (2-Sam 3:2). (See 1-Sam 30:5, 1-Sam 30: 18; 2-Sam 2:2.)......

AHIO
brotherly. (1.) One of the sons of Beriah (1-Chr 8:14). (2.) One of the sons of Jehiel the Gibeonite (1-Chr 8:31;9:37). (3.) One of the sons of Abinadab the Levite. While Uzzah went by the side of the ark, he walked before it guiding the oxen which drew the cart on which it was carried, after having brought it from his father's house in Gibeah (1-Chr 13:7; 2-Sam 6:3, 2-Sam 6: 4).......

AHIRA
brother of evil = unlucky, or my brother is friend, chief of the tribe of Naphtali at the Exodus (Num. 1:15;2:29).......

AHISHAR
brother of song = singer, the officer who was "over the household" of Solomon (1-Kings 4:6).......

AHITHOPHEL
brother of insipidity or impiety, a man greatly renowned for his sagacity among the Jews. At the time of Absalom's revolt he deserted David (Psa 41:9;55:12) and espoused the cause of Absalom (2-Sam 15:12). David sent his old friend Hushai back to Absalom, in order that he might counteract the counsel of Ahithophel (2-Sam 15:31). This end was so far gained that Ahithophel saw he had no longer any i......

AHITUB
brother of goodness = good. (1.) The son of Phinehas. On the death of his grandfather Eli he succeeded to the office of high priest, and was himself succeeded by his son Ahijah (1-Sam 14:3;22:9, 22: 11, 12, 20). (2.) The father of Zadok, who was made high priest by Saul after the extermination of the family of Ahimelech (1-Chr 6:7, 1-Chr 6: 8; 2-Sam 8:17).......

AHLAB
fatness, a town of Asher lying within the unconquered Phoenician border (Judg. 1:31), north-west of the Sea of Galilee; commonly identified with Giscala, now el-Jish.......

AHOAH
brotherly, one of the sons of Bela, the son of Benjamin (1-Chr 8:4). He is also called Ahiah (ver. 7) and Iri (1-Chr 7:7). His descendants were called Ahohites (2-Sam 23:9, 2-Sam 23: 28).......

AHOHITE
an epithet applied to Dodo, one of Solomon's captains (1-Chr 27:4); to his son Eleazar, one of David's three mightiest heroes (2-Sam 23:9; 1-Chr 11:12); and to Zalmon, one of the thirty (2-Sam 23:28; 1-Chr 11:29), from their descent from Ahoah.......

AHOLAH
she has her own tent, a name used by Ezekiel (23:4, 23: 5, 36, 44) as a symbol of the idolatry of the kingdom of Israel. This kingdom is described as a lewdwoman, an adulteress, given up to the abominations and idolatries of the Egyptians and Assyrians. Because of her crimes, she was carried away captive, and ceased to be a kingdom. (Comp. Psa 78:67; 1-Kings 12:25; 2-Chr 11:13.)......

AHOLIAB
tent of the father, an artist of the tribe of Dan, appointed to the work of preparing materials for the tabernacle (Exo 31:6;35:34;36:1, 36: 2;38:23).......

AHOLIBAH
my tent is in her, the name of an imaginary harlot, applied symbolically to Jerusalem, because she had abandoned the worship of the true God and given herself up to the idolatries of foreign nations. (Ezek. 23:4, Ezek. 23: 11, 22, 36, 44).......

AHOLIBAMAH
tent of the height, the name given to Judith, the daughter of Beeri = Anah (Gen. 26:34;36:2), when she became the wife of Esau. A district among the mountains of Edom, probably near Mount Hor, was called after her name, or it may be that she received her name from the district. From her descended three tribes of Edomites, founded by her three sons.......

AI
ruins. (1.) One of the royal cities of the Canaanites (Josh. 10:1; Gen. 12:8;13:3). It was the scene of Joshua's defeat, and afterwards of his victory. It was the second Canaanite city taken by Israel (Josh. 7:2;8:1). It lay rebuilt and inhibited by the Benjamites (Ezra 2:28; Neh. 7:32;11:31). It lay to the east of Bethel, "beside Beth-aven." The spot which is most probably the site of this ancien......

AIJELETH SHAHAR
hind of the dawn, a name found in the title of Ps. 22. It is probably the name of some song or tune to the measure of which the psalm was to be chanted. Some, however, understand by the name some instrument of music, or an allegorical allusion to the subject of the psalm.......

AIR
the atmosphere, as opposed to the higher regions of the sky (1-Thess 4:17; Rev. 9:2;16:17). This word occurs once as the rendering of the Hebrew _ruah_ (Job 41:16); elsewhere it is the rendering of _shamaiyim_, usually translated "heavens." The expression "to speak into the air" (1-Cor 14:9) is a proverb denoting to speak in vain, as to "beat the air" (1-Cor 9:26) denotes to labour in vain.......

AJALON
and Aij'alon, place of deer. (1.) A town and valley originally assigned to the tribe of Dan, from which, however, they could not drive the Amorites (Judg. 1:35). It was one of the Levitical cities given to the Kohathites (1-Chr 6:69). It was not far from Beth-shemesh (2-Chr 28:18). It was the boundary between the kingdoms of Judah and Israel, and is frequently mentioned in Jewish history (2-Chr 11......

AKKUB
(another form of Jacob). (1.) The head of one of the families of Nethinim (Ezra 2:45). (2.) A Levite who kept the gate of the temple after the return from Babylon (1-Chr 9:17; Ezra 2:42; Neh. 7:45). (3.) A descendant of David (1-Chr 3:24).......

AKRABBIM
scorpions, probably the general name given to the ridge containing the pass between the south of the Dead Sea and Zin, es-Sufah, by which there is an ascent to the level of the land of Palestine. Scorpions are said to abound in this whole district, and hence the name (Num. 34:4). It is called "Maaleh-acrabbim" in Josh. 15:3, Josh. 15: and "the ascent of Akrabbim" in Num. 34:4.......

ALABASTER
occurs only in the New Testament in connection with the box of "ointment of spikenard very precious," with the contents of which a woman anointed the head of Jesus as he sat at supper in the house of Simon the leper (Matt. 26:7; Mark 14:3; Luke 7:37). These boxes were made from a stone found near Alabastron in Egypt, and from this circumstance the Greeks gave them the name of the city where they w......

ALAMOTH
virgins, a musical term (1-Chr 15:20), denoting that the psalm which bears this inscription (Ps. 46) was to be sung by soprano or female voices.......

ALARM
a particular quivering sound of the silver trumpets to give warning to the Hebrews on their journey through the wilderness (Num. 10:5, Num. 10: 6), a call to arms, or a war-note (Jer. 4:19;49:2; Zeph. 1:16).......

ALEMETH
covering. (1.) One of the nine sons of Becher, the son of Benjamin (1-Chr 7:8). (2.) One of the sons of Jehoadah, or Jarah, son of Ahaz (1-Chr 8:36). (3.) A sacerdotal city of Benjamin (1-Chr 6:60), called also Almon (Josh. 21:18), now Almit, a mile north-east of the ancient Anathoth.......

ALEXANDER
man-defender. (1.) A relative of Annas the high priest, present when Peter and John were examined before the Sanhedrim (Acts 4:6). (2.) A man whose father, Simon the Cyrenian, bore the cross of Christ (Mark 15:21). (3.) A Jew of Ephesus who took a prominent part in the uproar raised there by the preaching of Paul (Acts 19:33). The Jews put him forward to plead their cause before the mob. It wa......

ALEXANDER THE GREAT
the king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented in Daniel by the "belly of brass" (Dan. 2:32), and the leopard and the he-goat (7:6;11:3, 11:4). He succeeded his father Philip, and died at the age of thirty-two from the effects of intemperance, B.C. 323. His empire was divided among his four generals.......

ALEXANDRIA
the ancient metropolis of Lower Egypt, so called from its founder, Alexander the Great (about B.C. 333). It was for a long period the greatest of existing cities, for both Nineveh and Babylon had been destroyed, and Rome had not yet risen to greatness. It was the residence of the kings of Egypt for 200 years. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament, and only incidentally in the New. Apollos, eloq......

ALGUM
(2-Chr 2:8;9:10, 9:11), the same as almug (1-Kings 10:11).......

ALIEN
a foreigner, or person born in another country, and therefore not entitled to the rights and privileges of the country where he resides. Among the Hebrews there were two classes of aliens. (1.) Those who were strangers generally, and who owned no landed property. (2.) Strangers dwelling in another country without being naturalized (Lev. 22:10; Psa 39:12). Both of these classes were to enjoy,......

ALLEGORY
used only in Gal. 4:24, Gal. 4: where the apostle refers to the history of Isaac the free-born, and Ishmael the slave-born, and makes use of it allegorically. Every parable is an allegory. Nathan (2-Sam 12:1) addresses David in an allegorical narrative. In the eightieth Psalm there is a beautiful allegory: "Thou broughtest a vine out of Egypt," etc. In Eccl. 12:2, Eccl. 12: there is a striking a......

ALLELUIA
the Greek form (Rev. 19:1, Rev. 19: 3, 4, 6) of the Hebrew Hallelujah = Praise ye Jehovah, which begins or ends several of the psalms (106, 111, 112, 113, etc.).......

ALLIANCE
a treaty between nations, or between individuals, for their mutual advantage. Abraham formed an alliance with some of the Canaanitish princes (Gen. 14:13), also with Abimelech (21:22). Joshua and the elders of Israel entered into an alliance with the Gibeonites (Josh. 9:3). When the Israelites entered Palestine they were forbidden to enter into alliances with the inhabitants of the country (Lev.......

ALLON
oak. (1.) The expression in the Authorized Version of Josh. 19:33, Josh. 19: "from Allon to Zaanannim," is more correctly rendered in the Revised Version, "from the oak in Zaanannim." The word denotes some remarkable tree which stood near Zaanannim, and which served as a landmark. (2.) The son of Jedaiah, of the family of the Simeonites, who expelled the Hamites from the valley of Gedor (1-Chr 4......

ALLON-BACHUTH
oak of weeping, a tree near Bethel, at the spot where Deborah, Rebekah's nurse, was buried (Gen. 35:8). Large trees, from their rarity in the plains of Palestine, were frequently designated as landmarks. This particular tree was probably the same as the "palm tree of Deborah" (Judg. 4:5).......

ALMODAD
immeasurable, the first named of the sons of Joktan (Gen. 10:26), the founder of an Arabian tribe.......

ALMON
hidden, one of the sacerdotal cities of Benjamin (Josh. 21:18), called also Alemeth (1-Chr 6:60).......

ALMOND
a native of Syria and Palestine. In form, blossoms, and fruit it resembles the peach tree. Its blossoms are of a very pale pink colour, and appear before its leaves. Its Hebrew name, _shaked_, signifying "wakeful, hastening," is given to it on account of its putting forth its blossoms so early, generally in February, and sometimes even in January. In Eccl. 12:5, Eccl. 12: it is referred to as illu......

ALMS
Not found in the Old Testament, but repeatedly in the New. The Mosaic legislation (Lev. 25:35; Deut. 15:7) tended to promote a spirit of charity, and to prevent the occurrence of destitution among the people. Such passages as these, Psa 41:1;112:9; Prov. 14:31; Isa. 10:2; Amos 2:7; Jer. 5:28; Ezek. 22:29, Ezek. 22: would also naturally foster the same benevolent spirit. In the time of our Lord b......

ALMUG
(1-Kings 10:11, 1-Kings 10: 12) = algum (2-Chr 2:8;9:10, 9: 11), in the Hebrew occurring only in the plural _almuggim_ (indicating that the wood was brought in planks), the name of a wood brought from Ophir to be used in the building of the temple, and for other purposes. Some suppose it to have been the white sandal-wood of India, the Santalum album of botanists, a native of the mountainous parts......

ALOES
(Heb. 'ahalim), a fragrant wood (Num. 24:6; Psa 45:8; Prov. 7:17; 4:14), the Aquilaria agallochum of botanists, or, as some suppose, the costly gum or perfume extracted from the wood. It is found in China, Siam, and Northern India, and grows to the height sometimes of 120 feet. This species is of great rarity even in India. There is another and more common species, called by Indians aghil, whence ......

ALPHAEUS
(1.) The father of James the Less, the apostle and writer of the epistle (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18; Luke 6:15; Acts 1:13), and the husband of Mary (John 19:25). The Hebrew form of this name is Cleopas, or Clopas (q.v.). (2.) The father of Levi, or Matthew (Mark 2:14).......

ALTAR
(Heb. mizbe'ah, from a word meaning "to slay"), any structure of earth (Exo 20:24) or unwrought stone (20:25) on which sacrifices were offered. Altars were generally erected in conspicuous places (Gen. 22:9; Ezek. 6:3; 2-Kings 23:12;16:4;23:8; Acts 14:13). The word is used in Heb. 13:10 for the sacrifice offered upon it--the sacrifice Christ offered. Paul found among the many altars erected in A......

ALTASCHITH
destroy not, the title of Ps. 57, 58, 59, and 75. It was probably the name of some song to the melody of which these psalms were to be chanted.......

ALUSH
one of the places, the last before Rephidim, at which the Hebrews rested on their way to Sinai (Num. 33:13, Num. 33: 14). It was probably situated on the shore of the Red Sea.......

AMALEK
dweller in a valley, the son of Eliphaz and grandson of Esau (Gen. 36:12; 1-Chr 1:36); the chief of an Idumean tribe (Gen. 36:16). His mother was a Horite, a tribe whose territory the descendants of Esau had seized.......

AMALEKITE
a tribe that dwelt in Arabia Petraea, between the Dead Sea and the Red Sea. They were not the descendants of Amalek, the son of Eliphaz, for they existed in the days of Abraham (Gen. 14:7). They were probably a tribe that migrated from the shores of the Persian Gulf and settled in Arabia. "They dwelt in the land of the south...from Havilah until thou comest to Shur" (Num. 13:29; 1-Sam 15:7). They ......

AMANA
perennial. (1.) The Hebrew margin of 2-Kings 5:12 gives this as another reading of Abana (q.v.), a stream near Damascus. (2.) A mountain (4:8), probably the southern summit of Anti-Libanus, at the base of which are the sources of the Abana.......

AMARIAH
said by Jehovah. (1.) One of the descendants of Aaron by Eleazar (1-Chr 6:7, 1-Chr 6:52). He was probably the last of the high priests of Eleazar's line prior to the transfer of that office to Eli, of the line of Ithamar. (2.) A Levite, son of Hebron, of the lineage of Moses (1-Chr 23:19;24:23). (3.) A "chief priest" who took an active part in the reformation under Jehoshaphat (2-Chr 19:11); p......

AMASA
burden. (1.) The son of Abigail, a sister of king David (1-Chr 2:17; 2-Sam 17:25). He was appointed by David to command the army in room of his cousin Joab (2-Sam 19:13), who afterwards treacherously put him to death as a dangerous rival (2-Sam 20:4). (2.) A son of Hadlai, and chief of Ephraim (2-Chr 28:12) in the reign of Ahaz.......

AMASAI
burdensome. (1.) A Levite, son of Elkanah, of the ancestry of Samuel (1-Chr 6:25, 1-Chr 6: 35). (2.) The leader of a body of men who joined David in the "stronghold," probably of Adullam (1-Chr 12:18). (3.) One of the priests appointed to precede the ark with blowing of trumpets on its removal from the house of Obed-edom (1-Chr 15:24). (4.) The father of a Levite, one of the two Kohathites w......

AMASHAI
the son of Azareel, appointed by Nehemiah to reside at Jerusalem and do the work of the temple (Neh. 11:13).......

AMASIAH
burden of (i.e., "sustained by") Jehovah, the "son of Zichri, who willingly offered himself unto the Lord," a captain over thousands under Jehoshaphat (2-Chr 17:16; comp. Judg. 5:9).......

AMAZIAH
strengthened by Jehovah. (1.) A Levite, son of Hilkiah, of the descendants of Ethan the Merarite (1-Chr 6:45). (2.) The son and successor of Joash, and eighth king of the separate kingdom of Judah (2-Kings 14:1). He began his reign by punishing the murderers of his father (5-7; 2-Chr 25:3). He was the first to employ a mercenary army of 100,000 Israelite soldiers, which he did in his attempt to ......

AMBASSADOR
In the Old Testament the Hebrew word _tsir_, meaning "one who goes on an errand," is rendered thus (Josh. 9:4; Prov. 13:17; Isa. 18:2; Jer. 49:14; Obad. 1:1). This is also the rendering of _melits_, meaning "an interpreter," in 2-Chr 32:31; and of _malak_, a "messenger," in 2-Chr 35:21; Isa. 30:4;33:7; Ezek. 17:15. This is the name used by the apostle as designating those who are appointed by God ......

AMBER
(Ezek. 1:4, Ezek. 1: 27;8:2. Heb., hashmal, rendered by the LXX. elektron, and by the Vulgate electrum), a metal compounded of silver and gold. Some translate the word by "polished brass," others "fine brass," as in Rev. 1:15;2:18. It was probably the mixture now called electrum. The word has no connection, however, with what is now called amber, which is a gummy substance, reckoned as belonging t......

AMBUSH
Joshua at the capture of Ai lay in ambush, and so deceived the inhabitants that he gained an easy victory (Josh. 8:4). Shechem was taken in this manner (Judg. 9:30. Comp. Jer. 51:12).......

AMEN
This Hebrew word means firm, and hence also faithful (Rev. 3:14). In Isa. 65:16, Isa. 65: the Authorized Version has "the God of truth," which in Hebrew is "the God of Amen." It is frequently used by our Saviour to give emphasis to his words, where it is translated "verily." Sometimes, only, however, in John's Gospel, it is repeated, "Verily, verily." It is used as an epithet of the Lord Jesus Chr......

AMETHYST
one of the precious stones in the breastplate of the high priest (Exo 28:19;39:12), and in the foundation of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:20). The ancients thought that this stone had the power of dispelling drunkenness in all who wore or touched it, and hence its Greek name formed from _a_, "privative," and _methuo_, "to get drunk." Its Jewish name, _ahlamah'_, was derived by the rabbins from the H......

AMITTAI
true, the father of Jonah the prophet, a native of Gath-hepher (2-Kings 14:25; Jonah 1:1).......

AMMAH
a cubit, the name of a hill which Joab and Abishai reached as the sun went down, when they were in pursuit of Abner (2-Sam 2:24). It lay to the east of Gibeon.......

AMMI
my people, a name given by Jehovah to the people of Israel (Hos. 2:1, Hos. 2: 23. 1:9; Ezek. 16:8; Rom. 9:25, Rom. 9: 26; 1-Pet 2:10).......

AMMIEL
people of God. (1.) One of the twelve spies sent by Moses to search the land of Canaan (Num. 13:12). He was one of the ten who perished by the plague for their unfavourable report (Num. 14:37). (2.) The father of Machir of Lo-debar, in whose house Mephibosheth resided (2-Sam 9:4, 2-Sam 9: 5;17:27). (3.) The father of Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah, and afterwards of David (1-Chr 3:5). He is call......

AMMIHUD
people of glory; i.e., "renowned." (1.) The father of the Ephraimite chief Elishama, at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:10;2:18;7:48, 7: 53). (2.) Num. 34:20. (3.) Num. 34:28. (4.) The father of Talmai, king of Geshur, to whom Absalom fled after the murder of Amnon (2-Sam 13:37). (5.) The son of Omri, and the father of Uthai (1-Chr 9:4).......

AMMINADAB
kindred of the prince. (1.) The father of Nahshon, who was chief of the tribe of Judah (Num. 1:7;2:3;7:12, 7: 17;10:14). His daughter Elisheba was married to Aaron (Exo 6:23). (2.) A son of Kohath, the second son of Levi (1-Chr 6:22), called also Izhar (2, 18). (3.) Chief of the 112 descendants of Uzziel the Levite (1-Chr 15:10, 1-Chr 15: 11).......

AMMINADIB
a person mentioned in 6:12, 6: whose chariots were famed for their swiftness. It is rendered in the margin "my willing people," and in the Revised Version "my princely people."......

AMMISHADDAI
people of the Almighty, the father of Ahiezer, who was chief of the Danites at the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:12;2:25). This is one of the few names compounded with the name of God, Shaddai, "Almighty."......

AMMIZABAD
people of the giver, the son of Benaiah, who was the third and chief captain of the host under David (1-Chr 27:6).......

AMMON
another form of the name Ben-ammi, the son of Lot (Gen. 19:38). This name is also used for his posterity (Psa 83:7).......

AMMONITE
the usual name of the descendants of Ammon, the son of Lot (Gen. 19:38). From the very beginning (Deut. 2:16) of their history till they are lost sight of (Judg. 5:2), this tribe is closely associated with the Moabites (Judg. 10:11; 2-Chr 20:1; Zeph. 2:8). Both of these tribes hired Balaam to curse Israel (Deut. 23:4). The Ammonites were probably more of a predatory tribe, moving from place to pla......

AMNON
faithful. (1.) One of the sons of Shammai, of the children of Ezra (1-Chr 4:20; comp. 17). (2.) The eldest son of David, by Ahinoam of Jezreel (1-Chr 3:1; 2-Sam 3:2). Absalom caused him to be put to death for his great crime in the matter of Tamar (2-Sam 13:28, 2-Sam 13: 29).......

AMON
builder. (1.) The governor of Samaria in the time of Ahab. The prophet Micaiah was committed to his custody (1-Kings 22:26; 2-Chr 18:25). (2.) The son of Manasseh, and fourteenth king of Judah. He restored idolatry, and set up the images which his father had cast down. Zephaniah (1:4;3:4, 3: 11) refers to the moral depravity prevailing in this king's reign. He was assassinated (2-Kings 21:18: ......

AMORITES
highlanders, or hillmen, the name given to the descendants of one of the sons of Canaan (Gen. 14:7), called Amurra or Amurri in the Assyrian and Egyptian inscriptions. On the early Babylonian monuments all Syria, including Palestine, is known as "the land of the Amorites." The southern slopes of the mountains of Judea are called the "mount of the Amorites" (Deut. 1:7, Deut. 1: 19, 20). They seem t......

AMOS
borne; a burden, one of the twelve minor prophets. He was a native of Tekota, the modern Tekua, a town about 12 miles south-east of Bethlehem. He was a man of humble birth, neither a "prophet nor a prophet's son," but "an herdman and a dresser of sycomore trees," R.V. He prophesied in the days of Uzziah, king of Judah, and was contemporary with Isaiah and Hosea (Amos 1:1;7:14, 7: 15; Zech. 14:5), ......

AMOZ
strong, the father of the prophet Isaiah (2-Kings 19:2, 2-Kings 19: 20;20:1; Isa. 1:1;2:1). As to his personal history little is positively known. He is supposed by some to have been the "man of God" spoken of in 2-Chr 25:7, 2-Chr 25: 8.......

AMPHIPOLIS
city on both sides, a Macedonian city, a great Roman military station, through which Paul and Silas passed on their way from Philippi to Thessalonica, a distance of 33 Roman miles from Philippi (Acts 17:1).......

AMPLIAS
a Roman Christian saluted by Paul (Rom. 16:8).......

AMRAM
kindred of the High; i.e., "friend of Jehovah." (1.) The son of Kohath, the son of Levi. He married Jochebed, "his father's sister," and was the father of Aaron, Miriam, and Moses (Exo 6:18, Exo 6: 20; Num. 3:19). He died in Egypt at the age of 137 years (Exo 6:20). His descendants were called Amramites (Num. 3:27; 1-Chr 26:23). (2.) Ezra 10:34.......

AMRAPHEL
king of Shinar, southern Chaldea, one of the confederates of Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, in a war against Sodom and cities of the plain (Gen. 14:1, Gen. 14: 4). It is now found that Amraphel (or Ammirapaltu) is the Khammu-rabi whose name appears on recently-discovered monuments. (See CHEDORLAOMER). After defeating Arioch (q.v.) he united Babylonia under one rule, and made Babylon his capital.......

ANAB
grape-town, one of the cities in the mountains of Judah, from which Joshua expelled the Anakim (Josh. 11:21;15:50). It still retains its ancient name. It lies among the hills, 10 miles south-south-west of Hebron.......

ANAH
speech. (1.) One of the sons of Seir, and head of an Idumean tribe, called a Horite, as in course of time all the branches of this tribe were called from their dwelling in caves in Mount Seir (Gen. 36:20, Gen. 36: 29; 1-Chr 1:38). (2.) One of the two sons of Zibeon the Horite, and father of Esau's wife Aholibamah (Gen. 36:18, Gen. 36: 24).......

ANAK
long-necked, the son of Arba, father of the Anakim (Josh. 15:13;21:11, 21: Heb. _Anok_).......

ANAKIM
the descendants of Anak (Josh. 11:21; Num. 13:33; Deut. 9:2). They dwelt in the south of Palestine, in the neighbourhood of Hebron (Gen. 23:2; Josh. 15:13). In the days of Abraham (Gen. 14:5, Gen. 14: 6) they inhabited the region afterwards known as Edom and Moab, east of the Jordan. They were probably a remnant of the original inhabitants of Palestine before the Canaanites, a Cushite tribe from B......

ANAMIM
the name of an Egyptian tribe descended from Mizraim (Gen. 10:13; 1-Chr 1:11).......

ANAMMELECH
one of the gods worshipped by the people of Sepharvaim, who colonized Samaria (2-Kings 17:31). The name means "Anu is king." It was a female deity representing the moon, as Adrammelech (q.v.) was the male representing the sun.......

ANAN
cloud, one of the Israelites who sealed the covenant after the return from Babylon (Neh. 10:26).......

ANANIAH
protected by Jehovah, the name of a town in the tribe of Benjamin between Nob and Hazor (Neh. 11:32). It is probably the modern Beit Hanina, a small village 3 miles north of Jerusalem.......

ANANIAS
a common Jewish name, the same as Hananiah. (1.) One of the members of the church at Jerusalem, who conspired with his wife Sapphira to deceive the brethren, and who fell down and immediately expired after he had uttered the falsehood (Acts 5:5). By common agreement the members of the early Christian community devoted their property to the work of furthering the gospel and of assisting the poor an......

ANATH
an answer; i.e., to "prayer", the father of Shamgar, who was one of the judges of Israel (Judg. 3:31).......

ANATHEMA
anything laid up or suspended; hence anything laid up in a temple or set apart as sacred. In this sense the form of the word is _anath(ee)ma_, once in plural used in the Greek New Testament, in Luke 21:5, Luke 21: where it is rendered "gifts." In the LXX. the form _anathema_ is generally used as the rendering of the Hebrew word _herem_, derived from a verb which means (1) to consecrate or devote; ......

ANATHOTH
the name of one of the cities of refuge, in the tribe of Benjamin (Josh. 21:18). The Jews, as a rule, did not change the names of the towns they found in Palestine; hence this town may be regarded as deriving its name from the goddess Anat. It was the native place of Abiezer, one of David's "thirty" (2-Sam 23:27), and of Jehu, another of his mighty men (1-Chr 12:3). It is chiefly notable, however,......

ANCHOR
From Acts 27:29, Acts 27: 30, 40, it would appear that the Roman vessels carried several anchors, which were attached to the stern as well as to the prow. The Roman anchor, like the modern one, had two teeth or flukes. In Heb. 6:19 the word is used metaphorically for that which supports or keeps one steadfast in the time of trial or of doubt. It is an emblem of hope. "If you fear, Put all your......

ANCIENT OF DAYS
an expression applied to Jehovah three times in the vision of Daniel (7:9, 7: 13, 22) in the sense of eternal. In contrast with all earthly kings, his days are past reckoning.......

ANDREW
manliness, a Greek name; one of the apostles of our Lord. He was of Bethsaida in Galilee (John 1:44), and was the brother of Simon Peter (Matt. 4:18;10:2). On one occasion John the Baptist, whose disciple he then was, pointing to Jesus, said, "Behold the Lamb of God" (John 1:40); and Andrew, hearing him, immediately became a follower of Jesus, the first of his disciples. After he had been led to r......

ANDRONICUS
man-conquering, a Jewish Christian, the kinsman and fellowprisoner of Paul (Rom. 16:7); "of note among the apostles."......

ANEM
two fountains, a Levitical city in the tribe of Issachar (1-Chr 6:73). It is also called En-gannim (q.v.) in Josh. 19:21; the modern Jenin.......

ANER
a boy. (1.) A Canaanitish chief who joined his forces with those of Abraham in pursuit of Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:13, Gen. 14:24). (2.) A city of Manasseh given to the Levites of Kohath's family (1-Chr 6:70).......

ANGEL
a word signifying, both in the Hebrew and Greek, a "messenger," and hence employed to denote any agent God sends forth to execute his purposes. It is used of an ordinary messenger (Job 1:14: 1-Sam 11:3; Luke 7:24;9:52), of prophets (Isa. 42:19; Hag. 1:13), of priests (Mal. 2:7), and ministers of the New Testament (Rev. 1:20). It is also applied to such impersonal agents as the pestilence (2-Sam ......

ANGER
the emotion of instant displeasure on account of something evil that presents itself to our view. In itself it is an original susceptibility of our nature, just as love is, and is not necessarily sinful. It may, however, become sinful when causeless, or excessive, or protracted (Matt. 5:22; Eph. 4:26; Col. 3:8). As ascribed to God, it merely denotes his displeasure with sin and with sinners (Psa 7......

ANIM
fountains, a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:50), now el-Ghuwein, near Eshtemoh, about 10 miles south-west of Hebron.......

ANIMAL
an organized living creature endowed with sensation. The Levitical law divided animals into clean and unclean, although the distinction seems to have existed before the Flood (Gen. 7:2). The clean could be offered in sacrifice and eaten. All animals that had not cloven hoofs and did not chew the cud were unclean. The list of clean and unclean quadrupeds is set forth in the Levitical law (Deut. 14:......

ANISE
This word is found only in Matt. 23:23. It is the plant commonly known by the name of dill, the Peucedanum graveolens of the botanist. This name dill is derived from a Norse word which means to soothe, the plant having the carminative property of allaying pain. The common dill, the Anethum graveolens, is an annual growing wild in the cornfields of Spain and Portugal and the south of Europe general......

ANNA
grace, an aged widow, the daughter of Phanuel. She was a "prophetess," like Miriam, Deborah, and Huldah (2-Chr 34:22). After seven years of married life her husband died, and during her long widowhood she daily attended the temple services. When she was eighty-four years old, she entered the temple at the moment when the aged Simeon uttered his memorable words of praise and thanks to God that he h......

ANNAS
was high priest A.D. 7-14. In A.D. 25 Caiaphas, who had married the daughter of Annas (John 18:13), was raised to that office, and probably Annas was now made president of the Sanhedrim, or deputy or coadjutor of the high priest, and thus was also called high priest along with Caiaphas (Luke 3:2). By the Mosaic law the high-priesthood was held for life (Num. 3:10); and although Annas had been depo......

ANOINT
The practice of anointing with perfumed oil was common among the Hebrews. (1.) The act of anointing was significant of consecration to a holy or sacred use; hence the anointing of the high priest (Exo 29:29; Lev. 4:3) and of the sacred vessels (Exo 30:26). The high priest and the king are thus called "the anointed" (Lev. 4:3, Lev. 4: 5, 16;6:20; Psa 132:10). Anointing a king was equivalent to crow......

ANT
(Heb. nemalah, from a word meaning to creep, cut off, destroy), referred to in Prov. 6:6;30:25, 30: as distinguished for its prudent habits. Many ants in Palestine feed on animal substances, but others draw their nourishment partly or exclusively from vegetables. To the latter class belongs the ant to which Solomon refers. This ant gathers the seeds in the season of ripening, and stores them for f......

ANTICHRIST
against Christ, or an opposition Christ, a rival Christ. The word is used only by the apostle John. Referring to false teachers, he says (1-John 2:18, 1-John 2: 22;4:3; 2-John 1:7), "Even now are there many antichrists." (1.) This name has been applied to the "little horn" of the "king of fierce countenance" (Dan. 7:24, Dan. 7: 25;8:23). (2.) It has been applied also to the "false Christs" spo......

ANTIOCH
(1.) In Syria, on the river Orontes, about 16 miles from the Mediterranean, and some 300 miles north of Jerusalem. It was the metropolis of Syria, and afterwards became the capital of the Roman province in Asia. It ranked third, after Rome and Alexandria, in point of importance, of the cities of the Roman empire. It was called the "first city of the East." Christianity was early introduced into it......

ANTIOCHUS
the name of several Syrian kings from B.C. 280 to B.C. 65. The most notable of these were, (1.) Antiochus the Great, who ascended the throne B.C. 223. He is regarded as the "king of the north" referred to in Dan. 11:13. He was succeeded (B.C. 187) by his son, Seleucus Philopater, spoken of by Daniel (11:20) as "a raiser of taxes", in the Revised Version, "one that shall cause an exactor to pass th......

ANTIPAS
(1.) Herod Antipas, a son of Herod the Great by his Samaritan wife Malthace. He was tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea during the whole period of our Lord's life on earth (Luke 23:7). He was a frivolous and vain prince, and was chargeable with many infamous crimes (Mark 8:15; Luke 3:19;13:31, 13: 32). He beheaded John the Baptist (Matt. 14:1) at the instigation of Herodias, the wife of his half-brothe......

ANTIPATRIS
a city built by Herod the Great, and called by this name in honour of his father, Antipater. It lay between Caesarea and Lydda, two miles inland, on the great Roman road from Caesarea to Jerusalem. To this place Paul was brought by night (Acts 23:31) on his way to Caesarea, from which it was distant 28 miles. It is identified with the modern, Ras-el-Ain, where rise the springs of Aujeh, the larges......

ANTONIA
a fortress in Jerusalem, at the north-west corner of the temple area. It is called "the castle" (Acts 21:34, Acts 21: 37). From the stairs of this castle Paul delivered his famous speech to the multitude in the area below (Acts 22:1). It was originally a place in which were kept the vestments of the high priest. Herod fortified it, and called it Antonia in honour of his friend Mark Antony. It was ......

ANTOTHITE
an inhabitant of Anathoth, found only in 1-Chr 11:28;12:3. In 2-Sam 23:27 it is Anethothite; in 1-Chr 27:12, 1-Chr 27: Anetothite. (R.V., "Anathothite.")......

ANVIL
the rendering of the Hebrew word , "beaten," found only in Isa. 41:7.......

APE
an animal of the monkey tribe (1-Kings 10:22; 2-Chr 9:21). It was brought from India by the fleets of Solomon and Hiram, and was called by the Hebrews _koph_, and by the Greeks _kepos_, both words being just the Indian Tamil name of the monkey, kapi, i.e., swift, nimble, active. No species of ape has ever been found in Palestine or the adjacent regions.......

APELLES
a Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes (Rom. 16:10), and styles "approved in Christ."......

APHARSACHITES
a company of the colonists whom the Assyrian king planted in Samaria (Ezra 5:6;6:6).......

APHARSITES
another of the tribes removed to Samaria (Ezra 4:9), or perhaps the same as the preceding.......

APHIK
(Judg. 1:31); Aphek (Josh. 13:4;19:30), stronghold. (1.) A city of the tribe of Asher. It was the scene of the licentious worship of the Syrian Aphrodite. The ruins of the temple, "magnificent ruins" in a "spot of strange wildness and beauty", are still seen at Afka, on the north-west slopes of Lebanon, near the source of the river Adonis (now Nahr Ibrahim), 12 miles east of Gebal. (2.) A city o......

APOCALYPSE
the Greek name of the Book of Revelation (q.v.).......

APOCRYPHA
hidden, spurious, the name given to certain ancient books which found a place in the LXX. and Latin Vulgate versions of the Old Testament, and were appended to all the great translations made from them in the sixteenth century, but which have no claim to be regarded as in any sense parts of the inspired Word. (1.) They are not once quoted by the New Testament writers, who frequently quote from t......

APOLLONIA
a city of Macedonia between Amphipolis and Thessalonica, from which it was distant about 36 miles. Paul and Silas passed through it on their way to Thessalonica (Acts 17:1).......

APOLLOS
a Jew "born at Alexandria," a man well versed in the Scriptures and eloquent (Acts 18:24; R.V., "learned"). He came to Ephesus (about A.D. 49), where he spake "boldly" in the synagogue (18:26), although he did not know as yet that Jesus of Nazareth was the Messiah. Aquila and Priscilla instructed him more perfectly in "the way of God", i.e., in the knowledge of Christ. He then proceeded to Corinth......

APOLLYON
destroyer, the name given to the king of the hosts represented by the locusts (Rev. 9:11). It is the Greek translation of the Hebrew Abaddon (q.v.).......

APOSTLE
a person sent by another; a messenger; envoy. This word is once used as a descriptive designation of Jesus Christ, the Sent of the Father (Heb. 3:1; John 20:21). It is, however, generally used as designating the body of disciples to whom he intrusted the organization of his church and the dissemination of his gospel, "the twelve," as they are called (Matt. 10:1; Mark 3:14;6:7; Luke 6:13;9:1). We h......

APOTHECARY
rendered in the margin and the Revised Version "perfumer," in Exo 30:25;37:29; Eccl. 10:1. The holy oils and ointments were prepared by priests properly qualified for this office. The feminine plural form of the Hebrew word is rendered "confectionaries" in 1-Sam 8:13.......

APPAREL
In Old Testament times the distinction between male and female attire was not very marked. The statute forbidding men to wear female apparel (Deut. 22:5) referred especially to ornaments and head-dresses. Both men and women wore (1) an under garment or tunic, which was bound by a girdle. One who had only this tunic on was spoken of as "naked" (1-Sam 19:24; Job 24:10; Isa. 20:2). Those in high stat......

APPEAL
a reference of any case from an inferior to a superior court. Moses established in the wilderness a series of judicatories such that appeals could be made from a lower to a higher (Exo 18:13.) Under the Roman law the most remarkable case of appeal is that of Paul from the tribunal of Festus at Caesarea to that of the emperor at Rome (Acts 25:11, Acts 25: 12, 21, 25). Paul availed himself of the ......

APPHIA
increasing, a female Christian at Colosse (Philemon 1:2), supposed by some to have been the wife of Philemon.......

APPII FORUM
i.e., "the market of Appius" (Acts 28:15, Acts 28: R.V.), a town on the road, the "Appian Way," from Rome to Brundusium. It was 43 miles from Rome. Here Paul was met by some Roman Christians on his way to the capital. It was natural that they should halt here and wait for him, because from this place there were two ways by which travellers might journey to Rome.......

APPLE
(Heb. tappuah, meaning "fragrance"). Probably the apricot or quince is intended by the word, as Palestine was too hot for the growth of apples proper. It is enumerated among the most valuable trees of Palestine (Joel 1:12), and frequently referred to in Canticles, and noted for its beauty (2:3, 2: 5;8:5). There is nothing to show that it was the "tree of the knowledge of good and evil." Dr. Tristr......

APRON
found in the Authorized Version in Gen. 3:7, Gen. 3: of the bands of fig-leaves made by our first parents. In Acts 19:12, Acts 19: it denotes the belt or half-girdle worn by artisans and servants round the waist for the purpose of preserving the clothing from injury. In marg. of Authorized Version, Ruth 3:15, Ruth 3: correctly rendered instead of "vail." (R.V., "mantle.")......

AQUILA
eagle, a native of Pontus, by occupation a tent-maker, whom Paul met on his first visit to Corinth (Acts 18:2). Along with his wife Priscilla he had fled from Rome in consequence of a decree (A.D. 50) by Claudius commanding all Jews to leave the city. Paul sojourned with him at Corinth, and they wrought together at their common trade, making Cilician hair-cloth for tents. On Paul's departure from ......

ARAB
ambush, a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:52), now Er-Rabiyeh.......

ARABAH
plain, in the Revised Version of 2-Kings 14:25; Josh. 3:16;8:14; 2-Sam 2:29;4:7 (in all these passages the A.V. has "plain"); Amos 6:14 (A.V. "wilderness"). This word is found in the Authorized Version only in Josh. 18:18. It denotes the hollow depression through which the Jordan flows from the Lake of Galilee to the Dead Sea. It is now called by the Arabs el-Ghor. But the Ghor is sometimes spoken......

ARABIA
arid, an extensive region in the south-west of Asia. It is bounded on the west by the Isthmus of Suez and the Red Sea, on the south by the Indian Ocean, and on the east by the Persian Gulf and the Euphrates. It extends far into the north in barren deserts, meeting those of Syria and Mesopotamia. It is one of the few countries of the world from which the original inhabitants have never been expelle......

ARAD
(1.) Now Tell Arad, a Canaanite city, about 20 miles south of Hebron. The king of Arad "fought against Israel and took of them prisoners" when they were retreating from the confines of Edom (Num. 21:1;33:40; Judg. 1:16). It was finally subdued by Joshua (12:14). (2.) One of the sons of Beriah (1-Chr 8:15).......

ARAM
the son of Shem (Gen. 10:22); according to Gen. 22:21, Gen. 22: a grandson of Nahor. In Matt. 1:3, Matt. 1: 4, and Luke 3:33, Luke 3: this word is the Greek form of Ram, the father of Amminadab (1-Chr 2:10). The word means high, or highlands, and as the name of a country denotes that elevated region extending from the northeast of Palestine to the Euphrates. It corresponded generally with the Sy......

ARAM-NAHARAIM
Aram of the two rivers, is Mesopotamia (as it is rendered in Gen. 24:10), the country enclosed between the Tigris on the east and the Euphrates on the west (Ps. 60, title); called also the "field of Aram" (Hos. 12:12, Hos. 12: R.V.) i.e., the open country of Aram; in the Authorized Version, "country of Syria." Padan-aram (q.v.) was a portion of this country.......

ARAM-ZOBAH
(Ps. 60, title), probably the region between the Euphrates and the Orontes.......

ARAN
wild goat, a descendant of Seir the Horite (Gen. 36:28).......

ARARAT
sacred land or high land, the name of a country on one of the mountains of which the ark rested after the Flood subsided (Gen. 8:4). The "mountains" mentioned were probably the Kurdish range of South Armenia. In 2-Kings 19:37, 2-Kings 19: Isa. 37:38, Isa. 37: the word is rendered "Armenia" in the Authorized Version, but in the Revised Version, "Land of Ararat." In Jer. 51:27, Jer. 51: the name den......

ARAUNAH
agile; also called Ornan 1-Chr 21:15, 1-Chr 21: a Jebusite who dwelt in Jerusalem before it was taken by the Israelites. The destroying angel, sent to punish David for his vanity in taking a census of the people, was stayed in his work of destruction near a threshing-floor belonging to Araunah which was situated on Mount Moriah. Araunah offered it to David as a free gift, together with the oxen an......

ARBA
four, a giant, father of Anak. From him the city of Hebron derived its name of Kirjath-arba, i.e., the city of Araba (Josh. 14:15;15:13;21:11; Gen. 13:18;23:2). (See HEBRON.)......

ARBATHITE
a name given to Abi-albon, or, as elsewhere called, Abiel, one of David's warriors (2-Sam 23:31; 1-Chr 11:32), probably as being an inhabitant of Arabah (Josh. 15:61), a town in the wilderness of Judah.......

ARCH
an architectural term found only in Ezek. 40:16, Ezek. 40: 21, 22, 26, 29. There is no absolute proof that the Israelites employed arches in their buildings. The arch was employed in the building of the pyramids of Egypt. The oldest existing arch is at Thebes, and bears the date B.C. 1350. There are also still found the remains of an arch, known as Robinson's Arch, of the bridge connecting Zion an......

ARCHANGEL
(1Thess. 4:16; Jude 1:9), the prince of the angels.......

ARCHELAUS
ruler of the people, son of Herod the Great, by Malthace, a Samaritan woman. He was educated along with his brother Antipas at Rome. He inherited from his father a third part of his kingdom viz., Idumea, Judea, and Samaria, and hence is called "king" (Matt. 2:22). It was for fear of him that Joseph and Mary turned aside on their way back from Egypt. Till a few days before his death Herod had named......

ARCHER
a shooter with the bow (1-Chr 10:3). This art was of high antiquity (Gen. 21:20;27:3). Saul was wounded by the Philistine archers (1-Sam 31:3). The phrase "breaking the bow" (Hos. 1:5; Jer. 49:35) is equivalent to taking away one's power, while "strengthening the bow" is a symbol of its increase (Gen. 49:24). The Persian archers were famous among the ancients (Isa. 13:18; Jer. 49:35;50:9, 50: 14, ......

ARCHEVITE
one of the nations planted by the Assyrians in Samaria (Ezra 4:9); the men of Erech.......

ARCHI
a city on the boundary of Ephraim and Benjamin (Josh. 16:2), between Bethel and Beth-horon the nether.......

ARCHIPPUS
master of the horse, a "fellow-soldier" of Paul's (Philemon 1:2), whom he exhorts to renewed activity (Col. 4:17). He was a member of Philemon's family, probably his son.......

ARCHITE
the usual designation of Hushai (2-Sam 15:32;17:5, 17: 14; 1-Chr 27:33), who was a native of Archi. He was "the king's friend", i.e., he held office under David similar to that of our modern privy councillor.......

ARCTURUS
bear-keeper, the name given by the ancients to the brightest star in the constellation Bootes. In the Authorized Version (Job 9:9;38:32) it is the rendering of the Hebrew word _'ash_, which probably designates the constellation the Great Bear. This word ('ash) is supposed to be derived from an Arabic word meaning night-watcher, because the Great Bear always revolves about the pole, and to our noth......

ARD
descent, a grandson of Benjamin (Num. 26:38). In 1-Chr 8:3 he is called Addar. His descendants are mentioned in Num. 26:40.......

ARDON
descendant, the last of the three sons of Caleb by his first wife Azubah (1-Chr 2:18).......

AREOPAGITE
a member of the court of Areopagus (Acts 17:34).......

AREOPAGUS
the Latin form of the Greek word rendered "Mars' hill." But it denotes also the council or court of justice which met in the open air on the hill. It was a rocky height to the west of the Acropolis at Athens, on the south-east summit of which the council was held which was constituted by Solon, and consisted of nine archons or chief magistrates who were then in office, and the ex-archons of blamel......

ARETAS
the father-in-law of Herod Antipas, and king of Arabia Petraea. His daughter returned to him on the occasion of her husband's entering into an adulterous alliance with Herodias, the wife of Herod-Philip, his half-brother (Luke 3:19, Luke 3: 20; Mark 6:17; Matt. 14:3). This led to a war between Aretas and Herod Antipas. Herod's army was wholly destroyed (A.D. 36). Aretas, taking advantage of the co......

ARGOB
stony heap, an "island," as it has been called, of rock about 30 miles by 20, rising 20 or 30 feet above the table-land of Bashan; a region of crags and chasms wild and rugged in the extreme. On this "island" stood sixty walled cities, ruled over by Og. It is called Trachonitis ("the rugged region") in the New Testament (Luke 3:1). These cities were conquered by the Israelites (Deut. 3:4; 1-Kings ......

ARIEH
the lion, the name of one of the body-guard slain with Pekahiah at Samaria (2-Kings 15:25) by the conspirator Pekah.......

ARIEL
the lion of God. (1.) One of the chief men sent by Ezra to procure Levites for the sanctuary (Ezra 8:16). (2.) A symbolic name for Jerusalem (Isa. 29:1, Isa. 29: 2, 7) as "victorious under God," and in Ezek. 43:15, Ezek. 43: 16, for the altar (marg., Heb. 'ariel) of burnt offerings, the secret of Israel's lion-like strength.......

ARIMATHEA
a "city of the Jews" (Luke 23:51), the birth-place of Joseph in whose sepulchre our Lord was laid (Matt. 27:57, Matt. 27: 60; John 19:38). It is probably the same place as Ramathaim in Ephraim, and the birth-place of Samuel (1-Sam 1:1, 1-Sam 1: 19). Others identify it with Ramleh in Dan, or Rama (q.v.) in Benjamin (Matt. 2:18).......

ARIOCH
lion-like, venerable. (1.) A king of Ellasar who was confederate with Chedorlamer (Gen. 14:1, Gen. 14:9). The tablets recently discovered by Mr. Pinches (see CHALDEA) show the true reading is Eri-Aku of Larsa. This Elamite name meant "servant of the moon-god." It was afterwards changed into Rimsin, "Have mercy, O moon-god." (2.) Dan. 2:14.......

ARISTARCHUS
best ruler, native of Thessalonica (Acts 20:4), a companion of Paul (Acts 19:29;27:2). He was Paul's "fellow-prisoner" at Rome (Col. 4:10; Philemon 1:24).......

ARISTOBULUS
a Roman mentioned in Paul's Epistle to the Romans (16:10), whose "household" is saluated.......

ARK
Noah's ark, a building of gopher-wood, and covered with pitch, 300 cubits long, 50 cubits broad, and 30 cubits high (Gen. 6:14); an oblong floating house of three stories, with a door in the side and a window in the roof. It was 100 years in building (Gen. 5:32;7:6). It was intended to preserve certain persons and animals from the deluge which God was about to bring over the earth. It contained ei......

ARKITE
(Gen. 10:17; 1-Chr 1:15), a designation of certain descendants from the Phoenicians or Sidonians, the inhabitants of Arka, 12 miles north of Tripoli, opposite the northern extremity of Lebanon.......

ARM
used to denote power (Psa 10:15; Ezek. 30:21; Jer. 48:25). It is also used of the omnipotence of God (Exo 15:16; Psa 89:13;98:1;77:15; Isa. 53:1; John 12:38; Acts 13:17)......

ARMAGEDDON
occurs only in Rev. 16:16 (R.V., "Har-Magedon"), as symbolically designating the place where the "battle of that great day of God Almighty" (ver. 14) shall be fought. The word properly means the "mount of Megiddo." It is the scene of the final conflict between Christ and Antichrist. The idea of such a scene was suggested by the Old Testament great battle-field, the plain of Esdraelon (q.v.).......

ARMENIA
high land, occurs only in Authorized Version, 2-Kings 19:37; in Revised Version, "Ararat," which is the Hebrew word. A country in western Asia lying between the Caspian and the Black Sea. Here the ark of Noah rested after the Deluge (Gen. 8:4). It is for the most part high table-land, and is watered by the Aras, the Kur, the Euphrates, and the Tigris. Ararat was properly the name of a part of anci......

ARMONI
inhabitant of a fortress, the first-named of the two sons of Saul and Rizpah. He was delivered up to the Gibeonites by David, and hanged by them (2-Sam 21:8, 2-Sam 21: 9).......

ARMOUR
is employed in the English Bible to denote military equipment, both offensive and defensive. (1.) The offensive weapons were different at different periods of history. The "rod of iron" (Psa 2:9) is supposed to mean a mace or crowbar, an instrument of great power when used by a strong arm. The "maul" (Prov. 25:18; cognate Hebrew word rendered "battle-axe" in Jer. 51:20, Jer. 51: and "slaughter w......

ARMOUR-BEARER
an officer selected by kings and generals because of his bravery, not only to bear their armour, but also to stand by them in the time of danger. They were the adjutants of our modern armies (Judg. 9:54; 1-Sam 14:7;16:21;31:6).......

ARMOURY
the place in which armour was deposited when not used (Neh. 3:19; Jer. 50:25). At first each man of the Hebrews had his own arms, because all went to war. There were no arsenals or magazines for arms till the time of David, who had a large collection of arms, which he consecrated to the Lord in his tabernacle (1 Sa,21:9; 2-Sam 8:7; 1-Chr 26:26, 1-Chr 26: 27).......

ARMY
The Israelites marched out of Egypt in military order (Exo 13:18, Exo 13: "harnessed;" marg., "five in a rank"). Each tribe formed a battalion, with its own banner and leader (Num. 2:2;10:14). In war the army was divided into thousands and hundreds under their several captains (Num. 31:14), and also into families (Num. 2:34; 2-Chr 25:5;26:12). From the time of their entering the land of Canaan to ......

ARNON
swift, the southern boundary of the territory of Israel beyond Jordan, separating it from the land of Moab (Deut. 3:8, Deut. 3: 16). This river (referred to twenty-four times in the Bible) rises in the mountains of Gilead, and after a circuitous course of about 80 miles through a deep ravine it falls into the Dead Sea nearly opposite Engedi. The stream is almost dry in summer. It is now called el-......

AROER
ruins. (1.) A town on the north bank of the Arnon (Deut. 4:48; Judg. 11:26; 2-Kings 10:33), the southern boundary of the kingdom of Sihon (Josh. 12:2). It is now called Arair, 13 miles west of the Dead Sea. (2.) One of the towns built by the tribe of Gad (Num. 32:34) "before Rabbah" (Josh. 13:25), the Ammonite capital. It was famous in the history of Jephthah (Judg. 11:33) and of David (2-Sam 24......

ARPAD
(Isa. 10:9;36:19;37:13), also Arphad, support, a Syrian city near Hamath, along with which it is invariably mentioned (2-Kings 19:13;18:34; Isa. 10:9), and Damascus (Jer. 49:23). After a siege of three years it fell (B.C. 742) before the Assyrian king Tiglath-pileser II. Now Tell Erfud.......

ARPHAXAD
son of Shem, born the year after the Deluge. He died at the age of 438 years (Gen. 11:10; 1-Chr 1:17, 1-Chr 1: 18; Luke 3:36). He dwelt in Mesopotamia, and became, according to the Jewish historian Josephus, the progenitor of the Chaldeans. The tendency is to recognize in the word the name of the country nearest the ancient domain of the Chaldeans. Some regard the word as an Egypticized form of th......

ARROWS
At first made of reeds, and then of wood tipped with iron. Arrows are sometimes figuratively put for lightning (Deut. 32:23, Deut. 32: 42; Psa 7:13;18:14;144:6; Zech. 9:14). They were used in war as well as in the chase (Gen. 27:3;49:23). They were also used in divination (Ezek. 21:21). The word is frequently employed as a symbol of calamity or disease inflicted by God (Job 6:4;34:6; Psa 38:2; D......

ARTAXERXES
the Greek form of the name of several Persian kings. (1.) The king who obstructed the rebuilding of the temple (Ezra 4:7). He was probably the Smerdis of profane history. (2.) The king mentioned in Ezra 7:1, Ezra 7: in the seventh year (B.C. 458) of whose reign Ezra led a second colony of Jews back to Jerusalem, was probably Longimanus, who reigned for forty years (B.C. 464-425); the grandson of......

ARTIFICER
a person engaged in any kind of manual occupation (Gen. 4:22; Isa. 3:3).......

ARTILLERY
1-Sam 20:40, 1-Sam 20: (Heb. keli, meaning "apparatus;" here meaning collectively any missile weapons, as arrows and lances. In Revised Version, "weapons"). This word is derived from the Latin artillaria = equipment of war.......

ARVAD
wandering, (Ezek. 27:8), a small island and city on the coast of Syria, mentioned as furnishing mariners and soldiers for Tyre. The inhabitants were called Arvadites. The name is written Aruada or Arada in the Tell-el-Amarna tablets.......

ASA
physician, son of Abijah and grandson of Rehoboam, was the third king of Judah. He was zealous in maintaining the true worship of God, and in rooting all idolatry, with its accompanying immoralities, out of the land (1-Kings 15:8). The Lord gave him and his land rest and prosperity. It is recorded of him, however, that in his old age, when afflicted, he "sought not to the Lord, but to the physicia......

ASAHEL
made by God, the youngest son of Zeruiah, David's sister. He was celebrated for his swiftness of foot. When fighting against Ish-bosheth at Gibeon, in the army of his brother Joab, he was put to death by Abner, whom he pursued from the field of battle (2-Sam 2:18, 2-Sam 2: 19). He is mentioned among David's thirty mighty men (2-Sam 23:24; 1-Chr 11:26). Others of the same name are mentioned (2-Chr ......

ASAPH
convener, or collector. (1.) A Levite; one of the leaders of David's choir (1-Chr 6:39). Psalms 50 and 73-83 inclusive are attributed to him. He is mentioned along with David as skilled in music, and a "seer" (2-Chr 29:30). The "sons of Asaph," mentioned in 1-Chr 25:1, 1-Chr 25: 2-Chr 20:14, 2-Chr 20: and Ezra 2:41, Ezra 2: were his descendants, or more probably a class of poets or singers who rec......

ASCENSION
See CHRIST.......

ASENATH
an Egyptian name, meaning "gift of the sun-god", daughter of Potipherah, priest of On or Heliopolis, wife of Joseph (Gen. 41:45). She was the mother of Manasseh and Ephraim (50-52;46:20).......

ASH
(Heb. o'ren, "tremulous"), mentioned only Isa. 44:14 (R.V., "fir tree"). It is rendered "pine tree" both in the LXX. and Vulgate versions. There is a tree called by the Arabs _aran_, found still in the valleys of Arabia Petraea, whose leaf resembles that of the mountain ash. This may be the tree meant. Our ash tree is not known in Syria.......

ASHDOD
stronghold, a Philistine city (Josh. 15:47), about midway between Gaza and Joppa, and 3 miles from the Mediterranean. It was one of the chief seats of the worship of Dagon (1-Sam 5:5). It belonged to the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:47), but it never came into their actual possession. It was an important city, as it stood on the highroad from Egypt to Palestine, and hence was strongly fortified (2-Chr......

ASHDOTH-PISGAH
(Deut. 3:17; Josh. 12:3;13:20) in Authorized Version, but in Revised Version translated "slopes of Pisgah." In Deut. 4:49 it is translated in the Authorized Version "springs of Pisgah." The name Ashdoth is translated "springs" in the Authorized Version, but "slopes" in the Revised Version, of Josh. 10:40 12:8. It has been identified with the springs under Mount Nebo, now called 'Ayun Musa.......

ASHER
happy, Jacob's eigth son; his mother was Zilpah, Leah's handmaid (Gen. 30:13). Of the tribe founded by him nothing is recorded beyond its holding a place in the list of the tribes (35:26;46:17; Exo 1:4, Exo 1: etc.) It increased in numbers twenty-nine percent, during the thirty-eight years' wanderings. The place of this tribe during the march through the desert was between Dan and Naphtali (Num. 2......

ASHERAH
and pl. Asherim in Revised Version, instead of "grove" and "groves" of the Authorized Version. This was the name of a sensual Canaanitish goddess Astarte, the feminine of the Assyrian Ishtar. Its symbol was the stem of a tree deprived of its boughs, and rudely shaped into an image, and planted in the ground. Such religious symbols ("groves") are frequently alluded to in Scripture (Exo 34:13; Judg.......

ASHES
The ashes of a red heifer burned entire (Num. 19:5) when sprinkled on the unclean made them ceremonially clean (Heb. 9:13). To cover the head with ashes was a token of self-abhorrence and humiliation (2-Sam 13:19; Esther 4:3; Jer. 6:26, Jer. 6: etc.). To feed on ashes (Isa. 44:20), means to seek that which will prove to be vain and unsatisfactory, and hence it denotes the unsatisfactory nature......

ASHKELON
=Askelon=Ascalon, was one of the five cities of the Philistines (Josh. 13:3; 1-Sam 6:17). It stood on the shore of the Mediterranean, 12 miles north of Gaza. It is mentioned on an inscription at Karnak in Egypt as having been taken by king Rameses II., the oppressor of the Hebrews. In the time of the judges (Judg. 1:18) it fell into the possession of the tribe of Judah; but it was soon after retak......

ASHKENAZ
one of the three sons of Gomer (Gen. 10:3), and founder of one of the tribes of the Japhetic race. They are mentioned in connection with Minni and Ararat, and hence their original seat must have been in Armenia (Jer. 51:27), probably near the Black Sea, which, from their founder, was first called Axenus, and afterwards the Euxine.......

ASHPENAZ
the master of the eunuchs of Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:3), the "Rabsaris" of the court. His position was similar to that of the Kislar-aga of the modern Turkish sultans.......

ASHTAROTH
a city of Bashan, in the kingdom of Og (Deut. 1:4; Josh. 12:4;13:12;9:10). It was in the half-tribe of Manasseh (Josh. 13:12), and as a Levitical city was given to the Gershonites (1-Chr 6:71). Uzzia, one of David's valiant men (1-Chr 11:44), is named as of this city. It is identified with Tell Ashterah, in the Hauran, and is noticed on monuments B.C. 1700-1500. The name Beesh-terah (Josh. 21:27) ......

ASHTEROTH KARNAIM
Ashteroth of the two horns, the abode of the Rephaim (Gen. 14:5). It may be identified with Ashtaroth preceding; called "Karnaim", i.e., the "two-horned" (the crescent moon). The Samaritan version renders the word by "Sunamein," the present es-Sunamein, 28 miles south of Damascus.......

ASHTORETH
the moon goddess of the Phoenicians, representing the passive principle in nature, their principal female deity; frequently associated with the name of Baal, the sun-god, their chief male deity (Judg. 10:6; 1-Sam 7:4;12:10). These names often occur in the plural (Ashtaroth, Baalim), probably as indicating either different statues or different modifications of the deities. This deity is spoken of a......

ASHURITES
mentioned among those over whom Ish-bosheth was made king (2-Sam 2:9).......

ASIA
is used to denote Proconsular Asia, a Roman province which embraced the western parts of Asia Minor, and of which Ephesus was the capital, in Acts 2:9;6:9;16:6;19:10, 19:22;20:4, 20: 16, 18, etc., and probably Asia Minor in Acts 19:26, Acts 19: 27;21:27;24:18;27:2. Proconsular Asia contained the seven churches of the Apocalypse (Rev. 1:11). The "chiefs of Asia" (Acts 19:31) were certain wealthy ci......

ASNAPPER
probably the same as Assur-bani-pal (Sardanapalos of the Greeks), styled the "great and noble" (Ezra 4:10), was the son and successor (B.C. 668) of Esar-haddon (q.v.). He was "luxurious, ambitious, and cruel, but a magnificent patron of literature." He formed at Nineveh a library of clay tablets, numbering about 10,000. These are now mostly in the British Museum. They throw much light on the histo......

ASP
(Heb. pethen), Deut. 32:33; Job 20:14, Job 20: 16; Isa. 11:8. It was probably the Egyptian cobra (Naja haje), which was very poisonous (Rom. 3:13; Gr. aspis). The Egyptians worshipped it as the _uraeus_, and it was found in the desert and in the fields. The peace and security of Messiah's reign is represented by the figure of a child playing on the hole of the asp. (See ADDER.)......

ASS
frequently mentioned throughout Scripture. Of the domesticated species we read of, (1.) The she ass (Heb. 'athon), so named from its slowness (Gen. 12:16;45:23; Num. 22:23; 1-Sam 9:3). (2.) The male ass (Heb. hamor), the common working ass of Western Asia, so called from its red colour. Issachar is compared to a strong ass (Gen. 49:14). It was forbidden to yoke together an ass and an ox in the plo......

ASSHUR
second son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1-Chr 1:17). He went from the land of Shinar and built Nineveh, etc. (Gen. 10:11, Gen. 10:12). He probably gave his name to Assyria, which is the usual translation of the word, although the form Asshur is sometimes retained (Num. 24:22, Num. 24: 24; Ezek. 27:23, Ezek. 27: etc.). In Gen. 2:14 "Assyria" ought to be "Asshur," which was the original capital of Assyria, ......

ASSOS
a sea-port town of Proconsular Asia, in the district of Mysia, on the north shore of the Gulf of Adramyttium. Paul came hither on foot along the Roman road from Troas (Acts 20:13, Acts 20: 14), a distance of 20 miles. It was about 30 miles distant from Troas by sea. The island of Lesbos lay opposite it, about 7 miles distant.......

ASSURANCE
The resurrection of Jesus (Acts 17:31) is the "assurance" (Gr. pistis, generally rendered "faith") or pledge God has given that his revelation is true and worthy of acceptance. The "full assurance [Gr. plerophoria, 'full bearing'] of faith" (Heb. 10:22) is a fulness of faith in God which leaves no room for doubt. The "full assurance of understanding" (Col. 2:2) is an entire unwavering conviction o......

ASSYRIA
the name derived from the city Asshur on the Tigris, the original capital of the country, was originally a colony from Babylonia, and was ruled by viceroys from that kingdom. It was a mountainous region lying to the north of Babylonia, extending along the Tigris as far as to the high mountain range of Armenia, the Gordiaean or Carduchian mountains. It was founded in B.C. 1700 under Bel-kap-kapu, a......

ASTROLOGER
(Dan. 1:20;2:2, 2: 10, 27, etc.) Heb. 'ashshaph', an enchanter, one who professes to divine future events by the appearance of the stars. This science flourished among the Chaldeans. It was positively forbidden to the Jews (Deut. 4:19;18:10; Isa. 47:13).......

ASTRONOMY
The Hebrews were devout students of the wonders of the starry firmanent (Amos 5:8; Ps. 19). In the Book of Job, which is the oldest book of the Bible in all probability, the constellations are distinguished and named. Mention is made of the "morning star" (Rev. 2:28; comp. Isa. 14:12), the "seven stars" and "Pleiades," "Orion," "Arcturus," the "Great Bear" (Amos 5:8; Job 9:9;38:31), "the crooked s......

ASUPPIM
(1-Chr 26:15, 1-Chr 26: 17, Authorized Version; but in Revised Version, "storehouse"), properly the house of stores for the priests. In Neh. 12:25 the Authorized Version has "thresholds," marg. "treasuries" or "assemblies;" Revised Version, "storehouses."......

ATAD
buckthorn, a place where Joseph and his brethren, when on their way from Egypt to Hebron with the remains of their father Jacob, made for seven days a "great and very sore lamentation." On this account the Canaanites called it "Abel-mizraim" (Gen. 50:10, Gen. 50: 11). It was probably near Hebron. The word is rendered "bramble" in Judg. 9:14, Judg. 9: 15, and "thorns" in Psa 58:9.......

ATAROTH
crowns. (1.) A city east of Jordan, not far from Gilead (Num. 32:3). (2.) A town on the border of Ephraim and Benjamin (Josh. 16:2, Josh. 16: 7), called also Ataroth-adar (16:5). Now ed-Da'rieh. (3.) "Ataroth, the house of Joab" (1-Chr 2:54), a town of Judah inhabited by the descendants of Caleb.......

ATER
shut; lame. (1.) Ezra 2:16. (2.) Neh. 10:17. (3.) Ezra 2:42.......

ATHALIAH
whom God afflicts. (1.) The daughter of Ahab and Jezebel, and the wife of Jehoram, king of Judah (2-Kings 8:18), who "walked in the ways of the house of Ahab" (2-Chr 21:6), called "daughter" of Omri (2-Kings 8:26). On the death of her husband and of her son Ahaziah, she resolved to seat herself on the vacant throne. She slew all Ahaziah's children except Joash, the youngest (2-Kings 11:1, 2-Kings ......

ATHENS
the capital of Attica, the most celebrated city of the ancient world, the seat of Greek literature and art during the golden period of Grecian history. Its inhabitants were fond of novelty (Acts 17:21), and were remarkable for their zeal in the worship of the gods. It was a sarcastic saying of the Roman satirist that it was "easier to find a god at Athens than a man." On his second missionary jo......

ATONEMENT
This word does not occur in the Authorized Version of the New Testament except in Rom. 5:11, Rom. 5: where in the Revised Version the word "reconciliation" is used. In the Old Testament it is of frequent occurrence. The meaning of the word is simply at-one-ment, i.e., the state of being at one or being reconciled, so that atonement is reconciliation. Thus it is used to denote the effect which fl......

ATONEMENT, DAY OF
the great annual day of humiliation and expiation for the sins of the nation, "the fast" (Acts 27:9), and the only one commanded in the law of Moses. The mode of its observance is described in Lev. 16:3;23:26; and Num. 29:7. It was kept on the tenth day of the month Tisri, i.e., five days before the feast of Tabernacles, and lasted from sunset to sunset. (See AZAZEL.)......

AUGUSTUS
the cognomen of the first Roman emperor, C. Julius Caesar Octavianus, during whose reign Christ was born (Luke 2:1). His decree that "all the world should be taxed" was the divinely ordered occasion of Jesus' being born, according to prophecy (Micah 5:2), in Bethlehem. This name being simply a title meaning "majesty" or "venerable," first given to him by the senate (B.C. 27), was borne by succeedi......

AUGUSTUS BAND
(Acts 27:1.: literally, of Sebaste, the Greek form of Augusta, the name given to Caesarea in honour of Augustus Caesar). Probably this "band" or cohort consisted of Samaritan soldiers belonging to Caesarea.......

AVA
a place in Assyria from which colonies were brought to Samaria (2-Kings 17:24). It is probably the same with Ivah (18:34;19:13; Isa. 37:13). It has been identified with Hit on the Euphrates.......

AVEN
nothingness; vanity. (1.) Hosea speaks of the "high places of Aven" (10:8), by which he means Bethel. He also calls it Beth-aven, i.e., "the house of vanity" (4:15), on account of the golden calves Jeroboam had set up there (1-Kings 12:28). (2.) Translated by the LXX. "On" in Ezek. 30:17. The Egyptian Heliopolis or city of On (q.v.). (3.) In Amos 1:5 it denotes the Syrian Heliopolis, the moder......

AVENGER OF BLOOD
(Heb. goel, from verb gaal, "to be near of kin," "to redeem"), the nearest relative of a murdered person. It was his right and duty to slay the murderer (2-Sam 14:7, 2-Sam 14: 11) if he found him outside of a city of refuge. In order that this law might be guarded against abuse, Moses appointed six cities of refuge (Exo 21:13; Num. 35:13; Deut. 19:1, Deut. 19:9). These were in different parts of t......

AVIM
a people dwelling in Hazerim, or "the villages" or "encampments" on the south-west corner of the sea-coast (Deut. 2:23). They were subdued and driven northward by the Caphtorim. A trace of them is afterwards found in Josh. 13:3, Josh. 13: where they are called Avites.......

AWL
an instrument only referred to in connection with the custom of boring the ear of a slave (Exo 21:6; Deut. 15:17), in token of his volunteering perpetual service when he might be free. (Comp. Psa 40:6; Isa. 50:5).......

AXE
used in the Authorized Version of Deut. 19:5;20:19; 1-Kings 6:7, 1-Kings 6: as the translation of a Hebrew word which means "chopping." It was used for felling trees (Isa. 10:34) and hewing timber for building. It is the rendering of a different word in Judg. 9:48, Judg. 9: 1-Sam 13:20, 1-Sam 13: 21, Psa 74:5, Psa 74: which refers to its sharpness. In 2-Kings 6:5 it is the translation of a word us......

AZAL
(Zech. 14:5) should perhaps be rendered "very near" = "the way of escape shall be made easy." If a proper name, it may denote some place near the western extremity of the valley here spoken of near Jerusalem.......

AZARIAH
whom Jehovah helps. (1.) Son of Ethan, of the tribe of Judah (1-Chr 2:8). (2.) Son of Ahimaaz, who succeeded his grandfather Zadok as high priest (1-Chr 6:9; 1-Kings 4:2) in the days of Solomon. He officiated at the consecration of the temple (1-Chr 6:10). (3.) The son of Johanan, high priest in the reign of Abijah and Asa (2-Chr 6:10, 2-Chr 6: 11). (4.) High priest in the reign of Uzziah, k......

AZAZEL
(Lev. 16:8, Lev. 16: 10, 26, Revised Version only here; rendered "scape-goat" in the Authorized Version). This word has given rise to many different views. Some Jewish interpreters regard it as the name of a place some 12 miles east of Jerusalem, in the wilderness. Others take it to be the name of an evil spirit, or even of Satan. But when we remember that the two goats together form a type of Chr......

AZAZIAH
whom Jehovah strengthened. (1.) One of the Levitical harpers in the temple (1-Chr 15:21). (2.) The father of Hoshea, who was made ruler over the Ephraimites (1-Chr 27:20). (3.) One who had charge of the temple offerings (2-Chr 31:13).......

AZEKAH
dug over, a town in the Shephelah or low hills of Judah (Josh. 15:35), where the five confederated Amoritish kings were defeated by Joshua and their army destroyed by a hailstrom (10:10, 10: 11). It was one of the places re-occupied by the Jews on their return from the Captivity (Neh. 11:30).......

AZEL
noble, a descendant of king Saul (1-Chr 8:37;9:43, 9: 44).......

AZMAVETH
strong as death. (1.) One of David's thirty warriors (2-Sam 23:31). (2.) An overseer over the royal treasury in the time of David and Solomon (1-Chr 27:25). (3.) A town in the tribe of Judah, near Jerusalem (Neh. 12:29; Ezra 2:24). (4.) 1-Chr 8:36......

AZOTUS
the Grecized form (Acts 8:40, Acts 8: etc.) of Ashdod (q.v.).......

AZUBAH
deserted. (1.) The wife of Caleb (1-Chr 2:18, 1-Chr 2: 19). (2.) The daughter of Shilhi, and mother of king Jehoshaphat (1-Kings 22:42).......

AZUR AND AZZUR
helper. (1.) The father of Hananiah, a false prophet (Jer. 28:1). (2.) The father of Jaazaniah (Ezek. 11:1). (3.) One of those who sealed the covenant with Jehovah on the return from Babylon (Neh. 10:17).......

BAAL
lord. (1.) The name appropriated to the principal male god of the Phoenicians. It is found in several places in the plural BAALIM (Judg. 2:11;10:10; 1-Kings 18:18; Jer. 2:23; Hos. 2:17). Baal is identified with Molech (Jer. 19:5). It was known to the Israelites as Baal-peor (Num. 25:3; Deut. 4:3), was worshipped till the time of Samuel (1 7:4), and was afterwards the religion of the ten tribes in ......

BAAL-BERITH
covenant lord, the name of the god worshipped in Shechem after the death of Gideon (Judg. 8:33;9:4). 9:46 he is called simply "the god Berith." The name denotes the god of the covenant into which the Israelites entered with the Canaanites, contrary to the command of Jehovah (Exo 34:12), when they began to fall away to the worship of idols.......

BAAL-GAD
lord of fortune, or troop of Baal, a Canaanite city in the valley of Lebanon at the foot of Hermon, hence called Baal-hermon (Judge. 3:3; 1-Chr 5:23), near the source of the Jordan (Josh. 13:5;11:17;12:7). It was the most northern point to which Joshua's conquests extended. It probably derived its name from the worship of Baal. Its modern representative is Banias. Some have supposed it to be the s......

BAAL-HAMON
place of a multitude, a place where Solomon had an extensive vineyard (8:11). It has been supposed to be identical with Baal-gad, and also with Hammon in the tribe of Asher (Josh. 19:28). Others identify it with Belamon, in Central Palestine, near Dothaim.......

BAAL-HANAN
lord of grace. (1.) A king of Edom, son of Achbor (Gen. 36:38, Gen. 36: 39; 1-Chr 1:49, 1-Chr 1: 50). (2.) An overseer of "the olive trees and sycomore trees in the low plains" (the Shephelah) under David (1-Chr 27:28).......

BAAL-HAZOR
having a courtyard, or Baal's village, the place on the borders of Ephraim and Benjamin where Absalom held the feast of sheep-shearing when Amnon was assassinated (2-Sam 13:23). Probably it is the same with Hazor (Neh. 11:33), now Tell' Asur, 5 miles north-east of Bethel.......

BAAL-HERMON
lord of Hermon. (1.) A city near Mount Hermon inhabited by the Ephraimites (1-Chr 5:23). Probably identical with Baal-gad (Josh. 11:17). (2.) A mountain east of Lebanon (Judg. 3:3). Probably it may be the same as Mount Hermon, or one of its three peaks.......

BAAL-MEON
lord of dwelling, a town of Reuben (Num. 32:38), called also Beth-meon (Jer. 48:23) and Beth-baal-meon (Josh. 13:17). It is supposed to have been the birth-place of Elisha. It is identified with the modern M'ain, about 3 miles south-east of Heshbon.......

BAAL-PEOR
lord of the opening, a god of the Moabites (Num. 25:3;31:16; Josh. 22:17), worshipped by obscene rites. So called from Mount Peor, where this worship was celebrated, the Baal of Peor. The Israelites fell into the worship of this idol (Num. 25:3, Num. 25: 5, 18; Deut. 4:3; Psa 106:28; Hos. 9:10).......

BAAL-PERAZIM
Baal having rents, bursts, or destructions, the scene of a victory gained by David over the Philistines (2-Sam 5:20; 1-Chr 14:11). Called Mount Perazim (Isa. 28:21). It was near the valley of Rephaim, west of Jerusalem. Identified with the modern Jebel Aly.......

BAAL-SHALISHA
lord of Shalisha, a place from which a man came with provisions for Elisha, apparently not far from Gilgal (2-Kings 4:42). It has been identified with Sirisia, 13 miles north of Lydda.......

BAAL-TAMAR
lord of palm trees, a place in the tribe of Benjamin near Gibeah of Saul (Judg. 20:33). It was one of the sanctuaries or groves of Baal. Probably the palm tree of Deborah (Judg. 4:5) is alluded to in the name.......

BAAL-ZEBUB
fly-lord, the god of the Philistines at Ekron (2-Kings 1:2, 2-Kings 1: 3, 16). This name was given to the god because he was supposed to be able to avert the plague of flies which in that region was to be feared. He was consulted by Ahaziah as to his recovery.......

BAAL-ZEPHON
Baal of the north, an Egyptian town on the shores of the Gulf of Suez (Exo 14:2; Num. 33:7), over against which the children of Israel encamped before they crossed the Red Sea. It is probably to be identified with the modern Jebel Deraj or Kulalah, on the western shore of the Gulf of Suez. Baal-zapuna of the Egyptians was a place of worship.......

BAALAH
mistress; city. (1.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:29), elsewhere called Balah (Josh. 19:3) and Bilhah (1-Chr 4:29). Now Khurbet Zebalah. (2.) A city on the northern border of the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:10), called also Kirjath-jearim, q.v. (15:9; 1-Chr 13:6), now Kuriet-el-Enab, or as some think, 'Erma. (3.) A mountain on the north-western boundary of Judah and Dan (Josh. 15:11).......

BAALATH
a town of the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:44). It was fortified by Solomon (1-Kings 9:18; 2-Chr 8:6). Some have identified it with Bel'ain, in Wady Deir Balut.......

BAALATH-BEER
Baalah of the well, (Josh. 19:8, Josh. 19: probably the same as Baal, mentioned in 1-Chr 4:33, 1-Chr 4: a city of Simeon.......

BAALBEC
called by the Greeks Heliopolis i.e., "the city of the sun", because of its famous Temple of the Sun, has by some been supposed to be Solomon's "house of the forest of Lebanon" (1-Kings 7:2;10:17; 2-Chr 9:16); by others it is identified with Baal-gad (q.v.). It was a city of Coele-Syria, on the lowest declivity of Anti-Libanus, about 42 miles north-west of Damascus. It was one of the most splendid......

BAALE OF JUDAH
lords of Judah, a city in the tribe of Judah from which David brought the ark into Jerusalem (2-Sam 6:2). Elsewhere (1-Chr 13:6) called Kirjath-jearim. (See BAALAH.)......

BAALI
my lord, a title the prophet (Hos. 2:16) reproaches the Jewish church for applying to Jehovah, instead of the more endearing title Ishi, meaning "my husband."......

BAALIM
plural of Baal; images of the god Baal (Judg. 2:11; 1-Sam 7:4).......

BAALIS
king of the Ammonites at the time of the Babylonian captivity (Jer. 40:14). He hired Ishmael to slay Gedaliah who had been appointed governor over the cities of Judah.......

BAANA
son of affliction. (1.) One of Solomon's purveyors (1-Kings 4:12). (2.) Son of Hushai, another of Solomon's purveyors (1-Kings 4:16). (3.) Father of Zadok (Neh. 3:4).......

BAANAH
son of affliction. (1.) One of the two sons of Rimmon the Beerothite, a captain in Saul's army. He and his brother Rechab assassinated Ishbosheth (2-Sam 4:2), and were on this account slain by David, and their mutilated bodies suspended over the pool at Hebron (5, 6, 12). (2.) The father of Heled, who was one of David's thirty heroes (2-Sam 23:29; 1-Chr 11:30).......

BAASHA
bravery, the third king of the separate kingdom of Israel, and founder of its second dynasty (1 Kings 15; 16; 2-Chr 16:1). He was the son of Ahijah of the tribe of Issachar. The city of Tirzah he made the capital of his kingdom, and there he was buried, after an eventful reign of twenty-four years (1-Kings 15:33). On account of his idolatries his family was exterminated, according to the word of t......

BABE
used of children generally (Matt. 11:25;21:16; Luke 10:21; Rom. 2:20). It is used also of those who are weak in Christian faith and knowledge (1-Cor 3:1; Heb. 5:13; 1-Pet 2:2). In Isa. 3:4 the word "babes" refers to a succession of weak and wicked princes who reigned over Judah from the death of Josiah downward to the destruction of Jerusalem.......

BABEL, TOWER OF
the name given to the tower which the primitive fathers of our race built in the land of Shinar after the Deluge (Gen. 11:1). Their object in building this tower was probably that it might be seen as a rallying-point in the extensive plain of Shinar, to which they had emigrated from the uplands of Armenia, and so prevent their being scattered abroad. But God interposed and defeated their design by......

BABYLON
the Greek form of BABEL; Semitic form Babilu, meaning "The Gate of God." In the Assyrian tablets it means "The city of the dispersion of the tribes." The monumental list of its kings reaches back to B.C. 2300, and includes Khammurabi, or Amraphel (q.v.), the contemporary of Abraham. It stood on the Euphrates, about 200 miles above its junction with the Tigris, which flowed through its midst and di......

BABYLON, KINGDOM OF
called "the land of the Chaldeans" (Jer. 24:5; Ezek,12:13), was an extensive province in Central Asia along the valley of the Tigris from the Persian Gulf northward for some 300 miles. It was famed for its fertility and its riches. Its capital was the city of Babylon, a great commercial centre (Ezek. 17:4; Isa. 43:14). Babylonia was divided into the two districts of Accad in the north, and Summer ......

BABYLONISH GARMENT
a robe of rich colours fabricated at Babylon, and hence of great value (Josh.7:21).......

BACA, VALLEY OF
(Psa 84:6; R.V., "valley of weeping," marg., "or balsam trees"), probably a valley in some part of Palestine, or generally some one of the valleys through which pilgrims had to pass on their way to the sanctuary of Jehovah on Zion; or it may be figuratively "a valley of weeping."......

BACKBITE
In Psa 15:3, Psa 15: the rendering of a word which means to run about tattling, calumniating; in Prov. 25:23, Prov. 25: secret talebearing or slandering; in Rom. 1:30 and 2-Cor 12:20, 2-Cor 12: evil-speaking, maliciously defaming the absent.......

BACKSLIDE
to draw back or apostatize in matters of religion (Acts 21:21; 2-Thess 2:3; 1-Tim 4:1). This may be either partial (Prov. 14:14) or complete (Heb. 6:4;10:38, 10: 39). The apostasy may be both doctrinal and moral.......

BADGER
this word is found in Exo 25:5;26:14;35:7, 35: 23;36:19;39:34; Num. 4:6, Num. 4: etc. The tabernacle was covered with badgers' skins; the shoes of women were also made of them (Ezek. 16:10). Our translators seem to have been misled by the similarity in sound of the Hebrew _tachash_ and the Latin _taxus_, "a badger." The revisers have correctly substituted "seal skins." The Arabs of the Sinaitic pe......

BAG
(1.) A pocket of a cone-like shape in which Naaman bound two pieces of silver for Gehazi (2-Kings 5:23). The same Hebrew word occurs elsewhere only in Isa. 3:22, Isa. 3: where it is rendered "crisping-pins," but denotes the reticules (or as R.V., "satchels") carried by Hebrew women. (2.) Another word (kees) so rendered means a bag for carrying weights (Deut. 25:13; Prov. 16:11; Micah 6:11). It a......

BAHURIM
young men, a place east of Jerusalem (2-Sam 3:16;19:16), on the road to the Jordan valley. Here Shimei resided, who poured forth vile abuse against David, and flung dust and stones at him and his party when they were making their way down the eastern slopes of Olivet toward Jordan (16:5); and here Jonathan and Ahimaaz hid themselves (17:18). With the exception of Shimei, Azmaveth, one of David's......

BAJITH
house, probably a city of Moab, which had a celebrated idol-temple (Isa. 15:2). It has also been regarded as denoting simply the temple of the idol of Moab as opposed to the "high place."......

BAKE
The duty of preparing bread was usually, in ancient times, committed to the females or the slaves of the family (Gen. 18:6; Lev. 26:26; 1-Sam 8:13); but at a later period we find a class of public bakers mentioned (Hos. 7:4, Hos. 7: 6; Jer. 37:21). The bread was generally in the form of long or round cakes (Exo 29:23; 1-Sam 2:36), of a thinness that rendered them easily broken (Isa. 58:7; Matt. ......

BAKE-MEATS
baked provisions (Gen. 40:17), literally "works of the baker," such as biscuits and cakes.......

BALAAM
lord of the people; foreigner or glutton, as interpreted by others, the son of Beor, was a man of some rank among the Midianites (Num. 31:8; comp. 16). He resided at Pethor (Deut. 23:4), in Mesopotamia (Num. 23:7). It is evident that though dwelling among idolaters he had some knowledge of the true God; and was held in such reputation that it was supposed that he whom he blessed was blessed, and h......

BALADAN
he has given a son, the father of the Babylonian king (2-Kings 20:12; Isa. 39:1) Merodach-baladan (q.v.).......

BALAH
a city in the tribe of Simeon (Josh. 19:3), elsewhere called Bilhah (1-Chr 4:29) and Baalah (Josh. 15:29).......

BALAK
empty; spoiler, a son of Zippor, and king of the Moabites (Num. 22:2, Num. 22: 4). From fear of the Israelites, who were encamped near the confines of his territory, he applied to Balaam (q.v.) to curse them; but in vain (Josh. 24:9).......

BALANCE
occurs in Lev. 19:36 and Isa. 46:6, Isa. 46: as the rendering of the Hebrew _kanch'_, which properly means "a reed" or "a cane," then a rod or beam of a balance. This same word is translated "measuring reed" in Ezek. 40:3, Ezek. 40:5;42:16. There is another Hebrew word, _mozena'yim_, i.e., "two poisers", also so rendered (Dan. 5:27). The balances as represented on the most ancient Egyptian monumen......

BALDNESS
from natural causes was uncommon (2-Kings 2:23; Isa. 3:24). It was included apparently under "scab" and "scurf," which disqualified for the priesthood (Lev. 21:20). The Egyptians were rarely subject to it. This probably arose from their custom of constantly shaving the head, only allowing the hair to grow as a sign of mourning. With the Jews artificial baldness was a sign of mourning (Isa. 22:12; ......

BALM
contracted from Bal'sam, a general name for many oily or resinous substances which flow or trickle from certain trees or plants when an incision is made through the bark. (1.) This word occurs in the Authorized Version (Gen. 37:25;43:11; Jer. 8:22;46:11;51:8; Ezek. 27:17) as the rendering of the Hebrew word _tsori_ or _tseri_, which denotes the gum of a tree growing in Gilead (q.v.), which is ve......

BAMAH
a height, a name used simply to denote a high place where the Jews worshipped idols (Ezek. 20:29). The plural is translated "high places" in Num. 22:41 and Ezek. 36:2.......

BAMOTH
heights, the forty-seventh station of the Israelites (Num. 21:19, Num. 21:20) in the territory of the Moabites.......

BAMOTH-BAAL
heights of Baal, a place on the river Arnon, or in the plains through which it flows, east of Jordan (Josh. 13:17; comp. Num. 21:28). It has been supposed to be the same place as Bamoth.......

BANDS
(1) of love (Hos. 11:4); (2) of Christ (Psa 2:3); (3) uniting together Christ's body the church (Col. 2:19;3:14; Eph. 4:3); (4) the emblem of the captivity of Israel (Ezek. 34:27; Isa. 28:22;52:2); (5) of brotherhood (Ezek. 37:15); (6) no bands to the wicked in their death (Psa 73:4; Job 21:7; Psa 10:6). Also denotes chains (Luke 8:29); companies of soldiers (Acts 21:31); a shepherd's staff, indic......

BANI
built. (1.) 1-Chr 6:46. (2.) One of David's thirty-seven warriors, a Gadite (2-Sam 23:36). (3.) Ezra 2:10;10:29, 10:34, 10:38. (4.) A Levite who was prominent in the reforms on the return from Babylon (Neh. 8:7;9:4, 9:5). His son Rehum took part in rebuilding the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:17).......

BANNER
(1.) The flag or banner of the larger kind, serving for three tribes marching together. These standards, of which there were four, were worked with embroidery and beautifully ornamented (Num. 1:52;2:2, 2: 3, 10, 18, 25; 2:4;6:4, 6: 10). (2.) The flag borne by each separate tribe, of a smaller form. Probably it bore on it the name of the tribe to which it belonged, or some distinguishing device (......

BANQUET
a feast provided for the entertainment of a company of guests (Esther 5; 7; 1-Pet 4:3); such as was provided for our Lord by his friends in Bethany (Matt. 26:6; Mark 14:3; comp. John 12:2). These meals were in the days of Christ usually called "suppers," after the custom of the Romans, and were partaken of toward the close of the day. It was usual to send a second invitation (Matt. 22:3; Luke 14:1......

BAPTISM FOR THE DEAD
only mentioned in 1-Cor 15:29. This expression as used by the apostle may be equivalent to saying, "He who goes through a baptism of blood in order to join a glorified church which has no existence [i.e., if the dead rise not] is a fool." Some also regard the statement here as an allusion to the strange practice which began, it is said, to prevail at Corinth, in which a person was baptized in the ......

BAPTISM OF CHRIST
Christ had to be formally inaugurated into the public discharge of his offices. For this purpose he came to John, who was the representative of the law and the prophets, that by him he might be introduced into his offices, and thus be publicly recognized as the Messiah of whose coming the prophecies and types had for many ages borne witness. John refused at first to confer his baptism on Christ,......

BAPTISM, CHRISTIAN
an ordinance immediately instituted by Christ (Matt. 28:19, Matt. 28: 20), and designed to be observed in the church, like that of the Supper, "till he come." The words "baptize" and "baptism" are simply Greek words transferred into English. This was necessarily done by the translators of the Scriptures, for no literal translation could properly express all that is implied in them. The mode of b......

BAPTISM, JOHN'S
was not Christian baptism, nor was that which was practised by the disciples previous to our Lord's crucifixion. Till then the New Testament economy did not exist. John's baptism bound its subjects to repentance, and not to the faith of Christ. It was not administered in the name of the Trinity, and those whom John baptized were rebaptized by Paul (Acts 18:24;19:7).......

BAR
used to denote the means by which a door is bolted (Neh. 3:3); a rock in the sea (Jonah 2:6); the shore of the sea (Job 38:10); strong fortifications and powerful impediments, etc. (Isa. 45:2; Amos 1:5); defences of a city (1-Kings 4:13). A bar for a door was of iron (Isa. 45:2), brass (Psa 107:16), or wood (Nah. 3:13).......

BAR-JESUS
son of Joshua, the patronymic of Elymas the sorcerer (Acts 13:6), who met Paul and Barnabas at Paphos. Elymas is a word of Arabic origin meaning "wise."......

BAR-JONA
son of Jonah, the patronymic of Peter (Matt. 16:17; John 1:42), because his father's name was Jonas. (See PETER.)......

BARABBAS
i.e., son of Abba or of a father, a notorious robber whom Pilate proposed to condemn to death instead of Jesus, whom he wished to release, in accordance with the Roman custom (John 18:40; Mark 15:7; Luke 23:19). But the Jews were so bent on the death of Jesus that they demanded that Barabbas should be pardoned (Matt. 27:16; Acts 3:14). This Pilate did.......

BARACHEL
whom God has blessed, a Buzite, the father of Elihu, one of Job's friends (Job 32:2, Job 32: 6).......

BARACHIAS, BERECHIAH
4 (q.v.), whom Jehovah hath blessed, father of the prophet Zechariah (Zech. 1:1, Zech. 1:7; Matt. 23:35).......

BARAK
lightning, the son of Abinoam (Judg. 4:6). At the summons of Deborah he made war against Jabin. She accompanied him into the battle, and gave the signal for the little army to make the attack; in which the host of Jabin was completely routed. The battle was fought (Judg. 4:16) in the plain of Jezreel (q.v.). This deliverance of Israel is commemorated in Judg. 5. Barak's faith is commended (Heb. 11......

BARBARIAN
a Greek word used in the New Testament (Rom. 1:14) to denote one of another nation. In Col. 3:11, Col. 3: the word more definitely designates those nations of the Roman empire that did not speak Greek. In 1-Cor 14:11, 1-Cor 14: it simply refers to one speaking a different language. The inhabitants of Malta are so called (Acts 28:1, Acts 28:2, Acts 28: 4). They were originally a Carthaginian colony......

BARBER
Found only once, in Ezek. 5:1, Ezek. 5: where reference is made to the Jewish custom of shaving the head as a sign of mourning. The Nazarites were untouched by the razor from their birth (Num. 6:5). Comp. Judg. 16:19.......

BAREFOOT
To go barefoot was a sign of great distress (Isa. 20:2, Isa. 20: 3, 4), or of some great calamity having fallen on a person (2-Sam 15:30).......

BARIAH
fugitive, one of Shemaiah's five sons. Their father is counted along with them in 1-Chr 3:22.......

BARKOS
painter, (Ezra 2:53; Neh. 7:55). The father of some of the Nethinim. ......

BARLEY
a grain much cultivated in Egypt (Exo 9:31) and in Palestine (Lev. 27:16; Deut. 8:8). It was usually the food of horses (1-Kings 4:28). Barley bread was used by the poorer people (Judg. 7:13; 2-Kings 4:42). Barley of the first crop was ready for the harvest by the time of the Passover, in the middle of April (Ruth 1:22; 2-Sam 21:9). Mention is made of barley-meal (Num. 5:15). Our Lord fed five tho......

BARN
a storehouse (Deut. 28:8; Job 39:12; Hag. 2:19) for grain, which was usually under ground, although also sometimes above ground (Luke 12:18). ......

BARNABAS
son of consolation, the surname of Joses, a Levite (Acts 4:36). His name stands first on the list of prophets and teachers of the church at Antioch (13:1). Luke speaks of him as a "good man" (11:24). He was born of Jewish parents of the tribe of Levi. He was a native of Cyprus, where he had a possession of land (Acts 4:36, Acts 4: 37), which he sold. His personal appearance is supposed to have bee......

BARREL
a vessel used for keeping flour (1-Kings 17:12, 1-Kings 17: 14, 16). The same word (cad) so rendered is also translated "pitcher," a vessel for carrying water (Gen. 24:14; Judg. 7:16). ......

BARREN
For a woman to be barren was accounted a severe punishment among the Jews (Gen. 16:2;30:1; 1-Sam 1:6, 1-Sam 1: 27; Isa. 47:9;49:21; Luke 1:25). Instances of barrenness are noticed (Gen. 11:30;25:21;29:31; Judg. 13:2, Judg. 13: 3; Luke 1:7, Luke 1: 36). ......

BARSABAS
son of Saba, the surname (1) of Joseph, also called Justus (Acts 1:23), some identify him with Barnabas; (2) of Judas, who was a "prophet." Nothing more is known of him than what is mentioned in Acts 15:32. ......

BARTHOLOMEW
son of Tolmai, one of the twelve apostles (Matt. 10:3; Acts 1:13); generally supposed to have been the same as Nathanael. In the synoptic gospels Philip and Bartholomew are always mentioned together, while Nathanael is never mentioned; in the fourth gospel, on the other hand, Philip and Nathanael are similarly mentioned together, but nothing is said of Bartholomew. He was one of the disciples to w......

BARTIMAEUS
son of Timaeus, one of the two blind beggars of Jericho (Mark 10:46; Matt. 20:30). His blindness was miraculously cured on the ground of his faith. ......

BARUCH
blessed. (1.) The secretary of the prophet Jeremiah (32:12;36:4). He was of the tribe of Judah (1:59). To him Jeremiah dictated his prophecies regarding the invasion of the Babylonians and the Captivity. These he read to the people from a window in the temple in the fourth year of the reign of Jehoiakim, king of Judah (Jer. 36). He afterwards read them before the counsellors of the king at a priva......

BARZILLAI
of iron. (1.) A Meholathite, the father of Adriel (2-Sam 21:8). (2.) A Gileadite of Rogelim who was distinguished for his loyalty to David. He liberally provided for the king's followers (2-Sam 17:27). David on his death-bed, remembering his kindness, commended Barzillai's children to the care of Solomon (1-Kings 2:7). (3.) A priest who married a daughter of the preceding (Ezra 2:61). ......

BASHAN
light soil, first mentioned in Gen. 14:5, Gen. 14: where it is said that Chedorlaomer and his confederates "smote the Rephaim in Ashteroth," where Og the king of Bashan had his residence. At the time of Israel's entrance into the Promised Land, Og came out against them, but was utterly routed (Num. 21:33; Deut. 3:1). This country extended from Gilead in the south to Hermon in the north, and from t......

BASHAN, HILL OF
(Psa 68:15), probably another name for Hermon, which lies to the north of Bashan. ......

BASHAN-HAVOTH-JAIR
the Bashan of the villages of Jair, the general name given to Argob by Jair, the son of Manasseh (Deut. 3:14), containing sixty cities with walls and brazen gates (Josh. 13:30; 1-Kings 4:13). (See ARGOB.) ......

BASHEMATH
sweet-smelling. (1.) The daughter of Ishmael, the last of Esau's three wives (Gen. 36:3, Gen. 36: 4, 13), from whose son Reuel four tribes of the Edomites sprung. She is also called Mahalath (Gen. 28:9). It is noticeable that Esau's three wives receive different names in the genealogical table of the Edomites (Gen. 36) from those given to them in the history (Gen. 26:34;28:9). (2.) A daughter of......

BASILISK
(in R.V., Isa. 11:8;14:29;59:5; Jer. 8:17), the "king serpent," as the name imports; a fabulous serpent said to be three spans long, with a spot on its head like a crown. Probably the yellow snake is intended. (See COCKATRICE.) ......

BASIN
or Bason. (1.) A trough or laver (Heb. aggan') for washing (Exo 24:6); rendered also "goblet" (7:2) and "cups" (Isa. 22:24). (2.) A covered dish or urn (Heb. k'for) among the vessels of the temple (1-Chr 28:17; Ezra 1:10;8:27). (3.) A vase (Heb. mizrak) from which to sprinkle anything. A metallic vessel; sometimes rendered "bowl" (Amos 6:6; Zech. 9:15). The vessels of the tabernacle were of br......

BASKET
There are five different Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version: (1.) A basket (Heb. sal, a twig or osier) for holding bread (Gen. 40:16; Exo 29:3, Exo 29: 23; Lev. 8:2, Lev. 8: 26, 31; Num. 6:15, Num. 6: 17, 19). Sometimes baskets were made of twigs peeled; their manufacture was a recognized trade among the Hebrews. (2.) That used (Heb. salsilloth') in gathering grapes (Jer. 6:9). ......

BASTARD
In the Old Testament the rendering of the Hebrew word _mamzer'_, which means "polluted." In Deut. 23:2, Deut. 23: it occurs in the ordinary sense of illegitimate offspring. In Zech. 9:6, Zech. 9: the word is used in the sense of foreigner. From the history of Jephthah we learn that there were bastard offspring among the Jews (Judg. 11:1). In Heb. 12:8, Heb. 12: the word (Gr. nothoi) is used in its......

BASTINADO
beating, a mode of punishment common in the East. It is referred to by "the rod of correction" (Prov. 22:15), "scourging" (Lev. 19:20), "chastising" (Deut. 22:18). The number of blows could not exceed forty (Deut. 25:2, Deut. 25: 3). ......

BAT
The Hebrew word (atalleph') so rendered (Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18) implies "flying in the dark." The bat is reckoned among the birds in the list of unclean animals. To cast idols to the "moles and to the bats" means to carry them into dark caverns or desolate places to which these animals resort (Isa. 2:20), i.e., to consign them to desolation or ruin. ......

BATH
a Hebrew liquid measure, the tenth part of an homer (1-Kings 7:26, 1-Kings 7: 38; Ezek. 45:10, Ezek. 45: 14). It contained 8 gallons 3 quarts of our measure. "Ten acres of vineyard shall yield one bath" (Isa. 5:10) denotes great unproductiveness. ......

BATH-RABBIM
daughter of many, the name of one of the gates of the city of Heshbon, near which were pools (7:4). ......

BATH-SHEBA
daughter of the oath, or of seven, called also Bath-shu'a (1-Chr 3:5), was the daughter of Eliam (2-Sam 11:3) or Ammiel (1-Chr 3:5), and wife of Uriah the Hittite. David committed adultery with her (2-Sam 11:4, 2-Sam 11: 5; Psa 51:1). The child born in adultery died (2-Sam 12:15). After her husband was slain (11:15) she was married to David (11:27), and became the mother of Solomon (12:24; 1-Kings......

BATHS
The use of the bath was very frequent among the Hebrews (Lev. 14:8; Num. 19:19, Num. 19: ect.). The high priest at his inauguration (Lev. 8:6), and on the day of atonement, was required to bathe himself (16:4, 16: 24). The "pools" mentioned in Neh. 3:15, Neh. 3: 16, 2-Kings 20:20, 2-Kings 20: Isa. 22:11, Isa. 22: John 9:7, John 9: were public bathing-places. ......

BATTERING-RAM
(Ezek. 4:2;21:22), a military engine, consisting of a long beam of wood hung upon a frame, for making breaches in walls. The end of it which was brought against the wall was shaped like a ram's head. ......

BATTLE-AXE
a mallet or heavy war-club. Applied metaphorically (Jer. 51:20) to Cyrus, God's instrument in destroying Babylon. ......

BATTLE-BOW
the war-bow used in fighting (Zech. 9:10;10:4). "Thy bow was made quite naked" (Hab. 3:9) means that it was made ready for use. By David's order (2-Sam 1:18) the young men were taught the use, or rather the song of the bow. (See ARMOUR, BOW.) ......

BATTLEMENT
a parapet wall or balustrade surrounding the flat roofs of the houses, required to be built by a special law (Deut. 22:8). In Jer. 5:10, Jer. 5: it denotes the parapet of a city wall. ......

BAY
denotes the estuary of the Dead Sea at the mouth of the Jordan (Josh. 15:5;18:19), also the southern extremity of the same sea (15:2). The same Hebrew word is rendered "tongue" in Isa. 11:15, Isa. 11: where it is used with reference to the forked mouths of the Nile. Bay in Zech. 6:3, Zech. 6: 7 denotes the colour of horses, but the original Hebrew means strong, and is here used rather to describ......

BAY TREE
named only in Psa 37:35, Psa 37: Authorized Version. The Hebrew word so rendered is _ereh_, which simply means "native born", i.e., a tree not transplanted, but growing on its native soil, and therefore luxuriantly. If the psalmist intended by this word to denote any particular tree, it may have been the evergreen bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), which is a native of Palestine. Instead of "like a gree......

BDELLIUM
occurs only in Gen. 2:12, Gen. 2: where it designates a product of the land of Havilah; and in Num. 11:7, Num. 11: where the manna is likened to it in colour. It was probably an aromatic gum like balsam which exuded from a particular tree (Borassus flabelliformis) still found in Arabia, Media, and India. It bears a resemblance in colour to myrrh. Others think the word denotes "pearls," or some pre......

BEACON
a pole (Heb. to'ren) used as a standard or ensign set on the tops of mountains as a call to the people to assemble themselves for some great national purpose (Isa. 30:17). In Isa. 33:23 and Ezek. 27:5, Ezek. 27: the same word is rendered "mast." (See Banner.) ......

BEALIAH
whose Lord is Jehovah, a Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes of the sling and bow (1-Chr 12:5). ......

BEALOTH
citizens, a town in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:24); probably the same as Baalath-beer (19:8). In 1-Kings 4:16, 1-Kings 4: the Authorized Version has "in Aloth," the Revised Version "Bealoth." ......

BEAM
occurs in the Authorized Version as the rendering of various Hebrew words. In 1-Sam 17:7, 1-Sam 17: it means a weaver's frame or principal beam; in Hab. 2:11, Hab. 2: a crossbeam or girder; 2-Kings 6:2, 2-Kings 6: 5, a cross-piece or rafter of a house; 1-Kings 7:6, 1-Kings 7: an architectural ornament as a projecting step or moulding; Ezek. 41:25, Ezek. 41: a thick plank. In the New Testament the ......

BEANS
mentioned in 2-Sam 17:28 as having been brought to David when flying from Absalom. They formed a constituent in the bread Ezekiel (4:9) was commanded to make, as they were in general much used as an article of diet. They are extensively cultivated in Egypt and Arabia and Syria. ......

BEAR
a native of the mountain regions of Western Asia, frequently mentioned in Scripture. David defended his flocks against the attacks of a bear (1-Sam 17:34). Bears came out of the wood and destroyed the children who mocked the prophet Elisha (2-Kings 2:24). Their habits are referred to in Isa. 59:11; Prov. 28:15; Lam. 3:10. The fury of the female bear when robbed of her young is spoken of (2-Sam 17:......

BEARD
The mode of wearing it was definitely prescribed to the Jews (Lev. 19:27;21:5). Hence the import of Ezekiel's (5:1) description of the "razor" i.e., the agents of an angry providence being used against the guilty nation of the Jews. It was a part of a Jew's daily toilet to anoint his beard with oil and perfume (Psa 133:2). Beards were trimmed with the most fastidious care (2-Sam 19:24), and their ......

BEAST
This word is used of flocks or herds of grazing animals (Exo 22:5; Num. 20:4, Num. 20: 8, 11; Psa 78:48); of beasts of burden (Gen. 45:17); of eatable beasts (Prov. 9:2); and of swift beasts or dromedaries (Isa. 60:6). In the New Testament it is used of a domestic animal as property (Rev. 18:13); as used for food (1-Cor 15:39), for service (Luke 10:34; Acts 23:24), and for sacrifice (Acts 7:42). ......

BEATEN GOLD
in Num. 8:4, Num. 8: means "turned" or rounded work in gold. The Greek Version, however, renders the word "solid gold;" the Revised Version, "beaten work of gold." In 1-Kings 10:16, 1-Kings 10: 17, it probably means "mixed" gold, as the word ought to be rendered, i.e., not pure gold. Others render the word in these places "thin plates of gold." ......

BEATEN OIL
(Exo 27:20;29:40), obtained by pounding olives in a mortar, not by crushing them in a mill. It was reckoned the best. (See OLIVE.) ......

BEAUTIFUL GATE
the name of one of the gates of the temple (Acts 3:2). It is supposed to have been the door which led from the court of the Gentiles to the court of the women. It was of massive structure, and covered with plates of Corinthian brass. ......

BECHER
first-born; a youth, the second son of Benjamin (Gen. 46:21), who came down to Egypt with Jacob. It is probable that he married an Ephraimitish heiress, and that his descendants were consequently reckoned among the tribe of Ephraim (Num. 26:35; 1-Chr 7:20, 1-Chr 7: 21). They are not reckoned among the descendants of Benjamin (Num. 26:38). ......

BED
(Heb. mittah), for rest at night (Exo 8:3; 1-Sam 19:13, 1-Sam 19: 15, 16, etc.); during sickness (Gen. 47:31;48:2;49:33, 49: etc.); as a sofa for rest (1-Sam 28:23; Amos 3:12). Another Hebrew word (er'es) so rendered denotes a canopied bed, or a bed with curtains (Deut. 3:11; Psa 132:3), for sickness (Psa 6:6;41:3). In the New Testament it denotes sometimes a litter with a coverlet (Matt. 9:2, M......

BED-CHAMBER
an apartment in Eastern houses, furnished with a slightly elevated platform at the upper end and sometimes along the sides, on which were laid mattresses. This was the general arrangement of the public sleeping-room for the males of the family and for guests, but there were usually besides distinct bed-chambers of a more private character (2-Kings 4:10; Exo 8:3; 2-Kings 6:12). In 2-Kings 11:2 this......

BEDAN
one of the judges of Israel (1-Sam 12:11). It is uncertain who he was. Some suppose that Barak is meant, others Samson, but most probably this is a contracted form of Abdon (Judg. 12:13). ......

BEDSTEAD
used in Deut. 3:11, Deut. 3: but elsewhere rendered "couch," "bed." In 2-Kings 1:4;16:2; Psa 132:3; Amos 3:12, Amos 3: the divan is meant by this word. ......

BEE
First mentioned in Deut. 1:44. Swarms of bees, and the danger of their attacks, are mentioned in Psa 118:12. Samson found a "swarm of bees" in the carcass of a lion he had slain (Judg. 14:8). Wild bees are described as laying up honey in woods and in clefts of rocks (Deut. 32:13; Psa 81:16). In Isa. 7:18 the "fly" and the "bee" are personifications of the Egyptians and Assyrians, the inveterate en......

BEELZEBUB
(Gr. form Beel'zebul), the name given to Satan, and found only in the New Testament (Matt. 10:25;12:24, 12: 27; Mark 3:22). It is probably the same as Baalzebub (q.v.), the god of Ekron, meaning "the lord of flies," or, as others think, "the lord of dung," or "the dung-god." ......

BEER
well. (1.) A place where a well was dug by the direction of Moses, at the forty-fourth station of the Hebrews in their wanderings (Num. 21:16) in the wilderness of Moab. (See WELL.) (2.) A town in the tribe of Judah to which Jotham fled for fear of Abimelech (Judg. 9:21). Some have identified this place with Beeroth.......

BEER-ELIM
well of heroes, probably the name given to Beer, the place where the chiefs of Israel dug a well (Num. 21:16; Isa. 15:8).......

BEER-LAHAI-ROI
i.e., "the well of him that liveth and seeth me," or, as some render it, "the well of the vision of life", the well where the Lord met with Hagar (Gen. 16:7). Isaac dwelt beside this well (24:62;25:11). It has been identified with 'Ain Muweileh, or Moilahhi, south-west of Beersheba, and about 12 miles W. from Kadesh-barnea.......

BEERI
illustrious, or the well-man. (1.) The father of Judith, one of the wives of Esau (Gen. 26:34), the same as Adah (Gen. 36:2). (2.) The father of the prophet Hosea (1:1).......

BEEROTH
wells, one of the four cities of the Hivites which entered by fraud into a league with Joshua. It belonged to Benjamin (Josh. 18:25). It has by some been identified with el-Bireh on the way to Nablus, 10 miles north of Jerusalem.......

BEEROTH OF THE CHILDREN OF JAAKAN
(Deut. 10:6). The same as Bene-jaakan (Num. 33:31).......

BEERSHEBA
well of the oath, or well of seven, a well dug by Abraham, and so named because he and Abimelech here entered into a compact (Gen. 21:31). On re-opening it, Isaac gave it the same name (Gen. 26:31). It was a favourite place of abode of both of these patriarchs (21:33:1, 19;26:33;28:10). It is mentioned among the "cities" given to the tribe of Simeon (Josh. 19:2; 1-Chr 4:28). From Dan to Beersheba,......

BEETLE
(Heb. hargol, meaning "leaper"). Mention of it is made only in Lev. 11:22, Lev. 11: where it is obvious the word cannot mean properly the beetle. It denotes some winged creeper with at least four feet, "which has legs above its feet, to leap withal." The description plainly points to the locust (q.v.). This has been an article of food from the earliest times in the East to the present day. The wor......

BEEVES
(an old English plural of the word beef), a name applicable to all ruminating animals except camels, and especially to the Bovidce, or horned cattle (Lev. 22:19, Lev. 22: 21; Num. 31:28, Num. 31: 30, 33, 38, 44).......

BEG
That the poor existed among the Hebrews we have abundant evidence (Exo 23:11; Deut. 15:11), but there is no mention of beggars properly so called in the Old Testament. The poor were provided for by the law of Moses (Lev. 19:10; Deut. 12:12;14:29). It is predicted of the seed of the wicked that they shall be beggars (Psa 37:25;109:10). In the New Testament we find not seldom mention made of begga......

BEHEAD
a method of taking away life practised among the Egyptians (Gen. 40:17). There are instances of this mode of punishment also among the Hebrews (2-Sam 4:8;20:21, 20:22; 2-Kings 10:6). It is also mentioned in the New Testament (Matt. 14:8; Acts 12:2).......

BEHEMOTH
(Job 40:15). Some have supposed this to be an Egyptian word meaning a "water-ox." The Revised Version has here in the margin "hippopotamus," which is probably the correct rendering of the word. The word occurs frequently in Scripture, but, except here, always as a common name, and translated "beast" or "cattle."......

BEKAH
Both the name and its explanation, "a half shekel," are given in Exo 38:26. The word properly means a "division," a "part." (R.V., "beka.")......

BEL
the Aramaic form of Baal, the national god of the Babylonians (Isa. 46:1; Jer. 50:2;51:44). It signifies "lord." (See BAAL.)......

BELA
a thing swallowed. (1.) A city on the shore of the Dead Sea, not far from Sodom, called also Zoar. It was the only one of the five cities that was spared at Lot's intercession (Gen. 19:20, Gen. 19:23). It is first mentioned in Gen. 14:2, Gen. 14:8. (2.) The eldest son of Benjamin (Num. 26:38; "Belah," Gen. 46:21). (3.) The son of Beor, and a king of Edom (Gen. 36:32, Gen. 36: 33; 1-Chr 1:43). ......

BELIAL
worthlessness, frequently used in the Old Testament as a proper name. It is first used in Deut. 13:13. In the New Testament it is found only in 2-Cor 6:15, 2-Cor 6: where it is used as a name of Satan, the personification of all that is evil. It is translated "wicked" in Deut. 15:9; Psa 41:8 (R.V. marg.);101:3; Prov. 6:12, Prov. 6: etc. The expression "son" or "man of Belial" means simply a worthl......

BELL
The bells first mentioned in Scripture are the small golden bells attached to the hem of the high priest's ephod (Exo 28:33, Exo 28: 34, 35). The "bells of the horses" mentioned by Zechariah (14:20) were attached to the bridles or belts round the necks of horses trained for war, so as to accustom them to noise and tumult.......

BELLOWS
occurs only in Jer. 6:29, Jer. 6: in relation to the casting of metal. Probably they consisted of leather bags similar to those common in Egypt.......

BELLY
the seat of the carnal affections (Titus 1:12; Phil. 3:19; Rom. 16:18). The word is used symbolically for the heart (Prov. 18:8;20:27;22:18, 22: marg.). The "belly of hell" signifies the grave or underworld (Jonah 2:2).......

BELSHAZZAR
Bel protect the king!, the last of the kings of Babylon (Dan. 5:1). He was the son of Nabonidus by Nitocris, who was the daughter of Nebuchadnezzar and the widow of Nergal-sharezer. When still young he made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and when heated with wine sent for the sacred vessels his "father" (Dan. 5:2), or grandfather, Nebuchadnezzar had carried away from the temple in Jerus......

BELTESHAZZAR
Beltis protect the king!, the Chaldee name given to Daniel by Nebuchadnezzar (Dan. 1:7).......

BEN-AMMI
son of my kindred; i.e., "born of incest", the son of Lot by his youngest daughter (Gen. 19:38).......

BEN-HADAD
the standing title of the Syrian kings, meaning "the son of Hadad." (See HADADEZER.) (1.) The king of Syria whom Asa, king of Judah, employed to invade Israel (1-Kings 15:18). (2.) Son of the preceding, also king of Syria. He was long engaged in war against Israel. He was murdered probably by Hazael, by whom he was succeeded (2-Kings 8:7), after a reign of some thirty years. (3.) King of Dam......

BENAIAH
built up by Jehovah. (1.) The son of Jehoiada, chief priest (1-Chr 27:5). He was set by David over his body-guard of Cherethites and Pelethites (2-Sam 8:18; 1-Kings 1:32; 1-Chr 18:17). His exploits are enumerated in 2-Sam 23:20, 2-Sam 23: 21, 22; 1-Chr 11:22. He remained faithful to Solomon (1-Kings 1:8, 1-Kings 1: 10, 26), by whom he was raised to the rank of commander-in-chief (1-Kings 2:25, 1-K......

BENCH
deck of a Tyrian ship, described by Ezekiel (27:6) as overlaid with box-wood.......

BENE-JAAKAN
children of Jaakan (Num. 33:31, Num. 33: 32), the same as Beeroth.......

BENJAMIN
son of my right hand. (1.) The younger son of Jacob by Rachel (Gen. 35:18). His birth took place at Ephrath, on the road between Bethel and Bethlehem, at a short distance from the latter place. His mother died in giving him birth, and with her last breath named him Ben-oni, son of my pain, a name which was changed by his father into Benjamin. His posterity are called Benjamites (Gen. 49:27; Deut. ......

BEOR
a torch. (1.) The father of Bela, one of the kings of Edom (Gen. 36:32). (2.) The father of Balaam (Num. 22:5;24:3, 24: 15;31:8). In 2-Pet 2:15 he is called Bosor.......

BERA
gift, or son of evil, king of Sodom at the time of the invasion of the four kings under Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2, Gen. 14: 8, 17, 21).......

BERACHAH
blessing. (1.) A valley not far from Engedi, where Jehoshaphat overthrew the Moabites and Ammonites (2-Chr 20:26). It has been identified with the valley of Bereikut. (R.V., "Beracah.") (2.) One of the Benjamite warriors, Saul's brethren, who joined David when at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:3).......

BEREA
a city of Macedonia to which Paul with Silas and Timotheus went when persecuted at Thessalonica (Acts 17:10, Acts 17: 13), and from which also he was compelled to withdraw, when he fled to the sea-coast and thence sailed to Athens (14, 15). Sopater, one of Paul's companions belonged to this city, and his conversion probably took place at this time (Acts 20:4). It is now called Verria.......

BERECHIAH
blessed by Jehovah. (1.) Son of Shimea, and father of Asaph the musician (1-Chr 6:39;15:17). (2.) One of the seven Ephraimite chieftains, son of Meshillemoth (2-Chr 28:12). (3.) The fourth of the five sons of Zerubbabel, of the royal family of Judah (1-Chr 3:20). (4.) The father of the prophet Zechariah (1:1, 1:7).......

BERED
hail. (1.) A town in the south of Palestine (Gen. 16:14), in the desert of Shur, near Lahai-roi. (2.) A son of Shuthelah, and grandson of Ephraim (1-Chr 7:20).......

BERIAH
a gift, or in evil. (1.) One of Asher's four sons, and father of Heber (Gen. 46:17). (2.) A son of Ephraim (1-Chr 7:20), born after the slaughter of his brothers, and so called by his father "because it went evil with his house" at that time. (3.) A Benjamite who with his brother Shema founded Ajalon and expelled the Gittites (1-Chr 8:13).......

BERNICE
bearer of victory, the eldest daughter of Agrippa I., the Herod Agrippa of Acts 12:20. After the early death of her first husband she was married to her uncle Herod, king of Chalcis. After his death (A.D. 40) she lived in incestuous connection with her brother Agrippa II. (Acts 25:13, Acts 25: 23;26:30). They joined the Romans at the outbreak of the final war between them and the Jews, and lived a......

BERODACH-BALADAN
the king of Babylon who sent a friendly deputation to Hezekiah (2-Kings 20:12). In Isa. 39:1 he is called Merodach-baladan (q.v.).......

BERYL
the rendering in the Authorized Version of the Hebrew word _tarshish_, a precious stone; probably so called as being brought from Tarshish. It was one of the stones on the breastplate of the high priest (Exo 28:20; R.V. marg., "chalcedony;"39:13). The colour of the wheels in Ezekiel's vision was as the colour of a beryl stone (1:16;10:9; R.V., "stone of Tarshish"). It is mentioned in 5:14; Dan. 10......

BESOM
the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning sweeper, occurs only in Isa. 14:23, Isa. 14: of the sweeping away, the utter ruin, of Babylon.......

BESOR
cold, a ravine or brook in the extreme south-west of Judah, where 200 of David's men stayed behind because they were faint, while the other 400 pursued the Amalekites (1-Sam 30:9, 1-Sam 30: 10, 21). Probably the Wadyes Sheriah, south of Gaza.......

BESTEAD
the rendering in Isa. 8:21, Isa. 8: where alone it occurs, of a Hebrew word meaning to oppress, or be in circumstances of hardship.......

BETAH
confidence, a city belonging to Hadadezer, king of Zobah, which yielded much spoil of brass to David (2-Sam 8:8). In 1-Chr 18:8 it is called Tibhath.......

BETH
occurs frequently as the appellation for a house, or dwelling-place, in such compounds as the words immediately following:......

BETH-ANATH
house of response, one of the fenced cities of Naphtali (Josh. 19:38). It is perhaps identical with the modern village 'Ainata, 6 miles west of Kedesh.......

BETH-ANOTH
house of answers, a city in the mountainous district of Judah (Josh. 15:59). It has been identified with the modern Beit-'Anun, about 3 miles northeast of Hebron.......

BETH-ARABAH
house of the desert, one of the six cities of Judah, situated in the sunk valley of the Jordan and Dead Sea (Josh. 18:22). In Josh. 15:61 it is said to have been "in the wilderness." It was afterwards included in the towns of Benjamin. It is called Arabah (Josh. 18:18).......

BETH-ARAM
house of the height; i.e., "mountain-house", one of the towns of Gad, 3 miles east of Jordan, opposite Jericho (Josh. 13:27). Probably the same as Beth-haran in Num. 32:36. It was called by king Herod, Julias, or Livias, after Livia, the wife of Augustus. It is now called Beit-haran.......

BETH-ARBEL
house of God's court, a place alluded to by Hosea (10:14) as the scene of some great military exploit, but not otherwise mentioned in Scripture. The Shalman here named was probably Shalmaneser, the king of Assyria (2-Kings 17:3).......

BETH-AVEN
house of nothingness; i.e., "of idols", a place in the mountains of Benjamin, east of Bethel (Josh. 7:2;18:12; 1-Sam 13:5). In Hos. 4:15;5:8;10:5 it stands for "Bethel" (q.v.), and it is so called because it was no longer the "house of God," but "the house of idols," referring to the calves there worshipped.......

BETH-BARAH
house of crossing, a place south of the scene of Gideon's victory (Judg. 7:24). It was probably the chief ford of the Jordan in that district, and may have been that by which Jacob crossed when he returned from Mesopotamia, near the Jabbok (Gen. 32:22), and at which Jephthah slew the Ephraimites (Judg. 12:4). Nothing, however, is certainly known of it. (See BETHABARA.) ......

BETH-CAR
sheep-house, a place to which the Israelites pursued the Philistines west from Mizpeh (1-Sam 7:11). ......

BETH-DAGON
house of Dagon. (1.) A city in the low country or plain of Judah, near Philistia (Josh. 15:41); the modern Beit Degan, about 5 miles from Lydda. (2.) A city near the south-east border of Asher (Josh. 19:27). It was a Philistine colony. It is identical with the modern ruined village of Tell D'auk. ......

BETH-DIBLATHAIM
house of two cakes of figs, a city of Moab, upon which Jeremiah (8:22) denounced destruction. It is called also Almon-diblathaim (Num. 33:46) and Diblath (Ezek. 6:14). (R.V., "Diblah.") ......

BETH-GAMUL
camel-house, a city in the "plain country" of Moab denounced by the prophet (Jer. 48:23); probably the modern Um-el-Jemal, near Bozrah, one of the deserted cities of the Hauran. ......

BETH-GILGAL
house of Gilgal, a place from which the inhabitants gathered for the purpose of celebrating the rebuilding of the walls on the return exile (Neh. 12:29). (See GILGAL.) ......

BETH-HACCEREM
house of a vineyard, a place in the tribe of Judah (Neh. 3:14) where the Benjamites were to set up a beacon when they heard the trumpet against the invading army of the Babylonians (Jer. 6:1). It is probable that this place is the modern 'Ain Karim, or "well of the vineyards," near which there is a ridge on which are cairns which may have served as beacons of old, one of which is 40 feet high and ......

BETH-HORON
house of the hollow, or of the cavern, the name of two towns or villages (2-Chr 8:5; 1-Chr 7:24) in the territory of Ephraim, on the way from Jerusalem to Joppa. They are distinguished as Beth-horon "the upper" and Beth-horon "the nether." They are about 2 miles apart, the former being about 10 miles north-west of Jerusalem. Between the two places was the ascent and descent of Beth-horon, leading ......

BETH-JESHIMOTH
house of wastes, or deserts, a town near Abel-shittim, east of Jordan, in the desert of Moab, where the Israelites encamped not long before crossing the Jordan (Num. 33:49; A.V., "Bethjesimoth"). It was within the territory of Sihon, king of the Amorites (Josh. 12:3). ......

BETH-LE-APHRAH
(R.V. Micah 1:10), house of dust. The Authorized Version reads "in the house of Aphrah." This is probably the name of a town in the Shephelah, or "low country," between Joppa and Gaza. ......

BETH-PEOR
house of Peor; i.e., "temple of Baal-peor", a place in Moab, on the east of Jordan, opposite Jericho. It was in the tribe of Reuben (Josh. 13:20; Deut. 3:29;4:46). In the "ravine" or valley over against Beth-peor Moses was probably buried (Deut. 34:6). ......

BETH-PHAGE
house of the unripe fig, a village on the Mount of Olives, on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho (Matt. 21:1; Mark 11:1; Luke 19:29), and very close to Bethany. It was the limit of a Sabbath-day's journey from Jerusalem, i.e., 2,000 cubits. It has been identified with the modern Kefr-et-Tur. ......

BETH-SHEAN
house of security or rest, a city which belonged to Manasseh (1-Chr 7:29), on the west of Jordan. The bodies of Saul and his sons were fastened to its walls. In Solomon's time it gave its name to a district (1-Kings 4:12). The name is found in an abridged form, Bethshan, in 1-Sam 31:10, 1-Sam 31: 12 and 2-Sam 21:12. It is on the road from Jerusalem to Damascus, about 5 miles from the Jordan, and 1......

BETH-SHEMESH
house of the sun. (1.) A sacerdotal city in the tribe of Dan (Josh. 21:16; 1-Sam 6:15), on the north border of Judah (Josh. 15:10). It was the scene of an encounter between Jehoash, king of Israel, and Amaziah, king of Judah, in which the latter was made prisoner (2-Kings 14:11, 2-Kings 14: 13). It was afterwards taken by the Philistines (2-Chr 28:18). It is the modern ruined Arabic village 'Ain-s......

BETH-TAPPUAH
house of apples, a town of Judah, now Tuffuh, 5 miles west of Hebron (Josh. 15:53). ......

BETHABARA
house of the ford, a place on the east bank of the Jordan, where John was baptizing (John 1:28). It may be identical with Bethbarah, the ancient ford of Jordan of which the men of Ephraim took possession (Judg. 7:24). The Revised Version reads "Bethany beyond Jordan." It was the great ford, and still bears the name of "the ford," Makhadhet 'Abarah, "the ford of crossing over," about 25 miles from ......

BETHANY
house of dates. (1.) The Revised Version in John 1:28 has this word instead of Bethabara, on the authority of the oldest manuscripts. It appears to have been the name of a place on the east of Jordan. (2.) A village on the south-eastern slope of the Mount of Olives (Mark 11:1), about 2 miles east of Jerusalem, on the road to Jericho. It derived its name from the number of palm-trees which grew t......

BETHEL
house of God. (1.) A place in Central Palestine, about 10 miles north of Jerusalem, at the head of the pass of Michmash and Ai. It was originally the royal Canaanite city of Luz (Gen. 28:19). The name Bethel was at first apparently given to the sanctuary in the neighbourhood of Luz, and was not given to the city itself till after its conquest by the tribe of Ephraim. When Abram entered Canaan he f......

BETHELITE
a designation of Hiel (q.v.), who rebuilt Jericho and experienced the curse pronounced long before (1-Kings 16:34). ......

BETHER
dissection or separation, certain mountains mentioned in 2:17; probably near Lebanon. ......

BETHESDA
house of mercy, a reservoir (Gr. kolumbethra, "a swimming bath") with five porches, close to the sheep-gate or market (Neh. 3:1; John 5:2). Eusebius the historian (A.D. 330) calls it "the sheep-pool." It is also called "Bethsaida" and "Beth-zatha" (John 5:2, John 5: R.V. marg.). Under these "porches" or colonnades were usually a large number of infirm people waiting for the "troubling of the water......

BETHLEHEM
house of bread. (1.) A city in the "hill country" of Judah. It was originally called Ephrath (Gen. 35:16, Gen. 35: 19;48:7; Ruth 4:11). It was also called Beth-lehem Ephratah (Micah 5:2), Beth-lehem-judah (1-Sam 17:12), and "the city of David" (Luke 2:4). It is first noticed in Scripture as the place where Rachel died and was buried "by the wayside," directly to the north of the city (Gen. 48:7). ......

BETHSAIDA
house of fish. (1.) A town in Galilee, on the west side of the sea of Tiberias, in the "land of Gennesaret." It was the native place of Peter, Andrew, and Philip, and was frequently resorted to by Jesus (Mark 6:45; John 1:44;12:21). It is supposed to have been at the modern 'Ain Tabighah, a bay to the north of Gennesaret. (2.) A city near which Christ fed 5,000 (Luke 9:10; comp. John 6:17; Matt.......

BETHUEL
man of God, or virgin of God, or house of God. (1.) The son of Nahor by Milcah; nephew of Abraham, and father of Rebekah (Gen. 22:22, Gen. 22: 23;24:15, 24: 24, 47). He appears in person only once (24:50). (2.) A southern city of Judah (1-Chr 4:30); called also Bethul (Josh. 19:4) and Bethel (12:16; 1-Sam 30:27). ......

BETHZUR
house of rock, a town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:58), about 4 miles to the north of Hebron. It was built by Rehoboam for the defence of his kingdom (2-Chr 11:7). It stood near the modern ed-Dirweh. Its ruins are still seen on a hill which bears the name of Beit-Sur, and which commands the road from Beer-sheba and Hebron to Jerusalem from the south. ......

BETROTH
to promise "by one's truth." Men and women were betrothed when they were engaged to be married. This usually took place a year or more before marriage. From the time of betrothal the woman was regarded as the lawful wife of the man to whom she was betrothed (Deut. 28:30; Judg. 14:2, Judg. 14: 8; Matt. 1:18). The term is figuratively employed of the spiritual connection between God and his people (......

BEULAH
married, is used in Isa. 62:4 metaphorically as the name of Judea: "Thy land shall be married," i.e., favoured and blessed of the Lord. ......

BEWRAY
to reveal or disclose; an old English word equivalent to "betray" (Prov. 27:16;29:24, 29: R.V., "uttereth;" Isa. 16:3; Matt. 26:73). ......

BEYOND
when used with reference to Jordan, signifies in the writings of Moses the west side of the river, as he wrote on the east bank (Gen. 50:10, Gen. 50: 11; Deut. 1:1, Deut. 1: 5;3:8, 3: 20;4:46); but in the writings of Joshua, after he had crossed the river, it means the east side (Josh. 5:1;12:7;22:7). ......

BEZALEEL
in the shadow of God; i.e., "under his protection", the artificer who executed the work of art in connection with the tabernacle in the wilderness (Exo 31:2;35:30). He was engaged principally in works of metal, wood, and stone; while Aholiab, who was associated with him and subordinate to him, had the charge of the textile fabrics (36:1, 36: 2;38:22). He was of the tribe of Judah, the son of Uri, ......

BEZEK
lightning. (1.) The residence of Adoni-bezek, in the lot of Judah (Judg. 1:5). It was in the mountains, not far from Jerusalem. Probably the modern Bezkah, 6 miles south-east of Lydda. (2.) The place where Saul numbered the forces of Israel and Judah (1-Sam 11:8); somewhere in the centre of the country, near the Jordan valley. Probably the modern Ibzik, 13 miles north-east of Shechem. ......

BEZER
ore of gold or silver. (1.) A city of the Reubenites; one of the three cities of refuge on the east of Jordan (Deut. 4:43; Josh. 20:8). It has been identified with the modern ruined village of Burazin, some 12 miles north of Heshbon; also with Kasur-el-Besheir, 2 miles south-west of Dibon. (2.) A descendant of Asher (1-Chr 7:37). ......

BIBLE
Bible, the English form of the Greek name _Biblia_, meaning "books," the name which in the fifth century began to be given to the entire collection of sacred books, the "Library of Divine Revelation." The name Bible was adopted by Wickliffe, and came gradually into use in our English language. The Bible consists of sixty-six different books, composed by many different writers, in three different l......

BIER
the frame on which dead bodies were conveyed to the grave (Luke 7:14). ......

BIGTHA
garden, or gift of fortune, one of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains who had charge of the harem of Ahasuerus (Esther 1:10). ......

BIGTHAN
one of the eunuchs who "kept the door" in the court of Ahasuerus. With Teresh he conspired against the king's life. Mordecai detected the conspiracy, and the culprits were hanged (Esther 2:21;6:1). ......

BILDAD
son of contention, one of Job's friends. He is called "the Shuhite," probably as belonging to Shuah, a district in Arabia, in which Shuah, the sixth son of Abraham by Keturah, settled (Gen. 25:2). He took part in each of the three controversies into which Job's friends entered with him (Job 8:1;18:1;25:1), and delivered three speeches, very severe and stern in their tone, although less violent tha......

BILGAH
cheerful. (1.) The head of the fifteenth sacerdotal course for the temple service (1-Chr 24:14). (2.) A priest who returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:5, Neh. 12: 18). ......

BILHAH
faltering; bashful, Rachel's handmaid, whom she gave to Jacob (Gen. 29:29). She was the mother of Dan and Naphtali (Gen. 30:3). Reuben was cursed by his father for committing adultry with her (35:22;49:4). He was deprived of the birth-right, which was given to the sons of Joseph. ......

BILSHAN
son of the tongue; i.e., "eloquent", a man of some note who returned from the Captivity with Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:2; Neh. 7:7). ......

BIRD
Birds are divided in the Mosaic law into two classes, (1) the clean (Lev. 1:14;5:7;14:4), which were offered in sacrifice; and (2) the unclean (Lev. 11:13). When offered in sacrifice, they were not divided as other victims were (Gen. 15:10). They are mentioned also as an article of food (Deut. 14:11). The art of snaring wild birds is referred to (Psa 124:7; Prov. 1:17;7:23; Jer. 5:27). Singing bir......

BIRSHA
son of wickedness, a king of Gomorrah whom Abraham succoured in the invasion of Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:2). ......

BIRTH
As soon as a child was born it was washed, and rubbed with salt (Ezek. 16:4), and then swathed with bandages (Job 38:9; Luke 2:7, Luke 2: 12). A Hebrew mother remained forty days in seclusion after the birth of a son, and after the birth of a daughter double that number of days. At the close of that period she entered into the tabernacle or temple and offered up a sacrifice of purification (Lev. 1......

BIRTH-DAY
The observance of birth-days was common in early times (Job 1:4, Job 1: 13, 18). They were specially celebrated in the land of Egypt (Gen. 40:20). There is no recorded instance in Scripture of the celebration of birth-days among the Jews. On the occasion of Herod's birth-day John the Baptist was beheaded (Matt. 14:6). ......

BIRTHRIGHT
(1.) This word denotes the special privileges and advantages belonging to the first-born son among the Jews. He became the priest of the family. Thus Reuben was the first-born of the patriarchs, and so the priesthood of the tribes belonged to him. That honour was, however, transferred by God from Reuben to Levi (Num. 3:12, Num. 3: 13;8:18). (2.) The first-born son had allotted to him also a doub......

BISHOP
an overseer. In apostolic times, it is quite manifest that there was no difference as to order between bishops and elders or presbyters (Acts 20:17; 1-Pet 5:1, 1-Pet 5: 2; Phil. 1:1; 1 Tim. 3). The term bishop is never once used to denote a different office from that of elder or presbyter. These different names are simply titles of the same office, "bishop" designating the function, namely, that o......

BIT
the curb put into the mouths of horses to restrain them. The Hebrew word (metheg) so rendered in Psa 32:9 is elsewhere translated "bridle" (2-Kings 19:28; Prov. 26:3; Isa. 37:29). Bits were generally made of bronze or iron, but sometimes also of gold or silver. In James 3:3 the Authorized Version translates the Greek word by "bits," but the Revised Version by "bridles." ......

BITH-RON
the broken or divided place, a district in the Arabah or Jordan valley, on the east of the river (2-Sam 2:29). It was probably the designation of the region in general, which is broken and intersected by ravines. ......

BITHYNIA
a province in Asia Minor, to the south of the Euxine and Propontis. Christian congregations were here formed at an early time (1-Pet 1:1). Paul was prevented by the Spirit from entering this province (Acts 16:7). It is noted in church history as the province ruled over by Pliny as Roman proconsul, who was perplexed as to the course he should take with the numerous Christians brought before his tri......

BITTER
Bitterness is symbolical of affliction, misery, and servitude (Exo 1:14; Ruth 1:20; Jer. 9:15). The Chaldeans are called the "bitter and hasty nation" (Hab. 1:6). The "gall of bitterness" expresses a state of great wickedness (Acts 8:23). A "root of bitterness" is a wicked person or a dangerous sin (Heb. 12:15). The Passover was to be eaten with "bitter herbs" (Exo 12:8; Num. 9:11). The kind of ......

BITTERN
is found three times in connection with the desolations to come upon Babylon, Idumea, and Nineveh (Isa. 14:23;34:11; Zeph. 2:14). This bird belongs to the class of cranes. Its scientific name is Botaurus stellaris. It is a solitary bird, frequenting marshy ground. The Hebrew word (kippod) thus rendered in the Authorized Version is rendered "porcupine" in the Revised Version. But in the passages no......

BITUMEN
Gen. 11:3, Gen. 11: R.V., margin, rendered in the A.V. "slime"), a mineral pitch. With this the ark was pitched (6:14. See also Exo 2:3.) (See SLIME.) ......

BLACK
properly the absence of all colour. In Prov. 7:9 the Hebrew word means, as in the margin of the Revised Version, "the pupil of the eye." It is translated "apple" of the eye in Deut. 32:10; Psa 17:8; Prov. 7:2. It is a different word which is rendered "black" in Lev. 13:31, Lev. 13:37; 1:5;5:11; and Zech. 6:2, Zech. 6: 6. It is uncertain what the "black marble" of Esther 1:6 was which formed a part......

BLADE
applied to the glittering point of a spear (Job 39:23) or sword (Nah. 3:3), the blade of a dagger (Judg. 3:22); the "shoulder blade" (Job 31:22); the "blade" of cereals (Matt. 13:26). ......

BLAINS
occurs only in connection with the sixth plague of Egypt (Exo 9:9, Exo 9: 10). In Deut. 28:27, Deut. 28: 35, it is called "the botch of Egypt." It seems to have been the fearful disease of black leprosy, a kind of elephantiasis, producing burning ulcers. ......

BLASPHEMY
In the sense of speaking evil of God this word is found in Psa 74:18; Isa. 52:5; Rom. 2:24; Rev. 13:1, Rev. 13: 6;16:9, 16: 11, 21. It denotes also any kind of calumny, or evil-speaking, or abuse (1-Kings 21:10; Acts 13:45;18:6, 18: etc.). Our Lord was accused of blasphemy when he claimed to be the Son of God (Matt. 26:65; comp. Matt. 9:3; Mark 2:7). They who deny his Messiahship blaspheme Jesus (......

BLASTUS
chamberlain to king Herod Agrippa I. (Acts 12:20). Such persons generally had great influence with their masters. ......

BLEMISH
imperfection or bodily deformity excluding men from the priesthood, and rendering animals unfit to be offered in sacrifice (Lev. 21:17;22:19). The Christian church, as justified in Christ, is "without blemish" (Eph. 5:27). Christ offered himself a sacrifice "without blemish," acceptable to God (1-Pet 1:19). ......

BLESS
(1.) God blesses his people when he bestows on them some gift temporal or spiritual (Gen. 1:22;24:35; Job 42:12; Psa 45:2;104:24, 104: 35). (2.) We bless God when we thank him for his mercies (Psa 103:1, Psa 103: 2;145:1, 145: 2). (3.) A man blesses himself when he invokes God's blessing (Isa. 65:16), or rejoices in God's goodness to him (Deut. 29:19; Psa 49:18). (4.) One blesses another whe......

BLIND
Blind beggars are frequently mentioned (Matt. 9:27;12:22;20:30; John 5:3). The blind are to be treated with compassion (Lev. 19:14; Deut. 27:18). Blindness was sometimes a punishment for disobedience (1-Sam 11:2; Jer. 39:7), sometimes the effect of old age (Gen. 27:1; 1-Kings 14:4; 1-Sam 4:15). Conquerors sometimes blinded their captives (2-Kings 25:7; 1-Sam 11:2). Blindness denotes ignorance as t......

BLOOD
(1.) As food, prohibited in Gen. 9:4, Gen. 9: where the use of animal food is first allowed. Comp. Deut. 12:23; Lev. 3:17;7:26;17:10. The injunction to abstain from blood is renewed in the decree of the council of Jerusalem (Acts 15:29). It has been held by some, and we think correctly, that this law of prohibition was only ceremonial and temporary; while others regard it as still binding on all. ......

BLOODY SWEAT
the sign and token of our Lord's great agony (Luke 22:44). ......

BLOT
a stain or reproach (Job 31:7; Prov. 9:7). To blot out sin is to forgive it (Psa 51:1, Psa 51: 9; Isa. 44:22; Acts 3:19). Christ's blotting out the handwriting of ordinances was his fulfilling the law in our behalf (Col. 2:14). ......

BLUE
generally associated with purple (Exo 25:4;26:1, 26: 31, 36, etc.). It is supposed to have been obtained from a shellfish of the Mediterranean, the Helix ianthina of Linnaeus. The robe of the high priest's ephod was to be all of this colour (Exo 28:31), also the loops of the curtains (26:4) and the ribbon of the breastplate (28:28). Blue cloths were also made for various sacred purposes (Num. 4:6,......

BOANERGES
sons of thunder, a surname given by our Lord to James and John (Mark 3:17) on account of their fervid and impetuous temper (Luke 9:54). ......

BOAR
occurs only in Psa 80:13. The same Hebrew word is elsewhere rendered "swine" (Lev. 11:7; Deut. 14:8; Prov. 11:22; Isa. 65:4;66:3, 66: 17). The Hebrews abhorred swine's flesh, and accordingly none of these animals were reared, except in the district beyond the Sea of Galilee. In the psalm quoted above the powers that destroyed the Jewish nation are compared to wild boars and wild beasts of the fiel......

BOAZ
alacrity. (1.) The husband of Ruth, a wealthy Bethlehemite. By the "levirate law" the duty devolved on him of marrying Ruth the Moabitess (Ruth 4:1). He was a kinsman of Mahlon, her first husband. (2.) The name given (for what reason is unknown) to one of the two (the other was called Jachin) brazen pillars which Solomon erected in the court of the temple (1-Kings 7:21; 2-Chr 3:17). These pillar......

BOCHIM
weepers, a place where the angel of the Lord reproved the Israelites for entering into a league with the people of the land. This caused them bitterly to weep, and hence the name of the place (Judg. 2:1, Judg. 2: 5). It lay probably at the head of one of the valleys between Gilgal and Shiloh. ......

BOIL
(rendered "botch" in Deut. 28:27, Deut. 28: 35), an aggravated ulcer, as in the case of Hezekiah (2-Kings 20:7; Isa. 38:21) or of the Egyptians (Exo 9:9, Exo 9: 10, 11; Deut. 28:27, Deut. 28: 35). It designates the disease of Job (2:7), which was probably the black leprosy. ......

BOLLED
(Exo 9:31), meaning "swollen or podded for seed," was adopted in the Authorized Version from the version of Coverdale (1535). The Revised Version has in the margin "was in bloom," which is the more probable rendering of the Hebrew word. It is the fact that in Egypt when barley is in ear (about February) flax is blossoming. ......

BOLSTER
The Hebrew word _kebir_, rendered "pillow" in 1-Sam 19:13, 1-Sam 19: 16, but in Revised Version marg. "quilt" or "network," probably means some counterpane or veil intended to protect the head of the sleeper. A different Hebrew word (meraashoth') is used for "bolster" (1-Sam 26:7, 1-Sam 26: 11, 16). It is rightly rendered in Revised Version "at his head." In Gen. 28:11, Gen. 28: 18 the Authorized ......

BOND
an obligation of any kind (Num. 30:2, Num. 30: 4, 12). The word means also oppression or affliction (Psa 116:16; Phil. 1:7). Christian love is the "bond of perfectness" (Col. 3:14), and the influences of the Spirit are the "bond of peace" (Eph. 4:3). ......

BONDAGE
of Israel in Egypt (Exo 2:23, Exo 2: 25; 5), which is called the "house of bondage" (13:3;20:2). This word is used also with reference to the captivity in Babylon (Isa. 14:3), and the oppression of the Persian king (Ezra 9:8, Ezra 9: 9). ......

BONNET
(Heb. peer), Exo 39:28 (R.V., "head-tires"); Ezek. 44:18 (R.V., "tires"), denotes properly a turban worn by priests, and in Isa. 3:20 (R.V., "head-tires") a head-dress or tiara worn by females. The Hebrew word so rendered literally means an ornament, as in Isa. 61:10 (R.V., "garland"), and in Ezek. 24:17, Ezek. 24: 23 "tire" (R.V., "head-tire"). It consisted of a piece of cloth twisted about the h......

BOOK
This word has a comprehensive meaning in Scripture. In the Old Testament it is the rendering of the Hebrew word _sepher_, which properly means a "writing," and then a "volume" (Exo 17:14; Deut. 28:58;29:20; Job 19:23) or "roll of a book" (Jer. 36:2, Jer. 36: 4). Books were originally written on skins, on linen or cotton cloth, and on Egyptian papyrus, whence our word "paper." The leaves of the b......

BOOTH
a hut made of the branches of a tree. In such tabernacles Jacob sojourned for a season at a place named from this circumstance Succoth (Gen. 33:17). Booths were erected also at the feast of Tabernacles (q.v.), Lev. 23:42, Lev. 23: 43, which commemorated the abode of the Israelites in the wilderness. ......

BOOTY
captives or cattle or objects of value taken in war. In Canaan all that breathed were to be destroyed (Deut. 20:16). The "pictures and images" of the Canaanites were to be destroyed also (Num. 33:52). The law of booty as to its division is laid down in Num. 31:26. David afterwards introduced a regulation that the baggage-guard should share the booty equally with the soldiers engaged in battle. He ......

BORROW
The Israelites "borrowed" from the Egyptians (Exo 12:35, Exo 12: R.V., "asked") in accordance with a divine command (3:22;11:2). But the word (sha'al) so rendered here means simply and always to "request" or "demand." The Hebrew had another word which is properly translated "borrow" in Deut. 28:12; Psa 37:21. It was well known that the parting was final. The Egyptians were so anxious to get the Is......

BOSOM
In the East objects are carried in the bosom which Europeans carry in the pocket. To have in one's bosom indicates kindness, secrecy, or intimacy (Gen. 16:5; 2-Sam 12:8). Christ is said to have been in "the bosom of the Father," i.e., he had the most perfect knowledge of the Father, had the closest intimacy with him (John 1:18). John (13:23) was "leaning on Jesus' bosom" at the last supper. Our Lo......

BOSOR
the Chaldee or Aramaic form of the name Beor, the father of Balaam (2-Pet 2:15). ......

BOSSES
the projecting parts of a shield (Job 15:26). The Hebrew word thus rendered means anything convex or arched, and hence the back, as of animals. ......

BOTCH
the name given in Deut. 28:27, Deut. 28: 35 to one of the Egyptian plagues (Exo 9:9). The word so translated is usually rendered "boil" (q.v.). ......

BOTTLE
a vessel made of skins for holding wine (Josh. 9:4. 13; 1-Sam 16:20; Matt. 9:17; Mark 2:22; Luke 5:37, Luke 5: 38), or milk (Judg. 4:19), or water (Gen. 21:14, Gen. 21: 15, 19), or strong drink (Hab. 2:15). Earthenware vessels were also similarly used (Jer. 19:1; 1-Kings 14:3; Isa. 30:14). In Job 32:19 (comp. Matt. 9:17; Luke 5:37, Luke 5: 38; Mark 2:22) the reference is to a wine-skin ready to ......

BOW
The bow was in use in early times both in war and in the chase (Gen. 21:20;27:3;48:22). The tribe of Benjamin were famous for the use of the bow (1-Chr 8:40;12:2; 2-Chr 14:8;17:17); so also were the Elamites (Isa. 22:6) and the Lydians (Jer. 46:9). The Hebrew word commonly used for bow means properly to tread (1-Chr 5:18;8:40), and hence it is concluded that the foot was employed in bending the bo......

BOWELS
(Phil. 1:8;2:1; Col. 3:12), compassionate feelings; R.V., "tender mercies." ......

BOWING
a mode of showing respect. Abraham "bowed himself to the people of the land" (Gen. 23:7); so Jacob to Esau (Gen. 33:3); and the brethren of Joseph before him as the governor of the land (Gen. 43:28). Bowing is also frequently mentioned as an act of adoration to idols (Josh. 23:7; 2-Kings 5:18; Judg. 2:19; Isa. 44:15), and to God (Josh. 5:14; Psa 22:29;72:9; Micah 6:6; Psa 95:6; Eph. 3:14). ......

BOWL
The sockets of the lamps of the golden candlestick of the tabernacle are called bowls (Exo 25:31, Exo 25: 33, 34;37:17, 37: 19, 20); the same word so rendered being elsewhere rendered "cup" (Gen. 44:2, Gen. 44: 12, 16), and wine "pot" (Jer. 35:5). The reservoir for oil, from which pipes led to each lamp in Zechariah's vision of the candlestick, is called also by this name (Zech. 4:2, Zech. 4: 3); ......

BOX
for holding oil or perfumery (Mark 14:3). It was of the form of a flask or bottle. The Hebrew word (pak) used for it is more appropriately rendered "vial" in 1-Sam 10:1, 1-Sam 10: and should also be so rendered in 2-Kings 9:1, 2-Kings 9: where alone else it occurs. ......

BOX-TREE
(Heb. teashshur), mentioned in Isa. 60:13;41:19, 41: was, according to some, a species of cedar growing in Lebanon. The words of Ezek. 27:6 literally translated are, "Thy benches they have made of ivory, the daughter of the ashur tree," i.e., inlaid with ashur wood. The ashur is the box-tree, and accordingly the Revised Version rightly reads "inlaid in box wood." This is the Buxus sempervirens of ......

BOZRAH
enclosure; fortress. (1.) The city of Jobab, one of the early Edomite kings (Gen. 36:33). This place is mentioned by the prophets in later times (Isa. 34:6; Jer. 49:13; Amos 1:12; Micah 2:12). Its modern representative is el-Busseireh. It lies in the mountain district of Petra, 20 miles to the south-east of the Dead Sea. (2.) A Moabite city in the "plain country" (Jer. 48:24), i.e., on the high ......

BRACELET
(1.) Anklets (Num. 31:50; 2-Sam 1:10), and with reference to men. (2.) The rendering of a Hebrew word meaning fasteners, found in Gen. 24:22, Gen. 24: 30, 47. (3.) In Isa. 3:19, Isa. 3: the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning chains, i.e., twisted or chain-like bracelets. (4.) In Exo 35:22 it designates properly a clasp for fastening the dress of females. Some interpret it as a nose-ring. (......

BRAMBLE
(1.) Hebrew _atad_, Judg. 9:14; rendered "thorn," Psa 58:9. The LXX. and Vulgate render by rhamnus, a thorny shrub common in Palestine, resembling the hawthorn. (2.) Hebrew _hoah_, Isa. 34:13 (R.V. "thistles"); "thickets" in 1-Sam 13:6; "thistles" in 2-Kings 14:9, 2-Kings 14: 2-Chr 25:18, 2-Chr 25: Job 31:40; "thorns" in 2-Chr 33:11, 2-Chr 33: 2:2, 2: Hos. 9:6. The word may be regarded as denoti......

BRANCH
a symbol of kings descended from royal ancestors (Ezek. 17:3, Ezek. 17: 10; Dan. 11:7); of prosperity (Job 8:16); of the Messiah, a branch out of the root of the stem of Jesse (Isa. 11:1), the "beautiful branch" (4:2), a "righteous branch" (Jer. 23:5), "the Branch" (Zech. 3:8;6:12). Disciples are branches of the true vine (John 15:5, John 15: 6). "The branch of the terrible ones" (Isa. 25:5) is ......

BRASS
which is an alloy of copper and zinc, was not known till the thirteenth century. What is designated by this word in Scripture is properly copper (Deut. 8:9). It was used for fetters (Judg. 16:21; 2-Kings 25:7), for pieces of armour (1-Sam 17:5, 1-Sam 17: 6), for musical instruments (1-Chr 15:19; 1-Cor 13:1), and for money (Matt. 10:9). It is a symbol of insensibility and obstinacy in sin (Isa. 4......

BRAVERY
(Isa. 3:18), an old English word meaning comeliness or beauty. ......

BREACH
an opening in a wall (1-Kings 11:27; 2-Kings 12:5); the fracture of a limb (Lev. 24:20), and hence the expression, "Heal, etc." (Psa 60:2). Judg. 5:17, Judg. 5: a bay or harbour; R.V., "by his creeks." ......

BREAD
among the Jews was generally made of wheat (Exo 29:2; Judg. 6:19), though also sometimes of other grains (Gen. 14:18; Judg. 7:13). Parched grain was sometimes used for food without any other preparation (Ruth 2:14). Bread was prepared by kneading in wooden bowls or "kneading troughs" (Gen. 18:6; Exo 12:34; Jer. 7:18). The dough was mixed with leaven and made into thin cakes, round or oval, and t......

BREASTPLATE
(1.) That piece of ancient armour that protected the breast. This word is used figuratively in Eph. 6:14 and Isa. 59:17. (See ARMOUR.) (2.) An ornament covering the breast of the high priest, first mentioned in Exo 25:7. It was made of embroidered cloth, set with four rows of precious stones, three in each row. On each stone was engraved the name of one of the twelve tribes (Exo 28:15;39:8). It ......

BREECHES
(Exo 28:42), rather linen drawers, reaching from the waist to a little above the knee, worn by the priests (Ezek. 44:17, Ezek. 44: 18). ......

BRIBE
None to be taken; "for the gift maketh open eyes blind, and perverteth the cause of the righteous" (Exo 23:8, Exo 23: literally rendered). ......

BRICKS
the making of, formed the chief labour of the Israelites in Egypt (Exo 1:13, Exo 1: 14). Those found among the ruins of Babylon and Nineveh are about a foot square and four inches thick. They were usually dried in the sun, though also sometimes in kilns (2-Sam 12:31; Jer. 43:9; Nah. 3:14). (See NEBUCHADNEZZAR.) The bricks used in the tower of Babel were burnt bricks, cemented in the building by ......

BRIDE
frequently used in the ordinary sense (Isa. 49:18;61:10, 61: etc.). The relation between Christ and his church is set forth under the figure of that between a bridegroom and bride (John 3:29). The church is called "the bride" (Rev. 21:9;22:17). Compare parable of the Ten Virgins (Matt. 25:1). ......

BRIDLE
Three Hebrew words are thus rendered in the Authorized Version. (1.) Heb. _mahsom'_ signifies a muzzle or halter or bridle, by which the rider governs his horse (Psa 39:1). (2.) _Me'theg_, rendered also "bit" in Psa 32:9, Psa 32: which is its proper meaning. Found in 2-Kings 19:28, 2-Kings 19: where the restraints of God's providence are metaphorically styled his "bridle" and "hook." God's placi......

BRIER
This word occurs frequently, and is the translation of several different terms. (1.) Micah 7:4, Micah 7: it denotes a species of thorn shrub used for hedges. In Prov. 15:19 the word is rendered "thorn" (Heb. _hedek_, "stinging"), supposed by some to be what is called the "apple of Sodom" (q.v.). (2.) Ezek. 28:24, Ezek. 28: _sallon'_, properly a "prickle," such as is found on the shoots of the pa......

BRIGANDINE
(Jer. 46:4;51:3), an obsolete English word denoting a scale coat of armour, or habergeon, worn by light-armed "brigands." The Revised Version has "coat of mail."......

BRIMSTONE
an inflammable mineral substance found in quantities on the shores of the Dead Sea. The cities of the plain were destroyed by a rain of fire and brimstone (Gen. 19:24, Gen. 19: 25). In Isa. 34:9 allusion is made to the destruction of these cities. This word figuratively denotes destruction or punishment (Job 18:15; Isa. 30:33;34:9; Psa 11:6; Ezek. 38:22). It is used to express the idea of excrucia......

BROOK
a torrent. (1.) Applied to small streams, as the Arnon, Jabbok, etc. Isaiah (15:7) speaks of the "book of the willows," probably the Wady-el-Asha. (2.) It is also applied to winter torrents (Job 6:15; Num. 34:5; Josh. 15:4, Josh. 15: 47), and to the torrent-bed or wady as well as to the torrent itself (Num. 13:23; 1-Kings 17:3). (3.) In Isa. 19:7 the river Nile is meant, as rendered in the Revised......

BROTHER
(1.) In the natural and common sense (Matt. 1:2; Luke 3:1, Luke 3: 19). (2.) A near relation, a cousin (Gen. 13:8;14:16; Matt. 12:46; John 7:3; Acts 1:14; Gal. 1:19). (3.) Simply a fellow-countryman (Matt. 5:47; Acts 3:22; Heb. 7:5). (4.) A disciple or follower (Matt. 25:40; Heb. 2:11, Heb. 2: 12). (5.) One of the same faith (Amos 1:9; Acts 9:30;11:29; 1-Cor 5:11); whence the early discipl......

BRUIT
a rumour or report (Jer. 10:22, Jer. 10: R.V. "rumour;" Nah. 3:19).......

BUCKET
a vessel to draw water with (Isa. 40:15); used figuratively, probably, of a numerous issue (Num. 24:7).......

BUCKLER
(1.) A portable shield (2-Sam 22:31; 1-Chr 5:18). (2.) A shield surrounding the person; the targe or round form; used once figuratively (Psa 91:4). (3.) A large shield protecting the whole body (Psa 35:2; Ezek. 23:24;26:8). (4.) A lance or spear; improperly rendered "buckler" in the Authorized Version (1-Chr 12:8), but correctly in the Revised Version "spear." The leather of shields requir......

BUILDING
among the Jews was suited to the climate and conditions of the country. They probably adopted the kind of architecture for their dwellings which they found already existing when they entered Canaan (Deut. 6:10; Num. 13:19). Phoenician artists (2-Sam 5:11; 1-Kings 5:6, 1-Kings 5: 18) assisted at the erection of the royal palace and the temple at Jerusalem. Foreigners also assisted at the restoratio......

BUL
rainy, the eighth ecclesiastical month of the year (1-Kings 6:38), and the second month of the civil year; later called Marchesvan (q.v.). (See MONTH.)......

BULLOCK
(1.) The translation of a word which is a generic name for horned cattle (Isa. 65:25). It is also rendered "cow" (Ezek. 4:15), "ox" (Gen. 12:16). (2.) The translation of a word always meaning an animal of the ox kind, without distinction of age or sex (Hos. 12:11). It is rendered "cow" (Num. 18:17) and "ox" (Lev. 17:3). (3.) Another word is rendered in the same way (Jer. 31:18). It is also tra......

BULRUSH
(1.) In Isa. 58:5 the rendering of a word which denotes "belonging to a marsh," from the nature of the soil in which it grows (Isa. 18:2). It was sometimes platted into ropes (Job. 41:2; A.V., "hook," R.V., "rope," lit. "cord of rushes"). (2.) In Exo 2:3, Exo 2: Isa. 18:2 (R.V., "papyrus") this word is the translation of the Hebrew _gome_, which designates the plant as absorbing moisture. In Isa......

BULWARKS
mural towers, bastions, were introduced by king Uzziah (2-Chr 26:15; Zeph. 1:16; Psa 48:13; Isa. 26:1). There are five Hebrew words so rendered in the Authorized Version, but the same word is also variously rendered.......

BUNCH
(1.) A bundle of twigs (Exo 12:22). (2.) Bunch or cake of raisins (2-Sam 16:1). (3.) The "bunch of a camel" (Isa. 30:6).......

BURDEN
(1.) A load of any kind (Exo 23:5). (2.) A severe task (Exo 2:11). (3.) A difficult duty, requiring effort (Exo 18:22). (4.) A prophecy of a calamitous or disastrous nature (Isa. 13:1;17:1; Hab. 1:1, Hab. 1: etc.).......

BURIAL
The first burial we have an account of is that of Sarah (Gen. 23). The first commercial transaction recorded is that of the purchase of a burial-place, for which Abraham weighed to Ephron "four hundred shekels of silver current money with the merchants." Thus the patriarch became the owner of a part of the land of Canaan, the only part he ever possessed. When he himself died, "his sons Isaac and I......

BURNT OFFERING
Hebrew _olah_; i.e., "ascending," the whole being consumed by fire, and regarded as ascending to God while being consumed. Part of every offering was burnt in the sacred fire, but this was wholly burnt, a "whole burnt offering." It was the most frequent form of sacrifice, and apparently the only one mentioned in the book of Genesis. Such were the sacrifices offered by Abel (Gen. 4:3, Gen. 4: 4, he......

BUSH
in which Jehovah appeared to Moses in the wilderness (Exo 3:2; Acts 7:30). It is difficult to say what particular kind of plant or bush is here meant. Probably it was the mimosa or acacia. The words "in the bush" in Mark 12:26; Luke 20:37, Luke 20: mean "in the passage or paragraph on the bush;" i.e., in Exo 3.......

BUTLER
properly a servant in charge of the wine (Gen. 40:1;41:9). The Hebrew word, _mashkeh_, thus translated is rendered also (plural) "cup-bearers" (1-Kings 10:5; 2-Chr 9:4). Nehemiah (1:11) was cup-bearer to king Artaxerxes. It was a position of great responsibility and honour in royal households.......

BUTTER
(Heb. hemah), curdled milk (Gen. 18:8; Judg. 5:25; 2-Sam 17:29), or butter in the form of the skim of hot milk or cream, called by the Arabs kaimak, a semi-fluid (Job 20:17;29:6; Deut. 32:14). The words of Prov. 30:33 have been rendered by some "the pressure [not churning] of milk bringeth forth cheese."......

BUZ
contempt. (1.) The second son of Nahor and Milcah, and brother of Huz (Gen. 22:21). Elihu was one of his descendants (Job 32:2). (2.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Gad (1-Chr 5:14). (3.) A district in Arabia Petrea (Jer. 25:23).......

BUZI
the father of the prophet Ezekiel (1:3).......

BY
in the expression "by myself" (A.V., 1-Cor 4:4), means, as rendered in the Revised Version, "against myself."......

BY AND BY
immediately (Matt. 13:21; R.V., "straightway;" Luke 21:9).......

BY-WAYS
only in Judg. 5:6 and Psa 125:5; literally "winding or twisted roads." The margin has "crooked ways."......

BY-WORD
Hebrew _millah_ (Job 30:9), a word or speech, and hence object of talk; Hebrew _mashal_ (Psa 44:14), a proverb or parable. When it denotes a sharp word of derision, as in Deut. 28:37, Deut. 28: 1-Kings 9:7, 1-Kings 9: 2-Chr 7:20, 2-Chr 7: the Hebrew _sheninah_ is used. In Jer. 24:9 it is rendered "taunt."......

CAB
hollow (R.V., "kab"), occurs only in 2-Kings 6:25; a dry measure, the sixth part of a seah, and the eighteenth part of an ephah, equal to about two English quarts.......

CABINS
only in Jer. 37:16 (R.V., "cells"), arched vaults or recesses off a passage or room; cells for the closer confinement of prisoners.......

CABUL
how little! as nothing. (1.) A town on the eastern border of Asher (Josh. 19:27), probably one of the towns given by Solomon to Hiram; the modern Kabul, some 8 miles east of Accho, on the very borders of Galilee. (2.) A district in the north-west of Galilee, near to Tyre, containing twenty cities given to Hiram by Solomon as a reward for various services rendered to him in building the temple (1......

CAESAR
the title assumed by the Roman emperors after Julius Caesar. In the New Testament this title is given to various emperors as sovereigns of Judaea without their accompanying distinctive proper names (John 19:15; Acts 17:7). The Jews paid tribute to Caesar (Matt. 22:17), and all Roman citizens had the right of appeal to him (Acts 25:11). The Caesars referred to in the New Testament are Augustus (Luk......

CAESARA PHILIPPI
a city on the northeast of the marshy plain of el-Huleh, 120 miles north of Jerusalem, and 20 miles north of the Sea of Galilee, at the "upper source" of the Jordan, and near the base of Mount Hermon. It is mentioned in Matt. 16:13 and Mark 8:27 as the northern limit of our Lord's public ministry. According to some its original name was Baal-Gad (Josh. 11:17), or Baal-Hermon (Judg. 3:3; 1-Chr 5:23......

CAESAREA
(Palestinae), a city on the shore of the Mediterranean, on the great road from Tyre to Egypt, about 70 miles northwest of Jerusalem, at the northern extremity of the plain of Sharon. It was built by Herod the Great (B.C. 10), who named it after Caesar Augustus, hence called Caesarea Sebaste (Gr. Sebastos = "Augustus"), on the site of an old town called "Strato's Tower." It was the capital of the R......

CAGE
(Heb. kelub', Jer. 5:27, Jer. 5: marg. "coop;" rendered "basket" in Amos 8:1), a basket of wicker-work in which birds were placed after being caught. In Rev. 18:2 it is the rendering of the Greek _phulake_, properly a prison or place of confinement.......

CAIAPHAS
the Jewish high priest (A.D. 27-36) at the beginning of our Lord's public ministry, in the reign of Tiberius (Luke 3:2), and also at the time of his condemnation and crucifixion (Matt. 26:3, Matt. 26:57; John 11:49;18:13, 18: 14). He held this office during the whole of Pilate's administration. His wife was the daughter of Annas, who had formerly been high priest, and was probably the vicar or dep......

CAIN
a possession; a spear. (1.) The first-born son of Adam and Eve (Gen. 4). He became a tiller of the ground, as his brother Abel followed the pursuits of pastoral life. He was "a sullen, self-willed, haughty, vindictive man; wanting the religious element in his character, and defiant even in his attitude towards God." It came to pass "in process of time" (marg. "at the end of days"), i.e., probably ......

CAINAN
possession; smith. (1.) The fourth antediluvian patriarch, the eldest son of Enos. He was 70 years old at the birth of his eldest son Mahalaleel, after which he lived 840 years (Gen. 5:9), and was 910 years old when he died. He is also called Kenan (1-Chr 1:2). (2.) The son of Arphaxad (Luke 3:36). He is nowhere named in the Old Testament. He is usually called the "second Cainan."......

CAKE
Cakes made of wheat or barley were offered in the temple. They were salted, but unleavened (Exo 29:2; Lev. 2:4). In idolatrous worship thin cakes or wafers were offered "to the queen of heaven" (Jer. 7:18;44:19). Pancakes are described in 2-Sam 13:8, 2-Sam 13: 9. Cakes mingled with oil and baked in the oven are mentioned in Lev. 2:4, Lev. 2: and "wafers unleavened anointed with oil," in Exo 29:2......

CALAH
one of the most ancient cities of Assyria. "Out of that land he [i.e., Nimrod] went forth into Assyria, and built Nineveh, Rehoboth-Ir, and Calah, and Resen" (Gen. 10:11, Gen. 10: R.V.). Its site is now marked probably by the Nimrud ruins on the left bank of the Tigris. These cover an area of about 1,000 acres, and are second only in size and importance to the mass of ruins opposite Mosul. This ci......

CALAMUS
the Latin for cane, Hebrew _Kaneh_, mentioned (Exo 30:23) as one of the ingredients in the holy anointing oil, one of the sweet scents (4:14), and among the articles sold in the markets of Tyre (Ezek. 27:19). The word designates an Oriental plant called the "sweet flag," the Acorus calamus of Linnaeus. It is elsewhere called "sweet cane" (Isa. 43:24; Jer. 6:20). It has an aromatic smell, and when ......

CALCOL
(1-Chr 2:6), sustenance, the same probably as Chalcol (1-Kings 4:31), one of the four sages whom Solomon excelled in wisdom; for "he was wiser than all men."......

CALEB
a dog. (1.) One of the three sons of Hezron of the tribe of Judah. He is also called Chelubai (1-Chr 2:9). His descendants are enumerated (18-20, 42-49). (2.) A "son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah" (1-Chr 2:50). Some would read the whole passage thus: "These [i.e., the list in ver. 42-49] were the sons of Caleb. The sons of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah, were Shobal, etc." Thus Hur would be ......

CALF
Calves were commonly made use of in sacrifices, and are therefore frequently mentioned in Scripture. The "fatted calf" was regarded as the choicest of animal food; it was frequently also offered as a special sacrifice (1-Sam 28:24; Amos 6:4; Luke 15:23). The words used in Jer. 34:18, Jer. 34: 19, "cut the calf in twain," allude to the custom of dividing a sacrifice into two parts, between which th......

CALKERS
workmen skilled in stopping the seams of the deck or sides of vessels. The inhabitants of Gebel were employed in such work on Tyrian vessels (Ezek. 27:9, Ezek. 27: 27; marg., "strengtheners" or "stoppers of chinks").......

CALL
(1.) To cry for help, hence to pray (Gen. 4:26). Thus men are said to "call upon the name of the Lord" (Acts 2:21;7:59;9:14; Rom. 10:12; 1-Cor 1:2). (2.) God calls with respect to men when he designates them to some special office (Exo 31:2; Isa. 22:20; Acts 13:2), and when he invites them to accept his offered grace (Matt. 9:13;11:28;22:4). In the message of the gospel his call is addressed t......

CALLING
a profession, or as we usually say, a vocation (1-Cor 7:20). The "hope of your calling" in Eph. 4:4 is the hope resulting from your being called into the kingdom of God.......

CALNEH
fort, one of the four cities founded by Nimrod (Gen. 10:10). It is the modern Niffer, a lofty mound of earth and rubbish situated in the marshes on the left, i.e., the east, bank of the Euphrates, but 30 miles distant from its present course, and about 60 miles south-south-east from Babylon. It is mentioned as one of the towns with which Tyre carried on trade. It was finally taken and probably des......

CALVARY
only in Luke 23:33, Luke 23: the Latin name Calvaria, which was used as a translation of the Greek word _Kranion_, by which the Hebrew word _Gulgoleth_ was interpreted, "the place of a skull." It probably took this name from its shape, being a hillock or low, rounded, bare elevation somewhat in the form of a human skull. It is nowhere in Scripture called a "hill." The crucifixion of our Lord took ......

CAMEL
from the Hebrew _gamal_, "to repay" or "requite," as the camel does the care of its master. There are two distinct species of camels, having, however, the common characteristics of being "ruminants without horns, without muzzle, with nostrils forming oblique slits, the upper lip divided and separately movable and extensile, the soles of the feet horny, with two toes covered by claws, the limbs lon......

CAMON
full of stalks, a place (Judg. 10:5) where Jair was buried. It has usually been supposed to have been a city of Gilead, on the east of Jordan. It is probably, however, the modern Tell-el-Kaimun, on the southern slopes of Carmel, the Jokneam of Carmel (Josh. 12:22; 1-Kings 4:12), since it is not at all unlikely that after he became judge, Jair might find it more convenient to live on the west side ......

CAMP
During their journeys across the wilderness, the twelve tribes formed encampments at the different places where they halted (Exo 16:13; Num. 2:3). The diagram here given shows the position of the different tribes and the form of the encampment during the wanderings, according to Num. 1:53;2:2;3:29, 3: 35, 38;10:13. The area of the camp would be in all about 3 square miles. After the Hebrews ente......

CAMPHIRE
(Heb. copher), mentioned in 1:14 (R.V., "henna-flowers");4:13 (R.V., "henna"), is the al-henna of the Arabs, a native of Egypt, producing clusters of small white and yellow odoriferous flowers, whence is made the Oleum Cyprineum. From its leaves is made the peculiar auburn dye with which Eastern women stain their nails and the palms of their hands. It is found only at Engedi, on the shore of the D......

CANA
reedy, a town of Galilee, near Capernaum. Here our Lord wrought his first miracle, the turning of water into wine (John 2:1;4:46). It is also mentioned as the birth-place of Nathanael (21:2). It is not mentioned in the Old Testament. It has been identified with the modern Kana el-Jelil, also called Khurbet Kana, a place 8 or 9 miles north of Nazareth. Others have identified it with Kefr Kenna, whi......

CANAAN
(1.) The fourth son of Ham (Gen. 10:6). His descendants were under a curse in consequence of the transgression of his father (9:22). His eldest son, Zidon, was the father of the Sidonians and Phoenicians. He had eleven sons, who were the founders of as many tribes (10:15). (2.) The country which derived its name from the preceding. The name as first used by the Phoenicians denoted only the marit......

CANAAN, THE LANGUAGE OF
mentioned in Isa. 19:18, Isa. 19: denotes the language spoken by the Jews resident in Palestine. The language of the Canaanites and of the Hebrews was substantially the same. This is seen from the fragments of the Phoenician language which still survive, which show the closest analogy to the Hebrew. Yet the subject of the language of the "Canaanites" is very obscure. The cuneiform writing of Babyl......

CANAANITE
a name given to the apostle Simon (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:18). The word here does not, however, mean a descendant of Canaan, but is a translation, or rather almost a transliteration, of the Syriac word Kanenyeh (R.V. rendered "Cananaen"), which designates the Jewish sect of the Zealots. Hence he is called elsewhere (Luke 6:15) "Simon Zelotes;" i.e., Simon of the sect of the Zealots. (See SIMON.)......

CANAANITES
the descendants of Canaan, the son of Ham. Migrating from their original home, they seem to have reached the Persian Gulf, and to have there sojourned for some time. They thence "spread to the west, across the mountain chain of Lebanon to the very edge of the Mediterranean Sea, occupying all the land which later became Palestine, also to the north-west as far as the mountain chain of Taurus. This ......

CANDACE
the queen of the Ethiopians whose "eunuch" or chamberlain was converted to Christianity by the instrumentality of Philip the evangelist (Acts 8:27). The country which she ruled was called by the Greeks Meroe, in Upper Nubia. It was long the centre of commercial intercourse between Africa and the south of Asia, and hence became famous for its wealth (Isa. 45:14). It is somewhat singular that fema......

CANDLE
Heb. ner, Job 18:6;29:3; Psa 18:28; Prov. 24:20, Prov. 24: in all which places the Revised Version and margin of Authorized Version have "lamp," by which the word is elsewhere frequently rendered. The Hebrew word denotes properly any kind of candle or lamp or torch. It is used as a figure of conscience (Prov. 20:27), of a Christian example (Matt. 5:14, Matt. 5: 15), and of prosperity (Job 21:17; P......

CANDLESTICK
the lamp-stand, "candelabrum," which Moses was commanded to make for the tabernacle, according to the pattern shown him. Its form is described in Exo 25:31;37:17, 37: and may be seen represented on the Arch of Titus at Rome. It was among the spoils taken by the Romans from the temple of Jerusalem (A.D. 70). It was made of fine gold, and with the utensils belonging to it was a talent in weight. T......

CANE
a tall sedgy plant with a hollow stem, growing in moist places. In Isa. 43:24; Jer. 6:20, Jer. 6: the Hebrew word _kaneh_ is thus rendered, giving its name to the plant. It is rendered "reed" in 1-Kings 14:15; Job 40:21; Isa. 19:6;35:7. In Psa 68:30 the expression "company of spearmen" is in the margin and the Revised Version "beasts of the reeds," referring probably to the crocodile or the hippop......

CANKER
a gangrene or mortification which gradually spreads over the whole body (2-Tim 2:17). In James 5:3 "cankered" means "rusted" (R.V.) or tarnished.......

CANKERWORM
(Heb. yelek), "the licking locust," which licks up the grass of the field; probably the locust at a certain stage of its growth, just as it emerges from the caterpillar state (Joel 1:4;2:25). The word is rendered "caterpillar" in Psa 105:34; Jer. 51:14, Jer. 51: 17 (but R.V. "canker-worm"). "It spoileth and fleeth away" (Nah. 3:16), or as some read the passage, "The cankerworm putteth off [i.e., t......

CANNEH
Mentioned only in Ezek. 27:23. (See CALNEH.)......

CANON
This word is derived from a Hebrew and Greek word denoting a reed or cane. Hence it means something straight, or something to keep straight; and hence also a rule, or something ruled or measured. It came to be applied to the Scriptures, to denote that they contained the authoritative rule of faith and practice, the standard of doctrine and duty. A book is said to be of canonical authority when it ......

CAPERNAUM
Nahum's town, a Galilean city frequently mentioned in the history of our Lord. It is not mentioned in the Old Testament. After our Lord's expulsion from Nazareth (Matt. 4:13; Luke 4:16), Capernaum became his "own city." It was the scene of many acts and incidents of his life (Matt. 8:5, Matt. 8: 14, 15;9:2, 9: 10-17;15:1; Mark 1:32, Mark 1: etc.). The impenitence and unbelief of its inhabitants af......

CAPHTOR
a chaplet, the original seat of the Philistines (Deut. 2:23; Jer. 47:4; Amos 9:7). The name is found written in hieroglyphics in the temple of Kom Ombos in Upper Egypt. But the exact situation of Caphtor is unknown, though it is supposed to be Crete, since the Philistines seem to be meant by the "Cherethites" in 1-Sam 30:14 (see also 2-Sam 8:18). It may, however, have been a part of Egypt, the Cap......

CAPPADOCIA
the easternmost and the largest province of Asia Minor. Christianity very early penetrated into this country (1-Pet 1:1). On the day of Pentecost there were Cappadocians at Jerusalem (Acts 2:9).......

CAPTAIN
(1.) Heb. sar (1-Sam 22:2; 2-Sam 23:19). Rendered "chief," Gen. 40:2;41:9; rendered also "prince," Dan. 1:7; "ruler," Judg. 9:30; "governor,' 1-Kings 22:26. This same Hebrew word denotes a military captain (Exo 18:21; 2-Kings 1:9; Deut. 1:15; 1-Sam 18:13, 1-Sam 18: etc.), the "captain of the body-guard" (Gen. 37:36;39:1;41:10; Jer. 40:1), or, as the word may be rendered, "chief of the executioners......

CAPTIVE
one taken in war. Captives were often treated with great cruelty and indignity (1-Kings 20:32; Josh. 10:24; Judg. 1:7; 2-Sam 4:12; Judg. 8:7; 2-Sam 12:31; 1-Chr 20:3). When a city was taken by assault, all the men were slain, and the women and children carried away captive and sold as slaves (Isa. 20;47:3; 2-Chr 28:9; Psa 44:12; Joel 3:3), and exposed to the most cruel treatment (Nah. 3:10; Zech. ......

CAPTIVITY
(1.) Of Israel. The kingdom of the ten tribes was successively invaded by several Assyrian kings. Pul (q.v.) imposed a tribute on Menahem of a thousand talents of silver (2-Kings 15:19, 2-Kings 15: 20; 1-Chr 5:26) (B.C. 762), and Tiglath-pileser, in the days of Pekah (B.C. 738), carried away the trans-Jordanic tribes and the inhabitants of Galilee into Assyria (2-Kings 15:29; Isa. 9:1). Subsequent......

CARBUNCLE
(Exo 28:17;39:10; Ezek. 28:13). Heb. barkath; LXX. smaragdos; Vulgate, smaragdus; Revised Version, marg., "emerald." The Hebrew word is from a root meaning "to glitter," "lighten," "flash." When held up to the sun, this gem shines like a burning coal, a dark-red glowing coal, and hence is called "carbunculus", i.e., a little coal. It was one of the jewels in the first row of the high priest's brea......

CARCASE
contact with a, made an Israelite ceremonially unclean, and made whatever he touched also unclean, according to the Mosaic law (Hag. 2:13; comp. Num. 19:16, Num. 19: 22; Lev. 11:39).......

CARCHEMISH
fortress of Chemosh, a city on the west bank of the Euphrates (Jer. 46:2; 2-Chr 35:20), not, as was once supposed, the Circesium at the confluence of the Chebar and the Euphrates, but a city considerably higher up the river, and commanding the ordinary passage of the Euphrates; probably identical with Hierapolis. It was the capital of the kingdom of the northern Hittites. The Babylonian army, unde......

CARMEL
a park; generally with the article, "the park." (1.) A prominent headland of Central Palestine, consisting of several connected hills extending from the plain of Esdraelon to the sea, a distance of some 12 miles or more. At the east end, in its highest part, it is 1,728 feet high, and at the west end it forms a promontory to the bay of Acre about 600 feet above the sea. It lay within the tribe of ......

CARMI
vine-dresser. (1.) The last named of the four sons of Reuben (Gen. 46:9). (2.) A descendant of Judah (1-Chr 4:1). He is elsewhere (2:18) called Caleb (q.v.). (3.) The son of Zimri, and the father of Achan (Josh. 7:1), "the troubler of Israel."......

CARNAL
Unconverted men are so called (1-Cor 3:3). They are represented as of a "carnal mind, which is enmity against God" (Rom. 8:6, Rom. 8: 7). Enjoyments that minister to the wants and desires of man's animal nature are so called (Rom. 15:27; 1-Cor 9:11). The ceremonial of the Mosaic law is spoken of as "carnal," because it related to things outward, the bodies of men and of animals, and the purificati......

CARPENTER
an artificer in stone, iron, and copper, as well as in wood (2-Sam 5:11; 1-Chr 14:1; Mark 6:3). The tools used by carpenters are mentioned in 1-Sam 13:19, 1-Sam 13: 20; Judg. 4:21; Isa. 10:15;44:13. It was said of our Lord, "Is not this the carpenter's son?" (Matt. 13:55); also, "Is not this the carpenter?" (Mark 6:3). Every Jew, even the rabbis, learned some handicraft: Paul was a tentmaker. "In ......

CARRIAGE
In the Authorized Version this word is found as the rendering of many different words. In Judg. 18:21 it means valuables, wealth, or booty. In Isa. 46:1 (R.V., "the things that ye carried about") the word means a load for a beast of burden. In 1-Sam 17:22 and Isa. 10:28 it is the rendering of a word ("stuff" in 1-Sam 10:22) meaning implements, equipments, baggage. The phrase in Acts 21:15, Acts 21......

CART
a vehicle moving on wheels, and usually drawn by oxen (2-Sam 6:3). The Hebrew word thus rendered, _'agalah_ (1-Sam 6:7, 1-Sam 6: 8), is also rendered "wagon" (Gen. 45:19). It is used also to denote a war-chariot (Psa 46:9). Carts were used for the removal of the ark and its sacred utensils (Num. 7:3, Num. 7: 6). After retaining the ark amongst them for seven months, the Philistines sent it back to......

CARVE
The arts of engraving and carving were much practised among the Jews. They were practised in connection with the construction of the tabernacle and the temple (Exo 31:2, Exo 31: 5;35:33; 1-Kings 6:18, 1-Kings 6: 35; Psa 74:6), as well as in the ornamentation of the priestly dresses (Exo 28:9; Zech. 3:9; 2-Chr 2:7, 2-Chr 2: 14). Isaiah (4:13) gives a minute description of the process of carving ido......

CASEMENT
a barrier of open-work placed before windows (Prov. 7:6). In Judg. 5:28 the Hebrew word is rendered "lattice," in the LXX. "network," an opening through which cool air is admitted.......

CASIPHIA
silver, a place between Babylon and Jerusalem, where Iddo resided (Ezra 8:17); otherwise unknown.......

CASLUHIM
fortified, a people descended from Mizraim (Gen. 10:14; 1-Chr 1:12). Their original seat was probably somewhere in Lower Egypt, along the sea-coast to the south border of Palestine.......

CASSIA
(1.) Hebrew _kiddah'_, i.e., "split." One of the principal spices of the holy anointing oil (Exo 30:24), and an article of commerce (Ezek. 27:19). It is the inner bark of a tree resembling the cinnamon (q.v.), the Cinnamomum cassia of botanists, and was probably imported from India. (2.) Hebrew pl. _ketzi'oth_ (Psa 45:8). Mentioned in connection with myrrh and aloes as being used to scent garmen......

CASTAWAY
Gr. adokimos, (1-Cor 9:27), one regarded as unworthy (R.V., "rejected"); elsewhere rendered "reprobate" (2-Tim 3:8, 2-Tim 3: etc.); "rejected" (Heb. 6:8, Heb. 6: etc.).......

CASTLE
a military fortress (1-Chr 11:7), also probably a kind of tower used by the priests for making known anything discovered at a distance (1-Chr 6:54). Castles are also mentioned (Gen. 25:16) as a kind of watch-tower, from which shepherds kept watch over their flocks by night. The "castle" into which the chief captain commanded Paul to be brought was the quarters of the Roman soldiers in the fortress......

CASTOR AND POLLUX
the "Dioscuri", two heroes of Greek and Roman mythology. Their figures were probably painted or sculptured on the prow of the ship which Luke refers to (Acts 28:11). They were regarded as the tutelary divinities of sailors. They appeared in the heavens as the constellation Gemini.......

CATERPILLAR
the consumer. Used in the Old Testament (1-Kings 8:37; 2-Chr 6:28; Psa 78:46; Isa. 33:4) as the translation of a word (hasil) the root of which means "to devour" or "consume," and which is used also with reference to the locust in Deut. 28:38. It may have been a species of locust, or the name of one of the transformations through which the locust passes, locust-grub. It is also found (Psa 105:34; ......

CATHOLIC EPISTLES
the epistles of James, Peter, John, and Jude; so called because they are addressed to Christians in general, and not to any church or person in particular.......

CATTLE
abounded in the Holy Land. To the rearing and management of them the inhabitants chiefly devoted themselves (Deut. 8:13;12:21; 1-Sam 11:5;12:3; Psa 144:14; Jer. 3:24). They may be classified as, (1.) Neat cattle. Many hundreds of these were yearly consumed in sacrifices or used for food. The finest herds were found in Bashan, beyond Jordan (Num. 32:4). Large herds also pastured on the wide ferti......

CAUL
(Heb. yothe'reth; i.e., "something redundant"), the membrane which covers the upper part of the liver (Exo 29:13, Exo 29: 22; Lev. 3:4, Lev. 3: 10, 15;4:9;7:4; marg., "midriff"). In Hos. 13:8 (Heb. seghor; i.e., "an enclosure") the pericardium, or parts about the heart, is meant.......

CAULS
In Isa. 3:18 this word (Heb. shebisim), in the marg. "networks," denotes network caps to contain the hair, worn by females. Others explain it as meaning "wreaths worn round the forehead, reaching from one ear to the other."......

CAUSEWAY
a raised way, an ascent by steps, or a raised slope between Zion and the temple (1-Chr 26:16, 1-Chr 26: 18). In 2-Chr 9:11 the same word is translated "terrace."......

CAVE
There are numerous natural caves among the limestone rocks of Syria, many of which have been artificially enlarged for various purposes. The first notice of a cave occurs in the history of Lot (Gen. 19:30). The next we read of is the cave of Machpelah (q.v.), which Abraham purchased from the sons of Heth (Gen. 25:9, Gen. 25: 10). It was the burying-place of Sarah and of Abraham himself, also o......

CEDAR
(Heb. e'rez, Gr. kedros, Lat. cedrus), a tree very frequently mentioned in Scripture. It was stately (Ezek. 31:3), long-branched (Psa 80:10;92:12; Ezek. 31:6), odoriferous (4:11; Hos. 14:6), durable, and therefore much used for boards, pillars, and ceilings (1-Kings 6:9, 1-Kings 6: 10;7:2; Jer. 22:14), for masts (Ezek. 27:5), and for carved images (Isa. 44:14). It grew very abundantly in Palesti......

CEDRON
the black torrent, the brook flowing through the ravine below the eastern wall of Jerusalem (John 18:1). (See KIDRON.)......

CEILING
the covering (1-Kings 7:3, 1-Kings 7:7) of the inside roof and walls of a house with planks of wood (2-Chr 3:5; Jer. 22:14). Ceilings were sometimes adorned with various ornaments in stucco, gold, silver, gems, and ivory. The ceilings of the temple and of Solomon's palace are described 1-Kings 6:9, 1-Kings 6: 15;7:3; 2-Chr 3:5, 2-Chr 3:9.......

CELLAR
a subterranean vault (1-Chr 27:28), a storehouse. The word is also used to denote the treasury of the temple (1-Kings 7:51) and of the king (14:26). The Hebrew word is rendered "garner" in Joel 1:17, Joel 1: and "armoury" in Jer. 50:25.......

CENCHREA
millet, the eastern harbour of Corinth, from which it was distant about 9 miles east, and the outlet for its trade with the Asiatic shores of the Mediterranean. When Paul returned from his second missionary journey to Syria, he sailed from this port (Acts 18:18). In Rom. 16:1 he speaks as if there were at the time of his writing that epistle an organized church there. The western harbour of Corint......

CENSER
the vessel in which incense was presented on "the golden altar" before the Lord in the temple (Exo 30:1). The priest filled the censer with live coal from the sacred fire on the altar of burnt-offering, and having carried it into the sanctuary, there threw upon the burning coals the sweet incense (Lev. 16:12, Lev. 16: 13), which sent up a cloud of smoke, filling the apartment with fragrance. The c......

CENSUS
There are five instances of a census of the Jewish people having been taken. (1.) In the fourth month after the Exodus, when the people were encamped at Sinai. The number of men from twenty years old and upward was then 603,550 (Exo 38:26). (2.) Another census was made just before the entrance into Canaan, when the number was found to be 601,730, showing thus a small decrease (Num. 26:51). (3.) Th......

CENTURION
a Roman officer in command of a hundred men (Mark 15:39, Mark 15: 44, 45). Cornelius, the first Gentile convert, was a centurion (Acts 10:1, Acts 10: 22). Other centurions are mentioned in Matt. 8:5, Matt. 8: 8, 13; Luke 7:2, Luke 7: 6; Acts 21:32;22:25, 22: 26;23:17, 23: 23;24:23;27:1, 27: 6, 11, 31, 43;28:16. A centurion watched the crucifixion of our Lord (Matt. 27:54; Luke 23:47), and when he ......

CEPHAS
a Syriac surname given by Christ to Simon (John 1:42), meaning "rock." The Greeks translated it by Petros, and the Latins by Petrus. ......

CESAREA
See CAESAREA. ......

CHAFF
the refuse of winnowed corn. It was usually burned (Exo 15:7; Isa. 5:24; Matt. 3:12). This word sometimes, however, means dried grass or hay (Isa. 5:24;33:11). Chaff is used as a figure of abortive wickedness (Psa 1:4; Matt. 3:12). False doctrines are also called chaff (Jer. 23:28), or more correctly rendered "chopped straw." The destruction of the wicked, and their powerlessness, are likened to t......

CHAIN
(1.) A part of the insignia of office. A chain of gold was placed about Joseph's neck (Gen. 41:42); and one was promised to Daniel (5:7). It is used as a symbol of sovereignty (Ezek. 16:11). The breast-plate of the high-priest was fastened to the ephod by golden chains (Exo 39:17, Exo 39: 21). (2.) It was used as an ornament (Prov. 1:9; 1:10). The Midianites adorned the necks of their camels wit......

CHALCEDONY
Mentioned only in Rev. 21:19, Rev. 21: as one of the precious stones in the foundation of the New Jerusalem. The name of this stone is derived from Chalcedon, where it is said to have been first discovered. In modern mineralogy this is the name of an agate-like quartz of a bluish colour. Pliny so names the Indian ruby. The mineral intended in Revelation is probably the Hebrew _nophekh_, translated......

CHALDEA
The southern portion of Babylonia, Lower Mesopotamia, lying chiefly on the right bank of the Euphrates, but commonly used of the whole of the Mesopotamian plain. The Hebrew name is Kasdim, which is usually rendered "Chaldeans" (Jer. 50:10;51:24, 51:35). The country so named is a vast plain formed by the deposits of the Euphrates and the Tigris, extending to about 400 miles along the course of th......

CHALDEE LANGUAGE
employed by the sacred writers in certain portions of the Old Testament, viz., Dan. 2:4, Dan. 2: 28; Ezra 4:8:18;7:12; Gen. 31:46; Jer. 10:11. It is the Aramaic dialect, as it is sometimes called, as distinguished from the Hebrew dialect. It was the language of commerce and of social intercourse in Western Asia, and after the Exile gradually came to be the popular language of Palestine. It is call......

CHALDEES
or Chaldeans, the inhabitants of the country of which Babylon was the capital. They were so called till the time of the Captivity (2 Kings 25; Isa. 13:19;23:13), when, particularly in the Book of Daniel (5:30;9:1), the name began to be used with special reference to a class of learned men ranked with the magicians and astronomers. These men cultivated the ancient Cushite language of the original i......

CHAMBER
"on the wall," which the Shunammite prepared for the prophet Elisha (2-Kings 4:10), was an upper chamber over the porch through the hall toward the street. This was the "guest chamber" where entertainments were prepared (Mark 14:14). There were also "chambers within chambers" (1-Kings 22:25; 2-Kings 9:2). To enter into a chamber is used metaphorically of prayer and communion with God (Isa. 26:20).......

CHAMBERING
(Rom. 13:13), wantonness, impurity. ......

CHAMBERLAIN
a confidential servant of the king (Gen. 37:36;39:1). In Rom. 16:23 mention is made of "Erastus the chamberlain." Here the word denotes the treasurer of the city, or the quaestor, as the Romans styled him. He is almost the only convert from the higher ranks of whom mention is made (comp. Acts 17:34). Blastus, Herod's "chamberlain" (Acts 12:20), was his personal attendant or valet-de-chambre. The H......

CHAMELEON
a species of lizard which has the faculty of changing the colour of its skin. It is ranked among the unclean animals in Lev. 11:30, Lev. 11: where the Hebrew word so translated is _coah_ (R.V., "land crocodile"). In the same verse the Hebrew _tanshemeth_, rendered in Authorized Version "mole," is in Revised Version "chameleon," which is the correct rendering. This animal is very common in Egypt an......

CHAMOIS
only in Deut. 14:5 (Heb. zemer), an animal of the deer or gazelle species. It bears this Hebrew name from its leaping or springing. The animal intended is probably the wild sheep (Ovis tragelephus), which is still found in Sinai and in the broken ridges of Stony Arabia. The LXX. and Vulgate render the word by camelopardus, i.e., the giraffe; but this is an animal of Central Africa, and is not at a......

CHAMPION
(1-Sam 17:4, 1-Sam 17: 23), properly "the man between the two," denoting the position of Goliath between the two camps. Single combats of this kind at the head of armies were common in ancient times. In ver. 51 this word is the rendering of a different Hebrew word, and properly denotes "a mighty man." ......

CHANCE
(Luke 10:31). "It was not by chance that the priest came down by that road at that time, but by a specific arrangement and in exact fulfilment of a plan; not the plan of the priest, nor the plan of the wounded traveller, but the plan of God. By coincidence (Gr. sungkuria) the priest came down, that is, by the conjunction of two things, in fact, which were previously constituted a pair in the provi......

CHANCELLOR
one who has judicial authority, literally, a "lord of judgement;" a title given to the Persian governor of Samaria (Ezra 4:8, Ezra 4: 9, 17). ......

CHANGES OF RAIMENT
were reckoned among the treasures of rich men (Gen. 45:22; Judg. 14:12, Judg. 14: 13; 2-Kings 5:22, 2-Kings 5: 23). ......

CHANNEL
(1.) The bed of the sea or of a river (Psa 18:15; Isa. 8:7). (2.) The "chanelbone" (Job 31:22 marg.), properly "tube" or "shaft," an old term for the collar-bone. ......

CHAPEL
a holy place or sanctuary, occurs only in Amos 7:13, Amos 7: where one of the idol priests calls Bethel "the king's chapel." ......

CHAPITER
the ornamental head or capital of a pillar. Three Hebrew words are so rendered. (1.) _Cothereth_ (1-Kings 7:16; 2-Kings 25:17; 2-Chr 4:12), meaning a "diadem" or "crown." (2.) _Tzepheth_ (2-Chr 3:15). (3.) _Rosh_ (Exo 36:38;38:17, 38: 19, 28), properly a "head" or "top." ......

CHAPTER
The several books of the Old and New Testaments were from an early time divided into chapters. The Pentateuch was divided by the ancient Hebrews into 54 _parshioth_ or sections, one of which was read in the synagogue every Sabbath day (Acts. 13:15). These sections were afterwards divided into 669 _sidrim_ or orders of unequal length. The Prophets were divided in somewhat the same manner into _haph......

CHARASHIM
craftsmen, a valley named in 1-Chr 4:14. In Neh. 11:35 the Hebrew word is rendered "valley of craftsmen" (R.V. marg., Geha-rashim). Nothing is known of it. ......

CHARGER
a bowl or deep dish. The silver vessels given by the heads of the tribes for the services of the tabernacle are so named (Num. 7:13, Num. 7: etc.). The "charger" in which the Baptist's head was presented was a platter or flat wooden trencher (Matt. 14:8, Matt. 14: 11; Mark 6:25, Mark 6: 28). The chargers of gold and silver of Ezra 1:9 were probably basins for receiving the blood of sacrifices. ......

CHARIOT
a vehicle generally used for warlike purposes. Sometimes, though but rarely, it is spoken of as used for peaceful purposes. The first mention of the chariot is when Joseph, as a mark of distinction, was placed in Pharaoh's second state chariot (Gen. 41:43); and the next, when he went out in his own chariot to meet his father Jacob (6:29). Chariots formed part of the funeral procession of Jacob (......

CHARITY
(1 Cor. 13), the rendering in the Authorized Version of the word which properly denotes love, and is frequently so rendered (always so in the Revised Version). It is spoken of as the greatest of the three Christian graces (1-Cor 12:31:13). ......

CHARMER
one who practises serpent-charming (Psa 58:5; Jer. 8:17; Eccl. 10:11). It was an early and universal opinion that the most venomous reptiles could be made harmless by certain charms or by sweet sounds. It is well known that there are jugglers in India and in other Eastern lands who practise this art at the present day. In Isa. 19:3 the word "charmers" is the rendering of the Hebrew _'ittim_, mea......

CHARRAN
another form (Acts 7:2, Acts 7: 4) of Haran (q.v.). ......

CHEBAR
length, a river in the "land of the Chaldeans" (Ezek. 1:3), on the banks of which were located some of the Jews of the Captivity (Ezek. 1:1;3:15, 3: 23;10:15, 10: 20, 22). It has been supposed to be identical with the river Habor, the Chaboras, or modern Khabour, which falls into the Euphrates at Circesium. To the banks of this river some of the Israelites were removed by the Assyrians (2-Kings 17......

CHEDORLAOMER
(= Khudur-Lagamar of the inscriptions), king of Elam. Many centuries before the age of Abraham, Canaan and even the Sinaitic peninsula had been conquered by Babylonian kings, and in the time of Abraham himself Babylonia was ruled by a dynasty which claimed sovereignity over Syria and Palestine. The kings of the dynasty bore names which were not Babylonian, but at once South Arabic and Hebrew. The ......

CHEEK
Smiting on the cheek was accounted a grievous injury and insult (Job 16:10; Lam. 3:30; Micah 5:1). The admonition (Luke 6:29), "Unto him that smiteth thee on the one cheek offer also the other," means simply, "Resist not evil" (Matt. 5:39; 1-Pet 2:19). Psa 3:7 = that God had deprived his enemies of the power of doing him injury. ......

CHEESE
(A.S. cese). This word occurs three times in the Authorized Version as the translation of three different Hebrew words: (1.) 1-Sam 17:18, 1-Sam 17: "ten cheeses;" i.e., ten sections of curd. (2.) 2-Sam 17:29, 2-Sam 17: "cheese of kine" = perhaps curdled milk of kine. The Vulgate version reads "fat calves." (3.) Job 10:10, Job 10: curdled milk is meant by the word. ......

CHEMARIM
black, (Zeph. 1:4; rendered "idolatrous priests" in 2-Kings 23:5, 2-Kings 23: and "priests" in Hos. 10:5). Some derive this word from the Assyrian Kamaru, meaning "to throw down," and interpret it as describing the idolatrous priests who prostrate themselves before the idols. Others regard it as meaning "those who go about in black," or "ascetics." ......

CHEMOSH
the destroyer, subduer, or fish-god, the god of the Moabites (Num. 21:29; Jer. 48:7, Jer. 48: 13, 46). The worship of this god, "the abomination of Moab," was introduced at Jerusalem by Solomon (1-Kings 11:7), but was abolished by Josiah (2-Kings 23:13). On the "Moabite Stone" (q.v.), Mesha (2-Kings 3:5) ascribes his victories over the king of Israel to this god, "And Chemosh drove him before my s......

CHENAANAH
merchant. (1.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 7:10). (2.) The father of Zedekiah (1-Kings 22:11, 1-Kings 22: 24). ......

CHENAIAH
whom Jehovah hath made. "Chief of the Levites," probably a Kohathite (1-Chr 15:22), and therefore not the same as mentioned 26:29. ......

CHEPHIRAH
village, one of the four cities of the Gibeonitish Hivites with whom Joshua made a league (9:17). It belonged to Benjamin. It has been identified with the modern Kefireh, on the west confines of Benjamin, about 2 miles west of Ajalon and 11 from Jerusalem. ......

CHERETHIM
(Ezek. 25:16), more frequently Cherethites, the inhabitants of Southern Philistia, the Philistines (Zeph. 2:5). The Cherethites and the Pelethites were David's life-guards (1-Sam 30:14; 2-Sam 8:18;20:7, 20: 23;23:23). This name is by some interpreted as meaning "Cretans," and by others "executioners," who were ready to execute the king's sentence of death (Gen. 37:36, Gen. 37: marg.; 1-Kings 2:25)......

CHERITH
a cutting; separation; a gorge, a torrent-bed or winter-stream, a "brook," in whose banks the prophet Elijah hid himself during the early part of the three years' drought (1-Kings 17:3, 1-Kings 17: 5). It has by some been identified as the Wady el-Kelt behind Jericho, which is formed by the junction of many streams flowing from the mountains west of Jericho. It is dry in summer. Travellers have de......

CHERUB
plural cherubim, the name of certain symbolical figures frequently mentioned in Scripture. They are first mentioned in connection with the expulsion of our first parents from Eden (Gen. 3:24). There is no intimation given of their shape or form. They are next mentioned when Moses was commanded to provide furniture for the tabernacle (Exo 25:17;26:1, 26: 31). God promised to commune with Moses "fro......

CHESALON
strength; confidence, a place on the border of Judah, on the side of Mount Jearim (Josh. 15:10); probably identified with the modern village of Kesla, on the western mountains of Judah. ......

CHESED
gain, the son of Nahor (Gen. 22:22). ......

CHESIL
ungodly, a town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:30); probably the same as Bethul (19:4) and Bethuel (1-Chr 4:30); now Khelasa. ......

CHEST
(Heb. _'aron_, generally rendered "ark"), the coffer into which the contributions for the repair of the temple were put (2-Kings 12:9, 2-Kings 12: 10; 2-Chr 24:8, 2-Chr 24: 10, 11). In Gen. 50:26 it is rendered "coffin." In Ezek. 27:24 a different Hebrew word, _genazim_ (plur.), is used. It there means "treasure-chests." ......

CHESTNUT TREE
(Heb. _'armon_; i.e., "naked"), mentioned in connection with Jacob's artifice regarding the cattle (Gen. 30:37). It is one of the trees of which, because of its strength and beauty, the Assyrian empire is likened (Ezek. 31:8; R.V., "plane trees"). It is probably the Oriental plane tree (Platanus orientalis) that is intended. It is a characteristic of this tree that it annually sheds its outer bark......

CHESULLOTH
fertile places; the loins, a town of Issachar, on the slopes of some mountain between Jezreel and Shunem (Josh. 19:18). It has been identified with Chisloth-tabor, 2 1/2 miles to the west of Mount Tabor, and north of Jezreel; now Iksal. ......

CHEZIB
deceitful, a town where Shelah, the son of Judah, was born (Gen. 38:5). Probably the same as Achzib (q.v.). ......

CHIDON
dart, the name of the threshing-floor at which the death of Uzzah took place (1-Chr 13:9). In the parallel passage in Samuel (2-Sam 6:6) it is called "Nachon's threshing-floor." It was a place not far north-west from Jerusalem. ......

CHIEF OF THE THREE
a title given to Adino the Eznite, one of David's greatest heroes (2-Sam 23:8); also called Jashobeam (1-Chr 11:11). ......

CHIEF PRIEST
See PRIEST. ......

CHIEFS OF ASIA
"Asiarchs," the title given to certain wealthy persons annually appointed to preside over the religious festivals and games in the various cities of proconsular Asia (Acts 19:31). Some of these officials appear to have been Paul's friends. ......

CHILD
This word has considerable latitude of meaning in Scripture. Thus Joseph is called a child at the time when he was probably about sixteen years of age (Gen. 37:3); and Benjamin is so called when he was above thirty years (4:20). Solomon called himself a little child when he came to the kingdom (1-Kings 3:7). The descendants of a man, however remote, are called his children; as, "the children of ......

CHILEAB
protected by the father, David's second son by Abigail (2-Sam 3:3); called also Daniel (1-Chr 3:1). He seems to have died when young. ......

CHILION
the pining one, the younger son of Elimelech and Naomi, and husband of Orpah, Ruth's sister (Ruth 1:2;4:9). ......

CHILMAD
a place or country unknown which, along with Sheba and Asshur, traded with Tyre (Ezek. 27:23). ......

CHIMHAM
pining, probably the youngest son of Barzillai the Gileadite (2-Sam 19:37). The "habitation of Chimham" (Jer. 41:17) was probably an inn or khan, which is the proper meaning of the Hebrew _geruth_, rendered "habitation", established in later times in his possession at Bethlehem, which David gave to him as a reward for his loyalty in accompanying him to Jerusalem after the defeat of Absalom (1-King......

CHINNERETH
lyre, the singular form of the word (Deut. 3:17; Josh. 19:35), which is also used in the plural form, Chinneroth, the name of a fenced city which stood near the shore of the lake of Galilee, a little to the south of Tiberias. The town seems to have given its name to a district, as appears from 1-Kings 15:20, 1-Kings 15: where the plural form of the word is used. The Sea of Chinnereth (Num. 34:11......

CHIOS
mentioned in Acts 20:15, Acts 20: an island in the Aegean Sea, about 5 miles distant from the mainland, having a roadstead, in the shelter of which Paul and his companions anchored for a night when on his third missionary return journey. It is now called Scio. ......

CHISLEU
the name adopted from the Babylonians by the Jews after the Captivity for the third civil, or ninth ecclesiastical, month (Neh. 1:1; Zech. 7:1). It corresponds nearly with the moon in November. ......

CHITTIM
or Kittim, a plural form (Gen. 10:4), the name of a branch of the descendants of Javan, the "son" of Japheth. Balaam foretold (Num. 24:24) "that ships shall come from the coast of Chittim, and afflict Eber." Daniel prophesied (11:30) that the ships of Chittim would come against the king of the north. It probably denotes Cyprus, whose ancient capital was called Kition by the Greeks. The reference......

CHIUN
occurs only in Amos 5:26 (R.V. marg., "shrine"). The LXX. translated the word by Rhephan, which became corrupted into Remphan, as used by Stephen (Acts 7:43; but R.V., "Rephan"). Probably the planet Saturn is intended by the name. Astrologers represented this planet as baleful in its influences, and hence the Phoenicians offered to it human sacrifices, especially children. ......

CHLOE
verdure, a female Christian (1-Cor 1:11), some of whose household had informed Paul of the divided state of the Corinthian church. Nothing is known of her. ......

CHOR-ASHAN
smoking furnace, one of the places where "David himself and his men were wont to haunt" (1-Sam 30:30, 1-Sam 30: 31). It is probably identical with Ashan (Josh. 15:42;19:7), a Simeonite city in the Negeb, i.e., the south, belonging to Judah. The word ought, according to another reading, to be "Bor-ashan." ......

CHORAZIN
named along with Bethsaida and Capernaum as one of the cities in which our Lord's "mighty works" were done, and which was doomed to woe because of signal privileges neglected (Matt. 11:21; Luke 10:13). It has been identified by general consent with the modern Kerazeh, about 2 1/2 miles up the Wady Kerazeh from Capernaum; i.e., Tell Hum. ......

CHOSEN
spoken of warriors (Exo 15:4; Judg. 20:16), of the Hebrew nation (Psa 105:43; Deut. 7:7), of Jerusalem as the seat of the temple (1-Kings 11:13). Christ is the "chosen" of God (Isa. 42:1); and the apostles are "chosen" for their work (Acts 10:41). It is said with regard to those who do not profit by their opportunities that "many are called, but few are chosen" (Matt. 20:16). (See ELECTION.) ......

CHOZEBA
(1-Chr 4:22), the same as Chezib and Achzib, a place in the lowlands of Judah (Gen. 38:5; Josh. 15:44). ......

CHRIST
anointed, the Greek translation of the Hebrew word rendered "Messiah" (q.v.), the official title of our Lord, occurring five hundred and fourteen times in the New Testament. It denotes that he was anointed or consecrated to his great redemptive work as Prophet, Priest, and King of his people. He is Jesus the Christ (Acts 17:3;18:5; Matt. 22:42), the Anointed One. He is thus spoken of by Isaiah (1:......

CHRISTIAN
the name given by the Greeks or Romans, probably in reproach, to the followers of Jesus. It was first used at Antioch. The names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren," "the faithful," "elect," "saints," "believers." But as distinguishing them from the multitude without, the name "Christian" came into use, and was universally accepted. This name occurs but three times i......

CHRISTS, FALSE
Our Lord warned his disciples that they would arise (Matt. 24:24). It is said that no fewer than twenty-four persons have at different times appeared (the last in 1682) pretending to be the Messiah of the prophets. ......

CHRONICLES
the words of the days, (1-Kings 14:19; 1-Chr 27:24), the daily or yearly records of the transactions of the kingdom; events recorded in the order of time. ......

CHRONICLES OF KING DAVID
(1-Chr 27:24) were statistical state records; one of the public sources from which the compiler of the Books of Chronicles derived information on various public matters. ......

CHRONICLES, BOOKS OF
The two books were originally one. They bore the title in the Massoretic Hebrew _Dibre hayyamim_, i.e., "Acts of the Days." This title was rendered by Jerome in his Latin version "Chronicon," and hence "Chronicles." In the Septuagint version the book is divided into two, and bears the title Paraleipomena, i.e., "things omitted," or "supplements", because containing many things omitted in the Books......

CHRONOLOGY
is the arrangement of facts and events in the order of time. The writers of the Bible themselves do not adopt any standard era according to which they date events. Sometimes the years are reckoned, e.g., from the time of the Exodus (Num. 1:1;33:38; 1-Kings 6:1), and sometimes from the accession of kings (1-Kings 15:1, 1-Kings 15: 9, 25, 33, etc.), and sometimes again from the return from Exile (Ez......

CHRYSOPRASUS
golden leek, a precious stone of the colour of leek's juice, a greenish-golden colour (Rev. 21:20). ......

CHUB
the name of a people in alliance with Egypt in the time of Nebuchadnezzar. The word is found only in Ezek. 30:5. They were probably a people of Northern Africa, or of the lands near Egypt in the south. ......

CHUN
one of the cities of Hadarezer, king of Syria. David procured brass (i.e., bronze or copper) from it for the temple (1-Chr 18:8). It is called Berothai in 2-Sam 8:8; probably the same as Berothah in Ezek. 47:16. ......

CHURCH
Derived probably from the Greek kuriakon (i.e., "the Lord's house"), which was used by ancient authors for the place of worship. In the New Testament it is the translation of the Greek word ecclesia, which is synonymous with the Hebrew _kahal_ of the Old Testament, both words meaning simply an assembly, the character of which can only be known from the connection in which the word is found. Ther......

CHURL
in Isa. 32:5 (R.V. marg., "crafty"), means a deceiver. In 1-Sam 25:3, 1-Sam 25: the word churlish denotes a man that is coarse and ill-natured, or, as the word literally means, "hard." The same Greek word as used by the LXX. here is found in Matt. 25:24, Matt. 25: and there is rendered "hard." ......

CHUSHAN-RISHATHAIM
Cush of double wickedness, or governor of two presidencies, the king of Mesopotamia who oppressed Israel in the generation immediately following Joshua (Judg. 3:8). We learn from the Tell-el-Amarna tablets that Palestine had been invaded by the forces of Aram-naharaim (A.V., "Mesopotamia") more than once, long before the Exodus, and that at the time they were written the king of Aram-naharaim was ......

CILICIA
a maritime province in the south-east of Asia Minor. Tarsus, the birth-place of Paul, was one of its chief towns, and the seat of a celebrated school of philosophy. Its luxurious climate attracted to it many Greek residents after its incorporation with the Macedonian empire. It was formed into a Roman province, B.C. 67. The Jews of Cilicia had a synagogue at Jerusalem (Acts 6:9). Paul visited it s......

CINNAMON
Heb. kinamon, the Cinnamomum zeylanicum of botanists, a tree of the Laurel family, which grows only in India on the Malabar coast, in Ceylon, and China. There is no trace of it in Egypt, and it was unknown in Syria. The inner rind when dried and rolled into cylinders forms the cinnamon of commerce. The fruit and coarser pieces of bark when boiled yield a fragrant oil. It was one of the principal i......

CINNERETH
a harp, one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35; comp. Deut. 3:17). It also denotes, apparently, a district which may have taken its name from the adjacent city or lake of Gennesaret, anciently called "the sea of Chinnereth" (q.v.), and was probably that enclosed district north of Tiberias afterwards called "the plain of Gennesaret." Called Chinneroth (R.V., Chinnereth) Josh. 11:2. The......

CIRCUIT
the apparent diurnal revolution of the sun round the earth (Psa 19:6), and the changes of the wind (Eccl. 1:6). In Job 22:14, Job 22: "in the circuit of heaven" (R.V. marg., "on the vault of heaven") means the "arch of heaven," which seems to be bent over our heads. ......

CIRCUMCISION
cutting around. This rite, practised before, as some think, by divers races, was appointed by God to be the special badge of his chosen people, an abiding sign of their consecration to him. It was established as a national ordinance (Gen. 17:10, Gen. 17: 11). In compliance with the divine command, Abraham, though ninety-nine years of age, was circumcised on the same day with Ishmael, who was thirt......

CISTERN
the rendering of a Hebrew word _bor_, which means a receptacle for water conveyed to it; distinguished from _beer_, which denotes a place where water rises on the spot (Jer. 2:13; Prov. 5:15; Isa. 36:16), a fountain. Cisterns are frequently mentioned in Scripture. The scarcity of springs in Palestine made it necessary to collect rain-water in reservoirs and cisterns (Num. 21:22). (See WELL.) Emp......

CITIZENSHIP
the rights and privileges of a citizen in distinction from a foreigner (Luke 15:15;19:14; Acts 21:39). Under the Mosaic law non-Israelites, with the exception of the Moabites and the Ammonites and others mentioned in Deut. 23:1, Deut. 23: were admitted to the general privileges of citizenship among the Jews (Exo 12:19; Lev. 24:22; Num. 15:15;35:15; Deut. 10:18;14:29;16:10, 16: 14). The right of ......

CITY
The earliest mention of city-building is that of Enoch, which was built by Cain (Gen. 4:17). After the confusion of tongues, the descendants of Nimrod founded several cities (10:10). Next, we have a record of the cities of the Canaanites, Sidon, Gaza, Sodom, etc. (10:12, 10: 19;11:3, 11: 9;36:31). The earliest description of a city is that of Sodom (19:1). Damascus is said to be the oldest existin......

CLAUDA
a small island off the southwest coast of Crete, passed by Paul on his voyage to Rome (Acts 27:16). It is about 7 miles long and 3 broad. It is now called Gozzo (R.V., "Cauda"). ......

CLAUDIA
a female Christian mentioned in 2-Tim 4:21. It is a conjecture having some probability that she was a British maiden, the daughter of king Cogidunus, who was an ally of Rome, and assumed the name of the emperor, his patron, Tiberius Claudius, and that she was the wife of Pudens. ......

CLAUDIUS
lame. (1.) The fourth Roman emperor. He succeeded Caligula (A.D. 41). Though in general he treated the Jews, especially those in Asia and Egypt, with great indulgence, yet about the middle of his reign (A.D. 49) he banished them all from Rome (Acts 18:2). In this edict the Christians were included, as being, as was supposed, a sect of Jews. The Jews, however soon again returned to Rome. During t......

CLAY
This word is used of sediment found in pits or in streets (Isa. 57:20; Jer. 38:60), of dust mixed with spittle (John 9:6), and of potter's clay (Isa. 41:25; Nah. 3:14; Jer. 18:1; Rom. 9:21). Clay was used for sealing (Job 38:14; Jer. 32:14). Our Lord's tomb may have been thus sealed (Matt. 27:66). The practice of sealing doors with clay is still common in the East. Clay was also in primitive times......

CLEAN
The various forms of uncleanness according to the Mosaic law are enumerated in Lev. 11-15; Num. 19. The division of animals into clean and unclean was probably founded on the practice of sacrifice. It existed before the Flood (Gen. 7:2). The regulations regarding such animals are recorded in Lev. 11 and Deut. 14:1. The Hebrews were prohibited from using as food certain animal substances, such as......

CLEMENT
mild, a Christian of Philippi, Paul's "fellow-labourer," whose name he mentions as "in the book of life" (Phil. 4:3). It was an opinion of ancient writers that he was the Clement of Rome whose name is well known in church history, and that he was the author of an Epistle to the Corinthians, the only known manuscript of which is appended to the Alexandrian Codex, now in the British Museum. It is of......

CLEOPAS
(abbreviation of Cleopatros), one of the two disciples with whom Jesus conversed on the way to Emmaus on the day of the resurrection (Luke 24:18). We know nothing definitely regarding him. It is not certain that he was the Clopas of John 19:25, John 19: or the Alphaeus of Matt. 10:3, Matt. 10: although he may have been so. ......

CLEOPHAS
(in the spelling of this word _h_ is inserted by mistake from Latin MSS.), rather Cleopas, which is the Greek form of the word, while Clopas is the Aramaic form. In John 19:25 the Authorized Version reads, "Mary, the wife of Clopas." The word "wife" is conjecturally inserted here. If "wife" is rightly inserted, then Mary was the mother of James the Less, and Clopas is the same as Alphaeus (Matt. 1......

CLOAK
an upper garment, "an exterior tunic, wide and long, reaching to the ankles, but without sleeves" (Isa. 59:17). The word so rendered is elsewhere rendered "robe" or "mantle." It was worn by the high priest under the ephod (Exo 28:31), by kings and others of rank (1-Sam 15:27; Job 1:20;2:12), and by women (2-Sam 13:18). The word translated "cloke", i.e., outer garment, in Matt. 5:40 is in its plu......

CLOSET
as used in the New Testament, signifies properly a storehouse (Luke 12:24), and hence a place of privacy and retirement (Matt. 6:6; Luke 12:3). ......

CLOUD
The Hebrew so rendered means "a covering," because clouds cover the sky. The word is used as a symbol of the Divine presence, as indicating the splendour of that glory which it conceals (Exo 16:10;33:9; Num. 11:25;12:5; Job 22:14; Psa 18:11). A "cloud without rain" is a proverbial saying, denoting a man who does not keep his promise (Prov. 16:15; Isa. 18:4;25:5; Jude 1:12). A cloud is the figure o......

CNIDUS
a town and harbour on the extreme south-west of the peninsula of Doris in Asia Minor. Paul sailed past it on his voyage to Rome after leaving Myra (Acts 27:7). ......

COAL
It is by no means certain that the Hebrews were acquainted with mineral coal, although it is found in Syria. Their common fuel was dried dung of animals and wood charcoal. Two different words are found in Hebrew to denote coal, both occurring in Prov. 26:21, Prov. 26: "As coal [Heb. peham; i.e., "black coal"] is to burning coal [Heb. gehalim]." The latter of these words is used in Job 41:21; Prov.......

COAT
the tunic worn like the shirt next the skin (Lev. 16:4; 5:3; 2-Sam 15:32; Exo 28:4;29:5). The "coats of skins" prepared by God for Adam and Eve were probably nothing more than aprons (Gen. 3:21). This tunic was sometimes woven entire without a seam (John 19:23); it was also sometimes of "many colours" (Gen. 37:3; R.V. marg., "a long garment with sleeves"). The "fisher's coat" of John 21:7 was obvi......

COAT OF MAIL
the rendering of a Hebrew word meaning "glittering" (1-Sam 17:5, 1-Sam 17: 38). The same word in the plural form is translated "habergeons" in 2-Chr 26:14 and Neh. 4:16. The "harness" (1-Kings 22:34), "breastplate" (Isa. 59:17), and "brigandine" (Jer. 46:4), were probably also corselets or coats of mail. (See ARMOUR.) ......

COCK-CROWING
In our Lord's time the Jews had adopted the Greek and Roman division of the night into four watches, each consisting of three hours, the first beginning at six o'clock in the evening (Luke 12:38; Matt. 14:25; Mark 6:48). But the ancient division, known as the first and second cock-crowing, was still retained. The cock usually crows several times soon after midnight (this is the first crowing), and......

COCKATRICE
the mediaeval name (a corruption of "crocodile") of a fabulous serpent supposed to be produced from a cock's egg. It is generally supposed to denote the cerastes, or "horned viper," a very poisonous serpent about a foot long. Others think it to be the yellow viper (Daboia xanthina), one of the most dangerous vipers, from its size and its nocturnal habits (Isa. 11:8;14:29;59:5; Jer. 8:17; in all wh......

COCKLE
occurs only in Job 31:40 (marg., "noisome weeds"), where it is the rendering of a Hebrew word (b'oshah) which means "offensive," "having a bad smell," referring to some weed perhaps which has an unpleasant odour. Or it may be regarded as simply any noisome weed, such as the "tares" or darnel of Matt. 13:30. In Isa. 5:2, Isa. 5: 4 the plural form is rendered "wild grapes." ......

COELE-SYRIA
hollow Syria, the name (not found in Scripture) given by the Greeks to the extensive valley, about 100 miles long, between the Lebanon and the Anti-Lebanon range of mountains. ......

COFFER
the receptacle or small box placed beside the ark by the Philistines, in which they deposited the golden mice and the emerods as their trespass-offering (1-Sam 6:8, 1-Sam 6: 11, 15). ......

COFFIN
used in Gen. 50:26 with reference to the burial of Joseph. Here, it means a mummy-chest. The same Hebrew word is rendered "chest" in 2-Kings 12:9, 2-Kings 12: 10. ......

COGITATIONS
(or "thoughts," as the Chaldee word in Dan. 7:28 literally means), earnest meditation. ......

COIN
Before the Exile the Jews had no regularly stamped money. They made use of uncoined shekels or talents of silver, which they weighed out (Gen. 23:16; Exo 38:24; 2-Sam 18:12). Probably the silver ingots used in the time of Abraham may have been of a fixed weight, which was in some way indicated on them. The "pieces of silver" paid by Abimelech to Abraham (Gen. 20:16), and those also for which Josep......

COLLAR
(Heb. peh), means in Job 30:18 the mouth or opening of the garment that closes round the neck in the same way as a tunic (Exo 39:23). The "collars" (Heb. netiphoth) among the spoils of the Midianites (Judg. 8:26; R.V., "pendants") were ear-drops. The same Hebrew word is rendered "chains" in Isa. 3:19. ......

COLLECTION
The Christians in Palestine, from various causes, suffered from poverty. Paul awakened an interest in them among the Gentile churches, and made pecuniary collections in their behalf (Acts 24:17; Rom. 15:25, Rom. 15: 26; 1-Cor 16:1; 2-Cor 8:9; Gal. 2:10). ......

COLLEGE
Heb. mishneh (2-Kings 22:14; 2-Chr 34:22), rendered in Revised Version "second quarter", the residence of the prophetess Huldah. The Authorized Version followed the Jewish commentators, who, following the Targum, gave the Hebrew word its post-Biblical sense, as if it meant a place of instruction. It properly means the "second," and may therefore denote the lower city (Acra), which was built after ......

COLONY
The city of Philippi was a Roman colony (Acts 16:12), i.e., a military settlement of Roman soldiers and citizens, planted there to keep in subjection a newly-conquered district. A colony was Rome in miniature, under Roman municipal law, but governed by military officers (praetors and lictors), not by proconsuls. It had an independent internal government, the jus Italicum; i.e., the privileges of I......

COLOSSAE
or Colosse, a city of Phrygia, on the Lycus, which is a tributary of the Maeander. It was about 12 miles above Laodicea, and near the great road from Ephesus to the Euphrates, and was consequently of some mercantile importance. It does not appear that Paul had visited this city when he wrote his letter to the church there (Col. 1:2). He expresses in his letter to Philemon (1:22) his hope to visit ......

COLOSSIANS, EPISTLE TO THE
was written by Paul at Rome during his first imprisonment there (Acts 28:16, Acts 28: 30), probably in the spring of A.D. 57, or, as some think, 62, and soon after he had written his Epistle to the Ephesians. Like some of his other epistles (e.g., those to Corinth), this seems to have been written in consequence of information which had somehow been conveyed to him of the internal state of the chu......

COLOUR
The subject of colours holds an important place in the Scriptures. White occurs as the translation of various Hebrew words. It is applied to milk (Gen. 49:12), manna (Exo 16:31), snow (Isa. 1:18), horses (Zech. 1:8), raiment (Eccl. 9:8). Another Hebrew word so rendered is applied to marble (Esther 1:6), and a cognate word to the lily (2:16). A different term, meaning "dazzling," is applied to th......

COMFORTER
the designation of the Holy Ghost (John 14:16, John 14: 26;15:26;16:7; R.V. marg., "or Advocate, or Helper; Gr. paracletos"). The same Greek word thus rendered is translated "Advocate" in 1-John 2:1 as applicable to Christ. It means properly "one who is summoned to the side of another" to help him in a court of justice by defending him, "one who is summoned to plead a cause." "Advocate" is the pro......

COMING OF CHRIST
(1) with reference to his first advent "in the fulness of the time" (1-John 5:20; 2-John 1:7), or (2) with reference to his coming again the second time at the last day (Acts 1:11;3:20, 3: 21; 1-Thess 4:15; 2-Tim 4:1; Heb. 9:28). The expression is used metaphorically of the introduction of the gospel into any place (John 15:22; Eph. 2:17), the visible establishment of his kingdom in the world (M......

COMMANDMENTS, THE TEN
(Exo 34:28; Deut. 10:4, Deut. 10: marg. "ten words") i.e., the Decalogue (q.v.), is a summary of the immutable moral law. These commandments were first given in their written form to the people of Israel when they were encamped at Sinai, about fifty days after they came out of Egypt (Exo 19:10). They were written by the finger of God on two tables of stone. The first tables were broken by Moses wh......

COMMUNION
fellowship with God (Gen. 18:17; Exo 33:9; Num. 12:7, Num. 12: 8), between Christ and his people (John 14:23), by the Spirit (2-Cor 13:14; Phil. 2:1), of believers with one another (Eph. 4:1). The Lord's Supper is so called (1-Cor 10:16, 1-Cor 10: 17), because in it there is fellowship between Christ and his disciples, and of the disciples with one another. ......

CONANIAH
whom Jehovah hath set, a Levite placed over the tithes brought into the temple (2-Chr 35:9). ......

CONCISION
(Gr. katatome; i.e., "mutilation"), a term used by Paul contemptuously of those who were zealots for circumcision (Phil. 3:2). Instead of the warning, "Beware of the circumcision" (peritome) i.e., of the party who pressed on Gentile converts the necessity of still observing that ordinance, he says, "Beware of the concision;" as much as to say, "This circumcision which they vaunt of is in Christ on......

CONCUBINE
in the Bible denotes a female conjugally united to a man, but in a relation inferior to that of a wife. Among the early Jews, from various causes, the difference between a wife and a concubine was less marked than it would be amongst us. The concubine was a wife of secondary rank. There are various laws recorded providing for their protection (Exo 21:7; Deut. 21:10), and setting limits to the rela......

CONCUPISCENCE
desire, Rom. 7:8 (R.V., "coveting"); Col. 3:5 (R.V., "desire"). The "lust of concupiscence" (1-Thess 4:5; R.V., "passion of lust") denotes evil desire, indwelling sin. ......

CONDUIT
a water-course or channel (Job 38:25). The "conduit of the upper pool" (Isa. 7:3) was formed by Hezekiah for the purpose of conveying the waters from the upper pool in the valley of Gihon to the west side of the city of David (2-Kings 18:17;20:20; 2-Chr 32:30). In carrying out this work he stopped "the waters of the fountains which were without the city" i.e., "the upper water-course of Gihon", an......

CONEY
(Heb. shaphan; i.e., "the hider"), an animal which inhabits the mountain gorges and the rocky districts of Arabia Petraea and the Holy Land. "The conies are but a feeble folk, yet make they their houses in the rocks" (Prov. 30:26; Psa 104:18). They are gregarious, and "exceeding wise" (Prov. 30:24), and are described as chewing the cud (Lev. 11:5; Deut. 14:7). The animal intended by this name is......

CONFECTION
(Exo 30:35, Exo 30: "ointment" in ver. 25; R.V., "perfume"). The Hebrew word so rendered is derived from a root meaning to compound oil and perfume. ......

CONFECTIONARIES
only in 1-Sam 8:13, 1-Sam 8: those who make confections, i.e., perfumers, who compound species and perfumes. ......

CONFESSION
(1) An open profession of faith (Luke 12:8). (2.) An acknowledment of sins to God (Lev. 16:21; Ezra 9:5; Dan. 9:3), and to a neighbour whom we have wronged (James 5:16; Matt. 18:15). ......

CONGREGATION
(Heb. kahal), the Hebrew people collectively as a holy community (Num. 15:15). Every circumcised Hebrew from twenty years old and upward was a member of the congregation. Strangers resident in the land, if circumcised, were, with certain exceptions (Exo 12:19; Num. 9:14; Deut. 23:1), admitted to the privileges of citizenship, and spoken of as members of the congregation (Exo 12:19; Num. 9:14;15:15......

CONGREGATION, MOUNT OF THE
(Isa. 14:13), has been supposed to refer to the place where God promised to meet with his people (Exo 25:22;29:42, 29: 43) i.e., the mount of the Divine presence, Mount Zion. But here the king of Babylon must be taken as expressing himself according to his own heathen notions, and not according to those of the Jews. The "mount of the congregation" will therefore in this case mean the northern moun......

CONSCIENCE
that faculty of the mind, or inborn sense of right and wrong, by which we judge of the moral character of human conduct. It is common to all men. Like all our other faculties, it has been perverted by the Fall (John 16:2; Acts 26:9; Rom. 2:15). It is spoken of as "defiled" (Titus 1:15), and "seared" (1-Tim 4:2). A "conscience void of offence" is to be sought and cultivated (Acts 24:16; Rom. 9:1; 2......

CONSECRATION
the devoting or setting apart of anything to the worship or service of God. The race of Abraham and the tribe of Levi were thus consecrated (Exo 13:2, Exo 13: 12, 15; Num. 3:12). The Hebrews devoted their fields and cattle, and sometimes the spoils of war, to the Lord (Lev. 27:28, Lev. 27: 29). According to the Mosaic law the first-born both of man and beast were consecrated to God. In the New T......

CONSOLATION OF ISRAEL
a name for the Messiah in common use among the Jews, probably suggested by Isa. 12:1;49:13. The Greek word thus rendered (Luke 2:25, Luke 2: paraklesis) is kindred to that translated "Comforter" in John 14:16, John 14: etc., parakletos. ......

CONSTELLATION
a cluster of stars, or stars which appear to be near each other in the heavens, and which astronomers have reduced to certain figures (as the "Great Bear," the "Bull," etc.) for the sake of classification and of memory. In Isa. 13:10, Isa. 13: where this word only occurs, it is the rendering of the Hebrew _kesil_, i.e., "fool." This was the Hebrew name of the constellation Orion (Job 9:9;38:31), a......

CONTENTMENT
a state of mind in which one's desires are confined to his lot whatever it may be (1-Tim 6:6; 2-Cor 9:8). It is opposed to envy (James 3:16), avarice (Heb. 13:5), ambition (Prov. 13:10), anxiety (Matt. 6:25, Matt. 6: 34), and repining (1-Cor 10:10). It arises from the inward disposition, and is the offspring of humility, and of an intelligent consideration of the rectitude and benignity of divine ......

CONVERSATION
generally the goings out and in of social intercourse (Eph. 2:3;4:22; R.V., "manner of life"); one's deportment or course of life. This word is never used in Scripture in the sense of verbal communication from one to another (Psa 50:23; Heb. 13:5). In Phil. 1:27 3:20, 3: a different Greek word is used. It there means one's relations to a community as a citizen, i.e., citizenship. ......

CONVERSION
the turning of a sinner to God (Acts 15:3). In a general sense the heathen are said to be "converted" when they abandon heathenism and embrace the Christian faith; and in a more special sense men are converted when, by the influence of divine grace in their souls, their whole life is changed, old things pass away, and all things become new (Acts 26:18). Thus we speak of the conversion of the Phili......

CONVOCATION
a meeting of a religious character as distinguished from congregation, which was more general, dealing with political and legal matters. Hence it is called an "holy convocation." Such convocations were the Sabbaths (Lev. 23:2, Lev. 23: 3), the Passover (Exo 12:16; Lev. 23:7, Lev. 23: 8; Num. 28:25), Pentecost (Lev. 23:21), the feast of Trumpets (Lev. 23:24; Num. 29:1), the feast of Weeks (Num. 28:......

COOK
a person employed to perform culinary service. In early times among the Hebrews cooking was performed by the mistress of the household (Gen. 18:2; Judg. 6:19), and the process was very expeditiously performed (Gen. 27:3, Gen. 27: 4, 9, 10). Professional cooks were afterwards employed (1-Sam 8:13;9:23). Few animals, as a rule, were slaughtered (other than sacrifices), except for purposes of hospita......

COOS
(written Cos in the R.V.), a small island, one of the Sporades in the Aegean Sea, in the north-west of Rhodes, off the coast of Caria. Paul on his return from his third missionary journey, passed the night here after sailing from Miletus (Acts 21:1). It is now called Stanchio. ......

COPPER
derived from the Greek kupros (the island of Cyprus), called "Cyprian brass," occurs only in the Authorized Version in Ezra 8:27. Elsewhere the Hebrew word (nehosheth) is improperly rendered "brass," and sometimes "steel" (2-Sam 22:35; Jer. 15:12). The "bow of steel" (Job 20:24; Psa 18:34) should have been "bow of copper" (or "brass," as in the R.V.). The vessels of "fine copper" of Ezra 8:27 were......

COR
This Hebrew word, untranslated, denotes a round vessel used as a measure both for liquids and solids. It was equal to one homer, and contained ten ephahs in dry and ten baths in liquid measure (Ezek. 45:14). The Rabbins estimated the cor at forty-five gallons, while Josephus estimated it at about eighty-seven. In 1-Kings 4:22;5:11; 2-Chr 2:10;27:5, 27: the original word is rendered "measure." ......

CORAL
Heb. ramoth, meaning "heights;" i.e., "high-priced" or valuable things, or, as some suppose, "that which grows high," like a tree (Job 28:18; Ezek. 27:16), according to the Rabbins, red coral, which was in use for ornaments. The coral is a cretaceous marine product, the deposit by minute polypous animals of calcareous matter in cells in which the animal lives. It is of numberless shapes as it gr......

CORBAN
a Hebrew word adopted into the Greek of the New Testament and left untranslated. It occurs only once (Mark 7:11). It means a gift or offering consecrated to God. Anything over which this word was once pronounced was irrevocably dedicated to the temple. Land, however, so dedicated might be redeemed before the year of jubilee (Lev. 27:16). Our Lord condemns the Pharisees for their false doctrine, in......

CORD
frequently used in its proper sense, for fastening a tent (Exo 35:18;39:40), yoking animals to a cart (Isa. 5:18), binding prisoners (Judg. 15:13; Psa 2:3;129:4), and measuring ground (2 Sam. 8;2; Psa 78:55). Figuratively, death is spoken of as the giving way of the tent-cord (Job 4:21. "Is not their tent-cord plucked up?" R.V.). To gird one's self with a cord was a token of sorrow and humiliation......

CORIANDER
Heb. gad, (Exo 16:31; Num. 11:7), seed to which the manna is likened in its form and colour. It is the Coriandrum sativum of botanists, an umbelliferous annual plant with a round stalk, about two feet high. It is widely cultivated in Eastern countries and in the south of Europe for the sake of its seeds, which are in the form of a little ball of the size of a peppercorn. They are used medicinally ......

CORINTH
a Grecian city, on the isthmus which joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. It is about 48 miles west of Athens. The ancient city was destroyed by the Romans (B.C. 146), and that mentioned in the New Testament was quite a new city, having been rebuilt about a century afterwards and peopled by a colony of freedmen from Rome. It became under the Romans the seat of government for Southern ......

CORINTHIANS, FIRST EPISTLE TO THE
was written from Ephesus (1-Cor 16:8) about the time of the Passover in the third year of the apostle's sojourn there (Acts 19:10;20:31), and when he had formed the purpose to visit Macedonia, and then return to Corinth (probably A.D. 57). The news which had reached him, however, from Corinth frustrated his plan. He had heard of the abuses and contentions that had arisen among them, first from A......

CORINTHIANS, SECOND EPISTLE TO THE
Shortly after writing his first letter to the Corinthians, Paul left Ephesus, where intense excitement had been aroused against him, the evidence of his great success, and proceeded to Macedonia. Pursuing the usual route, he reached Troas, the port of departure for Europe. Here he expected to meet with Titus, whom he had sent from Ephesus to Corinth, with tidings of the effects produced on the chu......

CORMORANT
(Lev. 11:17; Deut. 14:17), Heb. shalak, "plunging," or "darting down," (the Phalacrocorax carbo), ranked among the "unclean" birds; of the same family group as the pelican. It is a "plunging" bird, and is common on the coasts and the island seas of Palestine. Some think the Hebrew word should be rendered "gannet" (Sula bassana, "the solan goose"); others that it is the "tern" or "sea swallow," whi......

CORN
The word so rendered (dagan) in Gen. 27:28, Gen. 27: 37, Num. 18:27, Num. 18: Deut. 28:51, Deut. 28: Lam. 2:12, Lam. 2: is a general term representing all the commodities we usually describe by the words corn, grain, seeds, peas, beans. With this corresponds the use of the word in John 12:24. In Gen. 41:35, Gen. 41: 49, Prov. 11:26, Prov. 11: Joel 2:24 ("wheat"), the word thus translated (bar; i......

CORNELIUS
a centurion whose history is narrated in Acts 10. He was a "devout man," and like the centurion of Capernaum, believed in the God of Israel. His residence at Caesrea probably brought him into contact with Jews who communicated to him their expectations regarding the Messiah; and thus he was prepared to welcome the message Peter brought him. He became the first fruit of the Gentile world to Christ.......

CORNER
The angle of a house (Job 1:19) or a street (Prov. 7:8). "Corners" in Neh. 9:22 denotes the various districts of the promised land allotted to the Israelites. In Num. 24:17, Num. 24: the "corners of Moab" denotes the whole land of Moab. The "corner of a field" (Lev. 19:9;23:22) is its extreme part, which was not to be reaped. The Jews were prohibited from cutting the "corners," i.e., the extremiti......

CORNET
Heb. shophar, "brightness," with reference to the clearness of its sound (1-Chr 15:28; 2-Chr 15:14; Psa 98:6; Hos. 5:8). It is usually rendered in the Authorized Version "trumpet." It denotes the long and straight horn, about eighteen inches long. The words of Joel, "Blow the trumpet," literally, "Sound the cornet," refer to the festival which was the preparation for the day of Atonement. In Dan. ......

COTES
pens or enclosures for flocks (2-Chr 32:28, 2-Chr 32: "cotes for flocks;" R.V., "flocks in folds"). ......

COTTAGE
(1.) A booth in a vineyard (Isa. 1:8); a temporary shed covered with leaves or straw to shelter the watchman that kept the garden. These were slight fabrics, and were removed when no longer needed, or were left to be blown down in winter (Job 27:18). (2.) A lodging-place (rendered "lodge" in Isa. 1:8); a slighter structure than the "booth," as the cucumber patch is more temporary than a vineyard......

COUCH
(Gen. 49:4; 1-Chr 5:1; Job 7:13; Psa 6:6, Psa 6: etc.), a seat for repose or rest. (See BED.) ......

COULTER
(1-Sam 13:20, 1-Sam 13: 21), an agricultural instrument, elsewhere called "ploughshare" (Isa. 2:4; Micah 4:3; Joel 3:10). It was the facing-piece of a plough, analogous to the modern coulter. ......

COUNCIL
spoken of counsellors who sat in public trials with the governor of a province (Acts 25:12). The Jewish councils were the Sanhedrim, or supreme council of the nation, which had subordinate to it smaller tribunals (the "judgment," perhaps, in Matt. 5:21, Matt. 5: 22) in the cities of Palestine (Matt. 10:17; Mark 13:9). In the time of Christ the functions of the Sanhedrim were limited (John 16:2; ......

COUNSELLOR
an adviser (Prov. 11:14;15:22), a king's state counsellor (2-Sam 15:12). Used once of the Messiah (Isa. 9:6). In Mark 15:43, Mark 15: Luke 23:50, Luke 23: the word probably means a member of the Jewish Sanhedrim. ......

COURSES
When David was not permitted to build the temple, he proceeded, among the last acts of his life, with the assistance of Zadok and Ahimelech, to organize the priestly and musical services to be conducted in the house of God. (1.) He divided the priests into twenty-four courses (1-Chr 24:1), sixteen being of the house of Eleazar and eight of that of Ithamar. Each course was under a head or chief, an......

COURT
the enclosure of the tabernacle (Exo 27:9;40:8), of the temple (1-Kings 6:36), of a prison (Neh. 3:25), of a private house (2-Sam 17:18), and of a king's palace (2-Kings 20:4). ......

COVENANT
a contract or agreement between two parties. In the Old Testament the Hebrew word _berith_ is always thus translated. _Berith_ is derived from a root which means "to cut," and hence a covenant is a "cutting," with reference to the cutting or dividing of animals into two parts, and the contracting parties passing between them, in making a covenant (Gen. 15; Jer. 34:18, Jer. 34: 19). The correspon......

COVERING OF THE EYES
occurs only in Gen. 20:16. In the Revised Version the rendering is "it (i.e., Abimelech's present of 1,000 pieces of silver to Abraham) is for thee a covering of the eyes." This has been regarded as an implied advice to Sarah to conform to the custom of married women, and wear a complete veil, covering the eyes as well as the rest of the face. ......

COVETOUSNESS
a strong desire after the possession of worldly things (Col. 3:5; Eph. 5:5; Heb. 13:5; 1-Tim 6:9, 1-Tim 6: 10; Matt. 6:20). It assumes sometimes the more aggravated form of avarice, which is the mark of cold-hearted worldliness. ......

COW
A cow and her calf were not to be killed on the same day (Lev. 22:28; Exo 23:19; Deut. 22:6, Deut. 22: 7). The reason for this enactment is not given. A state of great poverty is described in the words of Isa. 7:21, Isa. 7: where, instead of possessing great resources, a man shall depend for the subsistence of himself and his family on what a single cow and two sheep could yield. ......

CRANE
(Isa. 38:14; Jer. 8:7). In both of these passages the Authorized Version has reversed the Hebrew order of the words. "Crane or swallow" should be "swallow or crane," as in the Revised Version. The rendering is there correct. The Hebrew for crane is _'agur_, the Grus cincerea, a bird well known in Palestine. It is migratory, and is distinguished by its loud voice, its cry being hoarse and melanchol......

CREATION
"In the beginning" God created, i.e., called into being, all things out of nothing. This creative act on the part of God was absolutely free, and for infinitely wise reasons. The cause of all things exists only in the will of God. The work of creation is attributed (1) to the Godhead (Gen. 1:1, Gen. 1: 26); (2) to the Father (1-Cor 8:6); (3) to the Son (John 1:3; Col. 1:16, Col. 1: 17); (4) to the......

CREATURE
denotes the whole creation in Rom. 8:39; Col. 1:15; Rev. 5:13; the whole human race in Mark 16:15; Rom. 8:19. The living creatures in Ezek. 10:15, Ezek. 10: 17, are imaginary beings, symbols of the Divine attributes and operations. ......

CRESCENS
increasing, probably one of the seventy disciples of Christ. He was one of Paul's assistants (2-Tim 4:10), probably a Christian of Rome. ......

CRETE
now called Candia, one of the largest islands in the Meditterranean, about 140 miles long and 35 broad. It was at one time a very prosperous and populous island, having a "hundred cities." The character of the people is described in Paul's quotation from "one of their own poets" (Epimenides) in his epistle to Titus: "The Cretans are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies" (Titus 1:12). Jews from C......

CRIMSON
See COLOUR. ......

CRISPING-PIN
(Isa. 3:22; R.V., "satchel"), some kind of female ornament, probably like the modern reticule. The Hebrew word _harit_ properly signifies pouch or casket or purse. It is rendered "bag" in 2-Kings 5:23. ......

CRISPUS
curled, the chief of the synagogue at Corinth (Acts 18:8). He was converted and, with his family, baptized by Paul (1-Cor 1:14). ......

CROSS
in the New Testament the instrument of crucifixion, and hence used for the crucifixion of Christ itself (Eph. 2:16; Heb. 12:2; 1-Cor 1:17, 1-Cor 1: 18; Gal. 5:11;6:12, 6: 14; Phil. 3:18). The word is also used to denote any severe affliction or trial (Matt. 10:38;16:24; Mark 8:34;10:21). The forms in which the cross is represented are these: 1. The crux simplex (I), a "single piece without tra......

CROWN
(1.) Denotes the plate of gold in the front of the high priest's mitre (Exo 29:6;39:30). The same Hebrew word so rendered (ne'zer) denotes the diadem worn by Saul in battle (2-Sam 1:10), and also that which was used at the coronation of Joash (2-Kings 11:12). (2.) The more general name in Hebrew for a crown is _'atarah_, meaning a "circlet." This is used of crowns and head ornaments of divers ki......

CROWN OF THORNS
our Lord was crowned with a, in mockery by the Romans (Matt. 27:29). The object of Pilate's guard in doing this was probably to insult, and not specially to inflict pain. There is nothing to show that the shrub thus used was, as has been supposed, the spina Christi, which could have been easily woven into a wreath. It was probably the thorny nabk, which grew abundantly round about Jerusalem, and w......

CRUCIFIXION
a common mode of punishment among heathen nations in early times. It is not certain whether it was known among the ancient Jews; probably it was not. The modes of capital punishment according to the Mosaic law were, by the sword (Exo 21), strangling, fire (Lev. 20), and stoning (Deut. 21). This was regarded as the most horrible form of death, and to a Jew it would acquire greater horror from the......

CRUSE
a utensil; a flask or cup for holding water (1-Sam 26:11, 1-Sam 26: 12, 16; 1-Kings 19:6) or oil (1-Kings 17:12, 1-Kings 17: 14, 16). In 1-Kings 14:3 the word there so rendered means properly a bottle, as in Jer. 19:1, Jer. 19: 10, or pitcher. In 2-Kings 2:20, 2-Kings 2: a platter or flat metal saucer is intended. The Hebrew word here used is translated "dish" 21:13; "pans," in 2-Chr 35:13; and "b......

CRYSTAL
(Ezek. 1:22, Ezek. 1: with the epithet "terrible," as dazzling the spectators with its brightness). The word occurs in Rev. 4:6;21:11;22:1. It is a stone of the flint order, the most refined kind of quartz. The Greek word here used means also literally "ice." The ancients regarded the crystal as only pure water congealed into extreme hardness by great length of time. ......

CUBIT
Heb. 'ammah; i.e., "mother of the arm," the fore-arm, is a word derived from the Latin cubitus, the lower arm. It is difficult to determine the exact length of this measure, from the uncertainty whether it included the entire length from the elbow to the tip of the longest finger, or only from the elbow to the root of the hand at the wrist. The probability is that the longer was the original cubit......

CUCKOO
(Heb. shahaph), from a root meaning "to be lean; slender." This bird is mentioned only in Lev. 11:16 and Deut. 14:15 (R.V., "seamew"). Some have interpreted the Hebrew word by "petrel" or "shearwater" (Puffinus cinereus), which is found on the coast of Syria; others think it denotes the "sea-gull" or "seamew." The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) feeds on reptiles and large insects. It is found in ......

CUCUMBERS
(Heb. plur. kishshuim; i.e., "hard," "difficult" of digestion, only in Num. 11:5). This vegetable is extensively cultivated in the East at the present day, as it appears to have been in earlier times among the Hebrews. It belongs to the gourd family of plants. In the East its cooling pulp and juice are most refreshing. "We need not altogether wonder that the Israelites, wearily marching through th......

CUMMIN
(Heb. kammon; i.e., a "condiment"), the fruit or seed of an umbelliferous plant, the Cuminum sativum, still extensively cultivated in the East. Its fruit is mentioned in Isa. 28:25, Isa. 28: 27. In the New Testament it is mentioned in Matt. 23:23, Matt. 23: where our Lord pronounces a "woe" on the scribes and Pharisees, who were zealous in paying tithes of "mint and anise and cummin," while they o......

CUP
a wine-cup (Gen. 40:11, Gen. 40: 21), various forms of which are found on Assyrian and Egyptian monuments. All Solomon's drinking vessels were of gold (1-Kings 10:21). The cups mentioned in the New Testament were made after Roman and Greek models, and were sometimes of gold (Rev. 17:4). The art of divining by means of a cup was practiced in Egypt (Gen. 44:2), and in the East generally. The "cu......

CUP-BEARER
an officer of high rank with Egyptian, Persian, Assyrian, and Jewish monarchs. The cup-bearer of the king of Egypt is mentioned in connection with Joseph's history (Gen. 40:1;41:9). Rabshakeh (q.v.) was cup-bearer in the Assyrian court (2-Kings 18:17). Nehemiah filled this office to the king of Persia (Neh. 1:11). We read also of Solomon's cup-bearers (1-Kings 10:5; 2-Chr 9:4). ......

CURIOUS ARTS
(Acts 19:19), magical arts; jugglery practised by the Ephesian conjurers. Ephesus was noted for its wizard and the "Ephesian spells;" i.e., charms or scraps of parchment written over with certain formula, which were worn as a safeguard against all manner of evils. The more important and powerful of these charms were written out in books which circulated among the exorcists, and were sold at a grea......

CURSE
denounced by God against the serpent (Gen. 3:14), and against Cain (4:11). These divine maledictions carried their effect with them. Prophetical curses were sometimes pronounced by holy men (Gen. 9:25;49:7; Deut. 27:15; Josh. 6:26). Such curses are not the consequence of passion or revenge, they are predictions. No one on pain of death shall curse father or mother (Exo 21:17), nor the prince of ......

CURTAIN
(1.) Ten curtains, each twenty-eight cubits long and four wide, made of fine linen, also eleven made of goat's hair, covered the tabernacle (Exo 26:1;36:8). (2.) The sacred curtain, separating the holy of holies from the sanctuary, is designated by a different Hebrew word (peroketh). It is described as a "veil of blue, and purple, and scarlet, and fine twined linen of cunning work" (Exo 26:31; L......

CUSH
black. (1.) A son, probably the eldest, of Ham, and the father of Nimrod (Gen. 10:8; 1-Chr 1:10). From him the land of Cush seems to have derived its name. The question of the precise locality of the land of Cush has given rise to not a little controversy. The second river of Paradise surrounded the whole land of Cush (Gen. 2:13, Gen. 2: R.V.). The term Cush is in the Old Testament generally appli......

CUSHAN
probably a poetic or prolonged name of the land of Cush, the Arabian Cush (Hab. 3:7). Some have, however, supposed this to be the same as Chushan-rishathaim (Judg. 3:8, Judg. 3: 10), i.e., taking the latter part of the name as a title or local appellation, Chushan "of the two iniquities" (= oppressing Israel, and provoking them to idolatry), a Mesopotamian king, identified by Rawlinson with Asshur......

CUSHITE
(1.) The messenger sent by Joab to David to announce his victory over Absalom (2-Sam 18:32). (2.) The father of Shelemiah (Jer. 36:14). (3.) Son of Gedaliah, and father of the prophet Zephaniah (1:1). (4.) Moses married a Cushite woman (Num. 12:1). From this circumstance some have supposed that Zipporah was meant, and hence that Midian was Cush. ......

CUSTOM
a tax imposed by the Romans. The tax-gatherers were termed publicans (q.v.), who had their stations at the gates of cities, and in the public highways, and at the place set apart for that purpose, called the "receipt of custom" (Matt.9:9; Mark 2:14), where they collected the money that was to be paid on certain goods (7:25). These publicans were tempted to exact more from the people than was lawfu......

CUTHAH
one of the Babylonian cities or districts from which Shalmaneser transplanted certain colonists to Samaria (2-Kings 17:24). Some have conjectured that the "Cutheans" were identical with the "Cossaeans" who inhabited the hill-country to the north of the river Choaspes. Cuthah is now identified with Tell Ibrahim, 15 miles north-east of Babylon. ......

CUTTING
the flesh in various ways was an idolatrous practice, a part of idol-worship (Deut. 14:1; 1-Kings 18:28). The Israelites were commanded not to imitate this practice (Lev. 19:28;21:5; Deut. 14:1). The tearing of the flesh from grief and anguish of spirit in mourning for the dead was regarded as a mark of affection (Jer. 16:6;41:5;48:37). Allusions are made in Revelation (13:16;17:5;19:20) to the ......

CYMBALS
(Heb. tzeltzelim, from a root meaning to "tinkle"), musical instruments, consisting of two convex pieces of brass one held in each hand, which were clashed together to produce a loud clanging sound; castanets; "loud cymbals." "Highsounding cymbals" consisted of two larger plates, one held also in each hand (2-Sam 6:5; Psa 150:5; 1-Chr 13:8;15:16, 15: 19, 28; 1-Cor 13:1). ......

CYPRESS
(Heb. tirzah, "hardness"), mentioned only in Isa. 44:14 (R.V., "holm tree"). The oldest Latin version translates this word by ilex, i.e., the evergreen oak, which may possibly have been the tree intended; but there is great probability that our Authorized Version is correct in rendering it "cypress." This tree grows abundantly on the mountains of Hermon. Its wood is hard and fragrant, and very dur......

CYPRUS
one of the largest islands of the Mediterranean, about 148 miles long and 40 broad. It is distant about 60 miles from the Syrian coast. It was the "Chittim" of the Old Testament (Num. 24:24). The Greek colonists gave it the name of Kypros, from the cyprus, i.e., the henna (see CAMPHIRE), which grew on this island. It was originally inhabited by Phoenicians. In B.C. 477 it fell under the dominion o......

CYRENE
a city (now Tripoli) in Upper Libya, North Africa, founded by a colony of Greeks (B.C. 630). It contained latterly a large number of Jews, who were introduced into the city by Ptolemy, the son of Lagus, because he thought they would contribute to the security of the place. They increased in number and influence; and we are thus prepared for the frequent references to them in connection with the ea......

CYRENIUS
the Grecized form of Quirinus. His full name was Publius Sulpicius Quirinus. Recent historical investigation has proved that Quirinus was governor of Cilicia, which was annexed to Syria at the time of our Lord's birth. Cilicia, which he ruled, being a province of Syria, he is called the governor, which he was de jure, of Syria. Some ten years afterwards he was appointed governor of Syria for the s......

CYRUS
(Heb. Ko'resh), the celebrated "King of Persia" (Elam) who was conqueror of Babylon, and issued the decree of liberation to the Jews (Ezra 1:1, Ezra 1: 2). He was the son of Cambyses, the prince of Persia, and was born about B.C. 599. In the year B.C. 559 he became king of Persia, the kingdom of Media being added to it partly by conquest. Cyrus was a great military leader, bent on universal conque......

DABERATH
pasture, a Levitical town of Issachar (Josh. 19:12;21:28), near the border of Zebulum. It is the modern small village of Deburich, at the base of Mount Tabor. Tradition has incorrectly made it the scene of the miracle of the cure of the lunatic child (Matt. 17:14). ......

DAEMON
the Greek form, rendered "devil" in the Authorized Version of the New Testament. Daemons are spoken of as spiritual beings (Matt. 8:16;10:1;12:43) at enmity with God, and as having a certain power over man (James 2:19; Rev. 16:14). They recognize our Lord as the Son of God (Matt. 8:20; Luke 4:41). They belong to the number of those angels that "kept not their first estate," "unclean spirits," "fal......

DAEMONIAC
one "possessed with a devil." In the days of our Lord and his apostles, evil spirits, "daemons," were mysteriously permitted by God to exercise an influence both over the souls and bodies of men, inflicting dumbness (Matt. 9:32), blindness (12:22), epilepsy (Mark 9:17), insanity (Matt. 8:28; Mark 5:1). Daemoniacs are frequently distinguished from those who are afflicted with ordinary bodily maladi......

DAGON
little fish; diminutive from dag = a fish, the fish-god; the national god of the Philistines (Judg. 16:23). This idol had the body of a fish with the head and hands of a man. It was an Assyrio-Babylonian deity, the worship of which was introduced among the Philistines through Chaldea. The most famous of the temples of Dagon were at Gaza (Judg. 16:23) and Ashdod (1-Sam 5:1). (See FISH.) ......

DAGON'S HOUSE
(1-Sam 5:2), or Beth-dagon, as elsewhere rendered (5:41;19:27), was the sanctuary or temple of Dagon. The Beth-dagon of Josh. 15:41 was one of the cities of the tribe of Judah, in the lowland or plain which stretches westward. It has not been identified. The Beth-dagon of Josh. 19:27 was one of the border cities of Asher. That of 1-Chr 10:10 was in the western half-tribe of Manasseh, where t......

DAILY SACRIFICE
(Dan. 8:12;11:31;12:11), a burnt offering of two lambs of a year old, which were daily sacrificed in the name of the whole Israelitish people upon the great altar, the first at dawn of day, and the second at evening (Dan. 9:21), or more correctly, "between the two evenings." (See SACRIFICE.) ......

DALE, THE KING'S
the name of a valley, the alternative for "the valley of Shaveh" (q.v.), near the Dead Sea, where the king of Sodom met Abraham (Gen. 14:17). Some have identified it with the southern part of the valley of Jehoshaphat, where Absalom reared his family monument (2-Sam 18:18). ......

DALMANUTHA
a place on the west of the Sea of Galilee, mentioned only in Mark 8:10. In the parallel passage it is said that Christ came "into the borders of Magdala" (Matt. 15:39). It is plain, then, that Dalmanutha was near Magdala, which was probably the Greek name of one of the many Migdols (i.e., watch-towers) on the western side of the lake of Gennesaret. It has been identified in the ruins of a village ......

DALMATIA
a mountainous country on the eastern shore of the Adriatic, a part of the Roman province of Illyricum. It still bears its ancient name. During Paul's second imprisonment at Rome, Titus left him to visit Dalmatia (2-Tim 4:10) for some unknown purpose. Paul had himself formerly preached in that region (Rom. 15:19). The present Emperor of Austria bears, among his other titles, that of "King of Dalm......

DAMARIS
a heifer, an Athenian woman converted to Christianity under the preaching of Paul (Acts 17:34). Some have supposed that she may have been the wife of Dionysius the Areopagite. ......

DAMASCUS
activity, the most ancient of Oriental cities; the capital of Syria (Isa. 7:8;17:3); situated about 133 miles to the north of Jerusalem. Its modern name is Esh-Sham; i.e., "the East." The situation of this city is said to be the most beautiful of all Western Asia. It is mentioned among the conquests of the Egyptian king Thothmes III. (B.C. 1500), and in the Amarna tablets (B.C. 1400). It is fi......

DAMNATION
in Rom. 13:2, Rom. 13: means "condemnation," which comes on those who withstand God's ordinance of magistracy. This sentence of condemnation comes not from the magistrate, but from God, whose authority is thus resisted. In 1-Cor 11:29 (R.V., "judgment") this word means condemnation, in the sense of exposure to severe temporal judgements from God, as the following verse explains. In Rom. 14:23 ......

DAN
a judge. (1.) The fifth son of Jacob. His mother was Bilhah, Rachel's maid (Gen. 30:6, Gen. 30: "God hath judged me", Heb. dananni). The blessing pronounced on him by his father was, "Dan shall judge his people" (9:16), probably in allusion to the judgeship of Samson, who was of the tribe of Dan. The tribe of Dan had their place in the march through the wilderness on the north side of the tabern......

DAN-JAAN
woodland Dan, a place probably somewhere in the direction of Dan, near the sources of the Jordan (2-Sam 24:6). The LXX. and the Vulgate read "Dan-ja'ar", i.e., "Dan in the forest." ......

DANCE
found in Judg. 21:21, Judg. 21: 23; Psa 30:11;149:3;150:4; Jer. 31:4, Jer. 31: 13, etc., as the translation of _hul_, which points to the whirling motion of Oriental sacred dances. It is the rendering of a word (rakad') which means to skip or leap for joy, in Eccl. 3:4; Job 21:11; Isa. 13:21, Isa. 13: etc. In the New Testament it is in like manner the translation of different Greek words, circul......

DANIEL
God is my judge, or judge of God. (1.) David's second son, "born unto him in Hebron, of Abigail the Carmelitess" (1-Chr 3:1). He is called also Chileab (2-Sam 3:3). (2.) One of the four great prophets, although he is not once spoken of in the Old Testament as a prophet. His life and prophecies are recorded in the Book of Daniel. He was descended from one of the noble families of Judah (Dan. 1:3)......

DANIEL, BOOK OF
is ranked by the Jews in that division of their Bible called the Hagiographa (Heb. Khethubim). (See BIBLE.) It consists of two distinct parts. The first part, consisting of the first six chapters, is chiefly historical; and the second part, consisting of the remaining six chapters, is chiefly prophetical. The historical part of the book treats of the period of the Captivity. Daniel is "the histo......

DANNAH
murmuring, a city (Josh. 15:49) in the mountains of Judah about 8 miles south-west of Hebron. ......

DARDA
pearl of wisdom, one of the four who were noted for their wisdom, but whom Solomon excelled (1-Kings 4:31). ......

DARIC
in the Revised Version of 1-Chr 29:7; Ezra 2:69;8:27; Neh. 7:70, Neh. 7: where the Authorized Version has "dram." It is the rendering of the Hebrew darkemon and the Greek dareikos. It was a gold coin, bearing the figure of a Persian King with his crown and armed with bow and arrow. It was current among the Jews after their return from Babylon, i.e., while under the Persian domination. It weighed a......

DARIUS
the holder or supporter, the name of several Persian kings. (1.) Darius the Mede (Dan. 11:1), "the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes" (9:1). On the death of Belshazzar the Chaldean he "received the kingdom" of Babylon as viceroy from Cyrus. During his brief reign (B.C. 538-536) Daniel was promoted to the highest dignity (Dan. 6:1, Dan. 6: 2); but on account of the malice of his enemies he......

DARKNESS
The plague (the ninth) of darkness in Egypt (Exo 10:21) is described as darkness "which may be felt." It covered "all the land of Egypt," so that "they saw not one another." It did not extend to the land of Goshen (ver. 23). When Jesus hung upon the cross (Matt. 27:45; Luke 23:44), from the "sixth hour there was darkness over all the land unto the ninth hour." On Mount Sinai, Moses (Exo 20:21)......

DARLING
Psa 22:20;35:17) means an "only one." ......

DART
an instrument of war; a light spear. "Fiery darts" (Eph. 6:16) are so called in allusion to the habit of discharging darts from the bow while they are on fire or armed with some combustible material. Arrows are compared to lightning (Deut. 32:23, Deut. 32: 42; Psa 7:13;120:4). ......

DATE
the fruit of a species of palm (q.v.), the Phoenix dactilifera. This was a common tree in Palestine (Joel 1:12; Neh. 8:15). Palm branches were carried by the Jews on festive occasions, and especially at the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:40; Neh. 8:15). ......

DATHAN
welled; belonging to a fountain, a son of Eliab, a Reubenite, who joined Korah (q.v.) in his conspiracy, and with his accomplices was swallowed up by an earthquake (Num. 16:1;26:9; Deut. 11:6; Psa 106:17). ......

DAUGHTER
This word, besides its natural and proper sense, is used to designate, (1.) A niece or any female descendant (Gen. 20:12;24:48;28:6). (2.) Women as natives of a place, or as professing the religion of a place; as, "the daughters of Zion" (Isa. 3:16), "daughters of the Philistines" (2-Sam 1:20). (3.) Small towns and villages lying around a city are its "daughters," as related to the metropolis or m......

DAVID
beloved, the eighth and youngest son of Jesse, a citizen of Bethlehem. His father seems to have been a man in humble life. His mother's name is not recorded. Some think she was the Nahash of 2-Sam 17:25. As to his personal appearance, we only know that he was red-haired, with beautiful eyes and a fair face (1-Sam 16:12;17:42). His early occupation was that of tending his father's sheep on the up......

DAVID, CITY OF
(1.) David took from the Jebusites the fortress of Mount Zion. He "dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David" (1-Chr 11:7). This was the name afterwards given to the castle and royal palace on Mount Zion, as distinguished from Jerusalem generally (1-Kings 3:1;8:1), It was on the south-west side of Jerusalem, opposite the temple mount, with which it was connected by a bridge over the Tyrop......

DAY
The Jews reckoned the day from sunset to sunset (Lev. 23:32). It was originally divided into three parts (Psa 55:17). "The heat of the day" (1-Sam 11:11; Neh. 7:3) was at our nine o'clock, and "the cool of the day" just before sunset (Gen. 3:8). Before the Captivity the Jews divided the night into three watches, (1) from sunset to midnight (Lam. 2:19); (2) from midnight till the cock-crowing (Judg......

DAY'S JOURNEY
The usual length of a day's journey in the East, on camel or horseback, in six or eight hours, is about 25 or 30 miles. The "three days' journey" mentioned in Exo 3:18 is simply a journey which would occupy three days in going and returning. ......

DAYSMAN
an umpire or arbiter or judge (Job 9:33). This word is formed from the Latin diem dicere, i.e., to fix a day for hearing a cause. Such an one is empowered by mutual consent to decide the cause, and to "lay his hand", i.e., to impose his authority, on both, and enforce his sentence. ......

DAYSPRING
(Job 38:12; Luke 1:78), the dawn of the morning; daybreak. (Comp. Isa. 60:1, Isa. 60: 2; Mal. 4:2; Rev. 22:16.) ......

DAYSTAR
which precedes and accompanies the sun-rising. It is found only in 2-Pet 1:19, 2-Pet 1: where it denotes the manifestation of Christ to the soul, imparting spiritual light and comfort. He is the "bright and morning star" of Rev. 2:28;22:16. (Comp. Num. 24:17.) ......

DEACON
Anglicized form of the Greek word diaconos, meaning a "runner," "messenger," "servant." For a long period a feeling of mutual jealousy had existed between the "Hebrews," or Jews proper, who spoke the sacred language of palestine, and the "Hellenists," or Jews of the Grecian speech, who had adopted the Grecian language, and read the Septuagint version of the Bible instead of the Hebrew. This jealou......

DEACONESS
Rom. 16:1, Rom. 16: 3, 12; Phil. 4:2, Phil. 4: 3; 1-Tim 3:11;5:9, 5: 10; Titus 2:3, Titus 2: 4). In these passages it is evident that females were then engaged in various Christian ministrations. Pliny makes mention of them also in his letter to Trajan (A.D. 110). ......

DEAD SEA
the name given by Greek writers of the second century to that inland sea called in Scripture the "salt sea" (Gen. 14:3; Num. 34:12), the "sea of the plain" (Deut. 3:17), the "east sea" (Ezek. 47:18; Joel 2:20), and simply "the sea" (Ezek. 47:8). The Arabs call it Bahr Lut, i.e., the Sea of Lot. It lies about 16 miles in a straight line to the east of Jerusalem. Its surface is 1,292 feet below the ......

DEAL, TENTH
See OMER. ......

DEARTH
a scarcity of provisions (1 Kings 17). There were frequent dearths in Palestine. In the days of Abram there was a "famine in the land" (Gen. 12:10), so also in the days of Jacob (7:4, 7: 13). We read also of dearths in the time of the judges (Ruth 1:1), and of the kings (2-Sam 21:1; 1-Kings 18:2; 2-Kings 4:38;8:1). In New Testament times there was an extensive famine in Palestine (Acts 11:28) in......

DEATH
may be simply defined as the termination of life. It is represented under a variety of aspects in Scripture: (1.) "The dust shall return to the earth as it was" (Eccl. 12:7). (2.) "Thou takest away their breath, they die" (Psa 104:29). (3.) It is the dissolution of "our earthly house of this tabernacle" (2-Cor 5:1); the "putting off this tabernacle" (2-Pet 1:13, 2-Pet 1: 14). (4.) Being "unc......

DEBIR
oracle town; sanctuary. (1.) One of the eleven cities to the west of Hebron, in the highlands of Judah (Josh. 15:49; Judg. 1:11). It was originally one of the towns of the Anakim (Josh. 15:15), and was also called Kirjath-sepher (q.v.) and Kirjath-sannah (49). Caleb, who had conquered and taken possession of the town and district of Hebron (Josh. 14:6), offered the hand of his daughter to any one ......

DEBORAH
a bee. (1.) Rebekah's nurse. She accompanied her mistress when she left her father's house in Padan-aram to become the wife of Isaac (Gen. 24:59). Many years afterwards she died at Bethel, and was buried under the "oak of weeping", Allon-bachuth (35:8). (2.) A prophetess, "wife" (woman?) of Lapidoth. Jabin, the king of Hazor, had for twenty years held Israel in degrading subjection. The spirit o......

DEBT
The Mosaic law encouraged the practice of lending (Deut. 15:7; Psa 37:26; Matt. 5:42); but it forbade the exaction of interest except from foreigners. Usury was strongly condemned (Prov. 28:8; Ezek. 18:8, Ezek. 18: 13, 17;22:12; Psa 15:5). On the Sabbatical year all pecuniary obligations were cancelled (Deut. 15:1). These regulations prevented the accumulation of debt. ......

DEBTOR
Various regulations as to the relation between debtor and creditor are laid down in the Scriptures. (1.) The debtor was to deliver up as a pledge to the creditor what he could most easily dispense with (Deut. 24:10, Deut. 24: 11). (2.) A mill, or millstone, or upper garment, when given as a pledge, could not be kept over night (Exo 22:26, Exo 22: 27). (3.) A debt could not be exacted during ......

DECALOGUE
the name given by the Greek fathers to the ten commandments; "the ten words," as the original is more literally rendered (Exo 20:3). These commandments were at first written on two stone slabs (31:18), which were broken by Moses throwing them down on the ground (32:19). They were written by God a second time (34:1). The decalogue is alluded to in the New Testament five times (Matt. 5:17, Matt. 5: ......

DECAPOILS
ten cities=deka, ten, and polis, a city, a district on the east and south-east of the Sea of Galilee containing "ten cities," which were chiefly inhabited by Greeks. It included a portion of Bashan and Gilead, and is mentioned three times in the New Testament (Matt. 4:25; Mark 5:20;7:31). These cities were Scythopolis, i.e., "city of the Scythians", (ancient Bethshean, the only one of the ten citi......

DECISION, VALLEY OF
a name given to the valley of Jehoshaphat (q.v.) as the vale of the sentence. The scene of Jehovah's signal inflictions on Zion's enemies (Joel 3:14; marg., "valley of concision or threshing"). ......

DECREES OF GOD
"The decrees of God are his eternal, unchangeable, holy, wise, and sovereign purpose, comprehending at once all things that ever were or will be in their causes, conditions, successions, and relations, and determining their certain futurition. The several contents of this one eternal purpose are, because of the limitation of our faculties, necessarily conceived of by us in partial aspects, and in ......

DEDAN
low ground. (1.) A son of Raamah (Gen. 10:7). His descendants are mentioned in Isa. 21:13, Isa. 21: and Ezek. 27:15. They probably settled among the sons of Cush, on the north-west coast of the Persian Gulf. (2.) A son of Jokshan, Abraham's son by Keturah (1-Chr 1:32). His descendants settled on the Syrian borders about the territory of Edom. They probably led a pastoral life. ......

DEDANIM
the descendants of Dedan, the son of Raamah. They are mentioned in Isa. 21:13 as sending out "travelling companies" which lodged "in the forest of Arabia." They are enumerated also by Ezekiel (27:20) among the merchants who supplied Tyre with precious things. ......

DEDICATION, FEAST OF THE
(John 10:22, John 10: 42), i.e., the feast of the renewing. It was instituted B.C. 164 to commemorate the purging of the temple after its pollution by Antiochus Epiphanes (B.C. 167), and the rebuilding of the altar after the Syrian invaders had been driven out by Judas Maccabaeus. It lasted for eight days, beginning on the 25th of the month Chisleu (December), which was often a period of heavy rai......

DEEP
used to denote (1) the grave or the abyss (Rom. 10:7; Luke 8:31); (2) the deepest part of the sea (Psa 69:15); (3) the chaos mentioned in Gen. 1:2; (4) the bottomless pit, hell (Rev. 9:1, Rev. 9: 2;11:7;20:13). ......

DEGREES, SONG OF
song of steps, a title given to each of these fifteen psalms, 120-134 inclusive. The probable origin of this name is the circumstance that these psalms came to be sung by the people on the ascents or goings up to Jerusalem to attend the three great festivals (Deut. 16:16). They were well fitted for being sung by the way from their peculiar form, and from the sentiments they express. "They are char......

DEHAVITES
villagers, one of the Assyrian tribes which Asnapper sent to repopulate Samaria (Ezra 4:9). They were probably a nomad Persian tribe on the east of the Caspian Sea, and near the Sea of Azof. ......

DELAIAH
freed by Jehovah. (1.) The head of the twenty-third division of the priestly order (1-Chr 24:18). (2.) A son of Shemaiah, and one of the courtiers to whom Jeremiah's first roll of prophecy was read (Jer. 36:12). (3.) The head of one of the bands of exiles that returned under Zerubbabel to Jerusalem (Ezra 2:60; Neh. 7:62). ......

DELILAH
languishing, a Philistine woman who dwelt in the valley of Sorek (Judg. 16:4). She was bribed by the "lords of the Philistines" to obtain from Samson the secret of his strength and the means of overcoming it (Judg. 16:4). She tried on three occasions to obtain from him this secret in vain. On the fourth occasion she wrung it from him. She made him sleep upon her knees, and then called the man who ......

DELUGE
the name given to Noah's flood, the history of which is recorded in Gen. 7 and 8. It began in the year 2516 B.C., and continued twelve lunar months and ten days, or exactly one solar year. The cause of this judgment was the corruption and violence that filled the earth in the ninth generation from Adam. God in righteous indignation determined to purge the earth of the ungodly race. Amid a worl......

DEMAS
a companion and fellow-labourer of Paul during his first imprisonment at Rome (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). It appears, however, that the love of the world afterwards mastered him, and he deserted the apostle (2-Tim 4:10). ......

DEMETRIUS
(1.) A silversmith at Ephesus, whose chief occupation was to make "silver shrines for Diana" (q.v.), Acts 19:24, Acts 19:i.e., models either of the temple of Diana or of the statue of the goddess. This trade brought to him and his fellow-craftsmen "no small gain," for these shrines found a ready sale among the countless thousands who came to this temple from all parts of Asia Minor. This traffic w......

DEMON
See DAEMON. ......

DEN
a lair of wild beasts (Psa 10:9;104:22; Job 37:8); the hole of a venomous reptile (Isa. 11:8); a recess for secrecy "in dens and caves of the earth" (Heb. 11:38); a resort of thieves (Matt. 21:13; Mark 11:17). Daniel was cast into "the den of lions" (Dan. 6:16, Dan. 6: 17). Some recent discoveries among the ruins of Babylon have brought to light the fact that the practice of punishing offenders ag......

DEPUTY
in 1-Kings 22:47, 1-Kings 22: means a prefect; one set over others. The same Hebrew word is rendered "officer;" i.e., chief of the commissariat appointed by Solomon (1-Kings 4:5, 1-Kings 4: etc.). In Esther 8:9;9:3 (R.V., "governor") it denotes a Persian prefect "on this side" i.e., in the region west of the Euphrates. It is the modern word _pasha_. In Acts 13:7, Acts 13: 8, 12;18:12, 18: it d......

DERBE
a small town on the eastern part of the upland plain of Lycaonia, about 20 miles from Lystra. Paul passed through Derbe on his route from Cilicia to Iconium, on his second missionary journey (Acts 16:1), and probably also on his third journey (18:23;19:1). On his first journey (14:20, 14: 21) he came to Derbe from the other side; i.e., from Iconium. It was the native place of Gaius, one of Paul's ......

DESERT
(1.) Heb. midbar, "pasture-ground;" an open tract for pasturage; a common (Joel 2:22). The "backside of the desert" (Exo 3:1) is the west of the desert, the region behind a man, as the east is the region in front. The same Hebrew word is rendered "wildernes," and is used of the country lying between Egypt and Palestine (Gen. 21:14, Gen. 21: 21; Exo 4:27;19:2; Josh. 1:4), the wilderness of the wand......

DESIRE OF ALL NATIONS
(Hag. 2:7), usually interpreted as a title of the Messiah. The Revised Version, however, more correctly renders "the desirable things of all nations;" i.e., the choicest treasures of the Gentiles shall be consecrated to the Lord. ......

DESOLATION, ABOMINATION OF
(Matt. 24:15; Mark 13:14; comp. Luke 21:20), is interpreted of the eagles, the standards of the Roman army, which were an abomination to the Jews. These standards, rising over the site of the temple, were a sign that the holy place had fallen under the idolatrous Romans. The references are to Dan. 9:27. (See ABOMINATION.) ......

DESTROYER
(Exo 12:23), the agent employed in the killing of the first-born; the destroying angel or messenger of God. (Comp. 2-Kings 19:35; 2-Sam 24:15, 2-Sam 24: 16; Psa 78:49; Acts 12:23.) ......

DESTRUCTION
in Job 26:6, Job 26:28:22 (Heb. abaddon) is sheol, the realm of the dead. ......

DESTRUCTION, CITY OF
(Isa. 19:18; Heb. Ir-ha-Heres, "city of overthrow," because of the evidence it would present of the overthrow of heathenism), the ideal title of On or Heliopolis (q.v.). ......

DEUTERONOMY
In all the Hebrew manuscripts the Pentateuch (q.v.) forms one roll or volume divided into larger and smaller sections called _parshioth_ and _sedarim_. It is not easy to say when it was divided into five books. This was probably first done by the Greek translators of the book, whom the Vulgate follows. The fifth of these books was called by the Greeks Deuteronomion, i.e., the second law, hence our......

DEVIL
(Gr. diabolos), a slanderer, the arch-enemy of man's spiritual interest (Job 1:6; Rev. 2:10; Zech. 3:1). He is called also "the accuser of the brethen" (Rev. 12:10). In Lev. 17:7 the word "devil" is the translation of the Hebrew _sair_, meaning a "goat" or "satyr" (Isa. 13:21;34:14), alluding to the wood-daemons, the objects of idolatrous worship among the heathen. In Deut. 32:17 and Psa 106:3......

DEW
"There is no dew properly so called in Palestine, for there is no moisture in the hot summer air to be chilled into dew-drops by the coldness of the night. From May till October rain is unknown, the sun shining with unclouded brightness day after day. The heat becomes intense, the ground hard, and vegetation would perish but for the moist west winds that come each night from the sea. The bright sk......

DIADEM
the tiara of a king (Ezek. 21:26; Isa. 28:5;62:3); the turban (Job 29:14). In the New Testament a careful distinction is drawn between the diadem as a badge of royalty (Rev. 12:3;13:1;19:12) and the crown as a mark of distinction in private life. It is not known what the ancient Jewish "diadem" was. It was the mark of Oriental sovereigns. (See CROWN.) ......

DIAL
for the measurement of time, only once mentioned in the Bible, erected by Ahaz (2-Kings 20:11; Isa. 38:8). The Hebrew word (ma'aloth) is rendered "steps" in Exo 20:26, Exo 20: 1-Kings 10:19, 1-Kings 10: and "degrees" in 2-Kings 20:9, 2-Kings 20: 10, 11. The _ma'aloth_ was probably stairs on which the shadow of a column or obelisk placed on the top fell. The shadow would cover a greater or smaller ......

DIAMOND
(1.) A precious gem (Heb. yahalom', in allusion to its hardness), otherwise unknown, the sixth, i.e., the third in the second row, in the breastplate of the high priest, with the name of Naphtali engraven on it (Exo 28:18;39:11; R.V. marg., "sardonyx.") (2.) A precious stone (Heb. shamir', a sharp point) mentioned in Jer. 17:1. From its hardness it was used for cutting and perforating other mine......

DIANA
so called by the Romans; called Artemis by the Greeks, the "great" goddess worshipped among heathen nations under various modifications. Her most noted temple was that at Ephesus. It was built outside the city walls, and was one of the seven wonders of the ancient world. "First and last it was the work of 220 years; built of shining marble; 342 feet long by 164 feet broad; supported by a forest of......

DIBLAIM
doubled cakes, the mother of Gomer, who was Hosea's wife (Hos. 1:3). ......

DIBLATHAIM
two cakes, a city of Moab, on the east of the Dead Sea (Num. 33:46; Jer. 48:22). ......

DIBON
pining; wasting. (1.) A city in Moab (Num. 21:30); called also Dibon-gad (33:45), because it was built by Gad and Dimon (Isa. 15:9). It has been identified with the modern Diban, about 3 miles north of the Arnon and 12 miles east of the Dead Sea. (See Moabite Stone.) (2.) A city of the tribe of Judah, inhabited after the Captivity (Neh. 11:25); called also Dimonah (Josh. 15:22). It is probably t......

DIDYMUS
(Gr. twin = Heb. Thomas, q.v.), John 11:16;20:24;21:2. ......

DIMNAH
dunghill, a city of Zebulun given to the Merarite Levites (Josh. 21:35). In 1-Chr 6:77 the name "Rimmon" is substituted. ......

DINAH
judged; vindicated, daughter of Jacob by Leah, and sister of Simeon and Levi (Gen. 30:21). She was seduced by Shechem, the son of Hamor, the Hivite chief, when Jacob's camp was in the neighbourhood of Shechem. This led to the terrible revenge of Simeon and Levi in putting the Shechemites to death (Gen. 34). Jacob makes frequent reference to this deed of blood with abhorrence and regret (Gen. 34:30......

DINE
(Gen. 43:16). It was the custom in Egypt to dine at noon. But it is probable that the Egyptians took their principal meal in the evening, as was the general custom in the East (Luke 14:12). ......

DINHABAH
robbers' den, an Edomitish city, the capital of king Bela (Gen. 36:32). It is probably the modern Dibdiba, a little north-east of Petra. ......

DIONYSIUS
the Areopagite, one of Paul's converts at Athens (Acts 17:34). ......

DIOTREPHES
Jove-nourished, rebuked by John for his pride (3-John 1:9). He was a Judaizer, prating against John and his fellow-labourers "with malicious words" (7). ......

DISCIPLE
a scholar, sometimes applied to the followers of John the Baptist (Matt. 9:14), and of the Pharisees (22:16), but principally to the followers of Christ. A disciple of Christ is one who (1) believes his doctrine, (2) rests on his sacrifice, (3) imbibes his spirit, and (4) imitates his example (Matt. 10:24; Luke 14:26, Luke 14: 27, 33; John 6:69). ......

DISH
for eating from (2-Kings 21:13). Judas dipped his hand with a "sop" or piece of bread in the same dish with our Lord, thereby indicating friendly intimacy (Matt. 26:23). The "lordly dish" in Judg. 5:25 was probably the shallow drinking cup, usually of brass. In Judg. 6:38 the same Hebrew word is rendered "bowl." The dishes of the tabernacle were made of pure gold (Exo 25:29;37:16). ......

DISHAN
antelope, the youngest son of Seir the Horite, head of one of the tribes of Idumaea (Gen. 36:21, Gen. 36: 28, 30). ......

DISPENSATION
(Gr. oikonomia, "management," "economy"). (1.) The method or scheme according to which God carries out his purposes towards men is called a dispensation. There are usually reckoned three dispensations, the Patriarchal, the Mosaic or Jewish, and the Christian. (See COVENANT, Administration of.) These were so many stages in God's unfolding of his purpose of grace toward men. The word is not found wi......

DISPERSION
(Gr. diaspora, "scattered," James 1:1; 1-Pet 1:1) of the Jews. At various times, and from the operation of divers causes, the Jews were separated and scattered into foreign countries "to the outmost parts of heaven" (Deut. 30:4). (1.) Many were dispersed over Assyria, Media, Babylonia, and Persia, descendants of those who had been transported thither by the Exile. The ten tribes, after existing ......

DISTAFF
(Heb. pelek, a "circle"), the instrument used for twisting threads by a whirl (Prov. 31:19). ......

DIVINATION
of false prophets (Deut. 18:10, Deut. 18: 14; Micah 3:6, Micah 3: 7, 11), of necromancers (1-Sam 28:8), of the Philistine priests and diviners (1-Sam 6:2), of Balaam (Josh. 13:22). Three kinds of divination are mentioned in Ezek. 21:21, Ezek. 21: by arrows, consulting with images (the teraphim), and by examining the entrails of animals sacrificed. The practice of this art seems to have been encour......

DIVORCE
The dissolution of the marriage tie was regulated by the Mosaic law (Deut. 24:1). The Jews, after the Captivity, were reguired to dismiss the foreign women they had married contrary to the law (Ezra 10:11). Christ limited the permission of divorce to the single case of adultery. It seems that it was not uncommon for the Jews at that time to dissolve the union on very slight pretences (Matt. 5:31, ......

DIZAHAB
region of gold, a place in the desert of Sinai, on the western shore of the Elanitic gulf (Deut. 1:1). It is now called Dehab. ......

DOCTOR
(Luke 2:46;5:17; Acts 5:34), a teacher. The Jewish doctors taught and disputed in synagogues, or wherever they could find an audience. Their disciples were allowed to propose to them questions. They assumed the office without any appointment to it. The doctors of the law were principally of the sect of the Pharisees. Schools were established after the destruction of Jerusalem at Babylon and Tiberi......

DODAI
loving, one of David's captains (1-Chr 27:4). (See DODO [2].)......

DODANIM
leaders, a race descended from Javan (Gen. 10:4). They are known in profane history as the Dardani, originally inhabiting Illyricum. They were a semi-Pelasgic race, and in the ethnographical table (Gen. 10) they are grouped with the Chittim (q.v.). In 1-Chr 1:7, 1-Chr 1: they are called Rodanim. The LXX. and the Samaritan Version also read Rhodii, whence some have concluded that the Rhodians, the ......

DODO
amatory; loving. (1.) A descendant of Issachar (Judg. 10:1). (2.) An Ahohite, father of Eleazar, who was one of David's three heroes (2-Sam 23:9; 1-Chr 11:12). He was the same with Dodai mentioned in 1-Chr 27:4. (3.) A Bethlehemite, and father of Elhanan, who was one of David's thirty heroes (2-Sam 23:24).......

DOEG
fearful, an Edomite, the chief overseer of Saul's flocks (1-Sam 21:7). At the command of Saul he slew the high priest Ahimelech (q.v.) at Nob, together with all the priests to the number of eighty-five persons. (Comp. Ps. 52, title.)......

DOG
frequently mentioned both in the Old and New Testaments. Dogs were used by the Hebrews as a watch for their houses (Isa. 56:10), and for guarding their flocks (Job 30:1). There were also then as now troops of semi-wild dogs that wandered about devouring dead bodies and the offal of the streets (1-Kings 14:11;16:4;21:19, 21: 23;22:38; Psa 59:6, Psa 59: 14). As the dog was an unclean animal, the t......

DOLEFUL CREATURES
(occurring only Isa. 13:21. Heb. ochim, i.e., "shrieks;" hence "howling animals"), a general name for screech owls (howlets), which occupy the desolate palaces of Babylon. Some render the word "hyaenas."......

DOOR-KEEPER
This word is used in Psa 84:10 (R.V. marg., "stand at the threshold of," etc.), but there it signifies properly "sitting at the threshold in the house of God." The psalmist means that he would rather stand at the door of God's house and merely look in, than dwell in houses where iniquity prevailed. Persons were appointed to keep the street door leading into the interior of the house (John 18:16,......

DOOR-POSTS
The Jews were commanded to write the divine name on the posts (mezuzoth') of their doors (Deut. 6:9). The Jews, misunderstanding this injunction, adopted the custom of writing on a slip of parchment these verses (Deut. 6:4, Deut. 6: 11:13), which they enclosed in a reed or cylinder and fixed on the right-hand door-post of every room in the house.......

DOORS
moved on pivots of wood fastened in sockets above and below (Prov. 26:14). They were fastened by a lock (Judg. 3:23, Judg. 3: 25; 5:5) or by a bar (Judg. 16:3; Job 38:10). In the interior of Oriental houses, curtains were frequently used instead of doors. The entrances of the tabernacle had curtains (Exo 26:31, Exo 26: 36). The "valley of Achor" is called a "door of hope," because immediately af......

DOPHKAH
knocking, an encampment of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:12). It was in the desert of Sin, on the eastern shore of the western arm of the Red Sea, somewhere in the Wady Feiran.......

DOR
dwelling, the Dora of the Romans, an ancient royal city of the Canaanites (Josh. 11:1, Josh. 11: 2;12:23). It was the most southern settlement of the Phoenicians on the coast of Syria. The original inhabitants seem never to have been expelled, although they were made tributary by David. It was one of Solomon's commissariat districts (Judg. 1:27; 1-Kings 4:11). It has been identified with Tantura (......

DORCAS
a female antelope, or gazelle, a pious Christian widow at Joppa whom Peter restored to life (Acts 9:36). She was a Hellenistic Jewess, called Tabitha by the Jews and Dorcas by the Greeks.......

DOTHAN
two wells, a famous pasture-ground where Joseph found his brethren watching their flocks. Here, at the suggestion of Judah, they sold him to the Ishmaelite merchants (Gen. 37:17). It is mentioned on monuments in B.C. 1600. It was the residence of Elisha (2-Kings 6:13), and the scene of a remarkable vision of chariots and horses of fire surrounding the mountain on which the city stood. It is iden......

DOUGH
(batsek, meaning "swelling," i.e., in fermentation). The dough the Israelites had prepared for baking was carried away by them out of Egypt in their kneading-troughs (Exo 12:34, Exo 12: 39). In the process of baking, the dough had to be turned (Hos. 7:8).......

DOVE
In their wild state doves generally build their nests in the clefts of rocks, but when domesticated "dove-cots" are prepared for them (2:14; Jer. 48:28; Isa. 60:8). The dove was placed on the standards of the Assyrians and Babylonians in honour, it is supposed, of Semiramis (Jer. 25:38; Vulg., "fierceness of the dove;" comp. Jer. 46:16;50:16). Doves and turtle-doves were the only birds that could ......

DOVE'S DUNG
(2-Kings 6:25) has been generally understood literally. There are instances in history of the dung of pigeons being actually used as food during a famine. Compare also the language of Rabshakeh to the Jews (2-Kings 18:27; Isa. 36:12). This name, however, is applied by the Arabs to different vegetable substances, and there is room for the opinion of those who think that some such substance is here ......

DOWRY
(mohar; i.e., price paid for a wife, Gen. 34:12; Exo 22:17; 1-Sam 18:25), a nuptial present; some gift, as a sum of money, which the bridegroom offers to the father of his bride as a satisfaction before he can receive her. Jacob had no dowry to give for his wife, but he gave his services (Gen. 29:18;30:20;34:12).......

DRAGON
(1.) Heb. tannim, plural of tan. The name of some unknown creature inhabiting desert places and ruins (Job 30:29; Psa 44:19; Isa. 13:22;34:13;43:20; Jer. 10:22; Micah 1:8; Mal. 1:3); probably, as translated in the Revised Version, the jackal (q.v.). (2.) Heb. tannin. Some great sea monster (Jer. 51:34). In Isa. 51:9 it may denote the crocodile. In Gen. 1:21 (Heb. plural tanninim) the Authorized ......

DRAGON WELL
(Neh. 2:13), supposed by some to be identical with the Pool of Gihon.......

DRAM
The Authorized Version understood the word 'adarkonim (1-Chr 29:7; Ezra 8:27), and the similar word darkomnim (Ezra 2:69; Neh. 7:70), as equivalent to the Greek silver coin the drachma. But the Revised Version rightly regards it as the Greek dareikos, a Persian gold coin (the daric) of the value of about 1 pound, 2s., which was first struck by Darius, the son of Hystaspes, and was current in Weste......

DRAUGHT-HOUSE
(2-Kings 10:27). Jehu ordered the temple of Baal to be destroyed, and the place to be converted to the vile use of receiving offal or ordure. (Comp. Matt. 15:17.)......

DRAWER OF WATER
(Deut. 29:11; Josh. 9:21, Josh. 9: 23), a servile employment to which the Gibeonites were condemned.......

DREAM
God has frequently made use of dreams in communicating his will to men. The most remarkable instances of this are recorded in the history of Jacob (Gen. 28:12;31:10), Laban (31:24), Joseph (37:9), Gideon (Judg. 7), and Solomon (1-Kings 3:5). Other significant dreams are also recorded, such as those of Abimelech (Gen. 20:3), Pharaoh's chief butler and baker (0:5), Pharaoh (1:1), the Midianites (Jud......

DREDGE
(Job 24:6). See CORN.......

DREGS
(Psa 75:8; Isa. 51:17, Isa. 51: 22), the lees of wine which settle at the bottom of the vessel.......

DRESS
(1.) Materials used. The earliest and simplest an apron of fig-leaves sewed together (Gen. 3:7); then skins of animals (3:21). Elijah's dress was probably the skin of a sheep (2-Kings 1:8). The Hebrews were early acquainted with the art of weaving hair into cloth (Exo 26:7;35:6), which formed the sackcloth of mourners. This was the material of John the Baptist's robe (Matt. 3:4). Wool was also wov......

DRINK
The drinks of the Hebrews were water, wine, "strong drink," and vinegar. Their drinking vessels were the cup, goblet or "basin," the "cruse" or pitcher, and the saucer. To drink water by measure (Ezek. 4:11), and to buy water to drink (Lam. 5:4), denote great scarcity. To drink blood means to be satiated with slaughter. The Jews carefully strained their drinks through a sieve, through fear of ......

DRINK, STRONG
(Heb. shekar'), an intoxicating liquor (Judg. 13:4; Luke 1:15; Isa. 5:11; Micah 2:11) distilled from corn, honey, or dates. The effects of the use of strong drink are referred to in Psa 107:27; Isa. 24:20;49:26;51:17. Its use prohibited, Prov. 20:1. (See WINE.)......

DRINK-OFFERING
consisted of wine (Num. 15:5; Hos. 9:4) poured around the altar (Exo 30:9). Joined with meat-offerings (Num. 6:15, Num. 6: 17; 2-Kings 16:13; Joel 1:9, Joel 1: 13;2:14), presented daily (Exo 29:40), on the Sabbath (Num. 28:9), and on feast-days (28:14). One-fourth of an hin of wine was required for one lamb, one-third for a ram, and one-half for a bullock (Num. 15:5;28:7, 28: 14). "Drink offerings......

DROMEDARY
(Isa. 60:6), an African or Arabian species of camel having only one hump, while the Bactrian camel has two. It is distinguished from the camel only as a trained saddle-horse is distinguished from a cart-horse. It is remarkable for its speed (Jer. 2:23). Camels are frequently spoken of in partriarchal times (Gen. 12:16;24:10;30:43;31:17, 31: etc.). They were used for carrying burdens (Gen. 37:25; J......

DROPSY
mentioned only in Luke 14:2. The man afflicted with it was cured by Christ on the Sabbath.......

DROSS
the impurities of silver separated from the one in the process of melting (Prov. 25:4;26:23; Psa 119:119). It is also used to denote the base metal itself, probably before it is smelted, in Isa. 1:22, Isa. 1: 25.......

DROUGHT
From the middle of May to about the middle of August the land of Palestine is dry. It is then the "drought of summer" (Gen. 31:40; Psa 32:4), and the land suffers (Deut. 28:23: Psa 102:4), vegetation being preserved only by the dews (Hag. 1:11). (See DEW.)......

DROWN
(Exo 15:4; Amos 8:8; Heb. 11:29). Drowning was a mode of capital punishment in use among the Syrians, and was known to the Jews in the time of our Lord. To this he alludes in Matt. 18:6.......

DRUNK
The first case of intoxication on record is that of Noah (Gen. 9:21). The sin of drunkenness is frequently and strongly condemned (Rom. 13:13; 1-Cor 6:9, 1-Cor 6: 10; Eph. 5:18; 1-Thess 5:7, 1-Thess 5: 8). The sin of drinking to excess seems to have been not uncommon among the Israelites. The word is used figuratively, when men are spoken of as being drunk with sorrow, and with the wine of God's......

DRUSILLA
third and youngest daughter of Herod Agrippa I. (Acts 12:1, Acts 12: 20-23). Felix, the Roman procurator of Judea, induced her to leave her husband, Azizus, the king of Emesa, and become his wife. She was present with Felix when Paul reasoned of "righteousness, temperance, and judgment to come" (Acts 24:24). She and her son perished in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius, A.D. 79.......

DUKE
derived from the Latin dux, meaning "a leader;" Arabic, "a sheik." This word is used to denote the phylarch or chief of a tribe (Gen. 36:15; Exo 15:15; 1-Chr 1:51).......

DULCIMER
(Heb. sumphoniah), a musical instrument mentioned in Dan. 3:5, Dan. 3: 15, along with other instruments there named, as sounded before the golden image. It was not a Jewish instrument. In the margin of the Revised Version it is styled the "bag-pipe." Luther translated it "lute," and Grotius the "crooked trumpet." It is probable that it was introduced into Babylon by some Greek or Western-Asiatic m......

DUMAH
silence, (comp. Psa 94:17), the fourth son of Ishmael; also the tribe descended from him; and hence also the region in Arabia which they inhabited (Gen. 25:14; 1-Chr 1:30). There was also a town of this name in Judah (Josh. 15:52), which has been identified with ed-Domeh, about 10 miles southwest of Hebron. The place mentioned in the "burden" of the prophet Isaiah (21:11) is Edom or Idumea.......

DUMB
from natural infirmity (Exo 4:11); not knowing what to say (Prov. 31:8); unwillingness to speak (Psa 39:9; Lev. 10:3). Christ repeatedly restored the dumb (Matt. 9:32, Matt. 9: 33; Luke 11:14; Matt. 12:22) to the use of speech.......

DUNG
(1.) Used as manure (Luke 13:8); collected outside the city walls (Neh. 2:13). Of sacrifices, burned outside the camp (Exo 29:14; Lev. 4:11;8:17; Num. 19:5). To be "cast out as dung," a figurative expression (1-Kings 14:10; 2-Kings 9:37; Jer. 8:2; Psa 18:42), meaning to be rejected as unprofitable. (2.) Used as fuel, a substitute for firewood, which was with difficulty procured in Syria, Arabia,......

DUNG-GATE
(Neh. 2:13), a gate of ancient Jerusalem, on the south-west quarter. "The gate outside of which lay the piles of sweepings and offscourings of the streets," in the valley of Tophet.......

DUNG-HILL
to sit on a, was a sign of the deepest dejection (1-Sam 2:8; Psa 113:7; Lam. 4:5).......

DUNGEON
different from the ordinary prison in being more severe as a place of punishment. Like the Roman inner prison (Acts 16:24), it consisted of a deep cell or cistern (Jer. 38:6). To be shut up in, a punishment common in Egypt (Gen. 39:20;40:3;41:10;42:19). It is not mentioned, however, in the law of Moses as a mode of punishment. Under the later kings imprisonment was frequently used as a punishment ......

DURA
the circle, the plain near Babylon in which Nebuchadnezzar set up a golden image, mentioned in Dan. 3:1. The place still retains its ancient name. On one of its many mounds the pedestal of what must have been a colossal statue has been found. It has been supposed to be that of the golden image.......

DUST
Storms of sand and dust sometimes overtake Eastern travellers. They are very dreadful, many perishing under them. Jehovah threatens to bring on the land of Israel, as a punishment for forsaking him, a rain of "powder and dust" (Deut. 28:24). To cast dust on the head was a sign of mourning (Josh. 7:6); and to sit in dust, of extreme affliction (Isa. 47:1). "Dust" is used to denote the grave (Job ......

DWARF
a lean or emaciated person (Lev. 21:20).......

DWELL
Tents were in primitive times the common dwellings of men. Houses were afterwards built, the walls of which were frequently of mud (Job 24:16; Matt. 6:19, Matt. 6: 20) or of sun-dried bricks. God "dwells in light" (1-Tim 6:16; 1-John 1:7), in heaven (Psa 123:1), in his church (Psa 9:11; 1-John 4:12). Christ dwelt on earth in the days of his humiliation (John 1:14). He now dwells in the hearts of......

DWELLINGS
The materials used in buildings were commonly bricks, sometimes also stones (Lev. 14:40, Lev. 14: 42), which were held together by cement (Jer. 43:9) or bitumen (Gen. 11:3). The exterior was usually whitewashed (Lev. 14:41; Ezek. 13:10; Matt. 23:27). The beams were of sycamore (Isa. 9:10), or olive-wood, or cedar (1-Kings 7:2; Isa. 9:10). The form of Eastern dwellings differed in many respects f......

DYE
The art of dyeing is one of great antiquity, although no special mention is made of it in the Old Testament. The Hebrews probably learned it from the Egyptians (see Exo 26:1;28:5), who brought it to great perfection. In New Testament times Thyatira was famed for its dyers (Acts 16:14). (See COLOUR.) ......

EAGLE
(Herb. nesher; properly the griffon vulture or great vulture, so called from its tearing its prey with its beak), referred to for its swiftness of flight (Deut. 28:49; 2-Sam 1:23), its mounting high in the air (Job 39:27), its strength (Psa 103:5), its setting its nest in high places (Jer. 49:16), and its power of vision (Job 39:27). This "ravenous bird" is a symbol of those nations whom God emp......

EAR
used frequently in a figurative sense (Psa 34:15). To "uncover the ear" is to show respect to a person (1-Sam 20:2 marg.). To have the "ear heavy", or to have "uncircumcised ears" (Isa. 6:10), is to be inattentive and disobedient. To have the ear "bored" through with an awl was a sign of perpetual servitude (Exo 21:6). ......

EARING
an Old English word (from the Latin aro, I plough), meaning "ploughing." It is used in the Authorized Version in Gen. 45:6; Exo 34:21; 1-Sam 8:12; Deut. 21:4; Isa. 30:24; but the Revised Version has rendered the original in these places by the ordinary word to plough or till. ......

EARNEST
The Spirit is the earnest of the believer's destined inheritance (2-Cor 1:22;5:5; Eph. 1:14). The word thus rendered is the same as that rendered "pledge" in Gen. 38:17; "indeed, the Hebrew word has simply passed into the Greek and Latin languages, probably through commercial dealings with the Phoenicians, the great trading people of ancient days. Originally it meant no more than a pledge; but in ......

EARRINGS
rings properly for the ear (Gen. 35:4; Num. 31:50; Ezek. 16:12). In Gen. 24:47 the word means a nose-jewel, and is so rendered in the Revised Version. In Isa. 3:20 the Authorized Version has "ear-rings," and the Revised Version "amulets," which more correctly represents the original word (lehashim), which means incantations; charms, thus remedies against enchantment, worn either suspended from the......

EARTH
(1.) In the sense of soil or ground, the translation of the word _adamah'_. In Gen. 9:20 "husbandman" is literally "man of the ground or earth." Altars were to be built of earth (Exo 20:24). Naaman asked for two mules' burden of earth (2-Kings 5:17), under the superstitious notion that Jehovah, like the gods of the heathen, could be acceptably worshipped only on his own soil. (2). As the renderi......

EARTHQUAKE
mentioned among the extraordinary phenomena of Palestine (Psa 18:7; comp. Hab. 3:6; Nah. 1:5; Isa. 5:25). The first earthquake in Palestine of which we have any record happened in the reign of Ahab (1-Kings 19:11, 1-Kings 19: 12). Another took place in the days of Uzziah, King of Judah (Zech. 14:5). The most memorable earthquake taking place in New Testament times happened at the crucifixion of ......

EAST
(1.) The orient (mizrah); the rising of the sun. Thus "the east country" is the country lying to the east of Syria, the Elymais (Zech. 8:7). (2). Properly what is in front of one, or a country that is before or in front of another; the rendering of the word _kedem_. In pointing out the quarters, a Hebrew always looked with his face toward the east. The word _kedem_ is used when the four quarters......

EAST GATE
(Jer. 19:2), properly the Potter's gate, the gate which led to the potter's field, in the valley of Hinnom. ......

EAST SEA
(Joel 2:20; Ezek. 47:18), the Dead Sea, which lay on the east side of the Holy Land. The Mediterranean, which lay on the west, was hence called the "great sea for the west border" (Num. 34:6). ......

EAST WIND
the wind coming from the east (Job 27:21; Isa. 27:8, Isa. 27: etc.). Blight caused by this wind, "thin ears" (Gen. 41:6); the withered "gourd" (Jonah 4:8). It was the cause and also the emblem of evil (Ezek. 17:10;19:12; Hos. 13:15). In Palestine this wind blows from a burning desert, and hence is destitute of moisture necessary for vegetation. ......

EAST, CHILDREN OF THE
the Arabs as a whole, known as the Nabateans or Kedarenes, nomad tribes (Judg. 6:3, Judg. 6:33;7:12;8:10). ......

EASTER
originally a Saxon word (Eostre), denoting a goddess of the Saxons, in honour of whom sacrifices were offered about the time of the Passover. Hence the name came to be given to the festival of the Resurrection of Christ, which occured at the time of the Passover. In the early English versions this word was frequently used as the translation of the Greek pascha (the Passover). When the Authorized V......

EATING
The ancient Hebrews would not eat with the Egyptians (Gen. 43:32). In the time of our Lord they would not eat with Samaritans (John 4:9), and were astonished that he ate with publicans and sinners (Matt. 9:11). The Hebrews originally sat at table, but afterwards adopted the Persian and Chaldean practice of reclining (Luke 7:36). Their principal meal was at noon (Gen. 43:16; 1-Kings 20:16; Ruth 2:1......

EBAL
stony. (1.) A mountain 3,076 feet above the level of the sea, and 1,200 feet above the level of the valley, on the north side of which stood the city of Shechem (q.v.). On this mountain six of the tribes (Deut. 27:12, Deut. 27:13) were appointed to take their stand and respond according to a prescribed form to the imprecations uttered in the valley, where the law was read by the Levites (11:29;29:......

EBED
slave, the father of Gaal, in whom the men of Shechem "put confidence" in their conspiracy against Abimelech (Judg. 9:26, Judg. 9: 26, 30, 31). ......

EBED-MELECH
a servant of the king; probably an official title, an Ethiopian, "one of the eunuchs which was in the king's house;" i.e., in the palace of Zedekiah, king of Judah. He interceded with the king in Jeremiah's behalf, and was the means of saving him from death by famine (Jer. 38:7: 39:15). ......

EBEN-EZER
stone of help, the memorial stone set up by Samuel to commemorate the divine assistance to Israel in their great battle against the Philistines, whom they totally routed (1-Sam 7:7) at Aphek, in the neighbourhood of Mizpeh, in Benjamin, near the western entrance of the pass of Beth-horon. On this very battle-field, twenty years before, the Philistines routed the Israelites, "and slew of the army i......

EBER
beyond. (1.). The third post-duluvian patriach after Shem (Gen. 10:24;11:14). He is regarded as the founder of the Hebrew race (10:21; Num. 24:24). In Luke 3:35 he is called Heber. (2.) One of the seven heads of the families of the Gadites (1-Chr 5:13). (3.) The oldest of the three sons of Elpaal the Benjamite (8:12). (4.) One of the heads of the familes of Benjamites in Jerusalem (22). (5......

EBONY
a black, hard wood, brought by the merchants from India to Tyre (Ezek. 27:15). It is the heart-wood, brought by Diospyros ebenus, which grows in Ceylon and Southern India. ......

EBRONAH
passage, one of the stations of the Israelites in their wanderings (Num. 33:34, Num. 33: 35). It was near Ezion-geber. ......

ECBATANA
(Ezra 6:2 marg.). (See ACHMETHA.) ......

ECCLESIASTES
the Greek rendering of the Hebrew _Koheleth_, which means "Preacher." The old and traditional view of the authorship of this book attributes it to Solomon. This view can be satisfactorily maintained, though others date it from the Captivity. The writer represents himself implicitly as Solomon (1:12). It has been appropriately styled The Confession of King Solomon. "The writer is a man who has sinn......

ECLIPSE
of the sun alluded to in Amos 8:9; Micah 3:6; Zech. 14:6; Joel 2:10. Eclipses were regarded as tokens of God's anger (Joel 3:15; Job 9:7). The darkness at the crucifixion has been ascribed to an eclipse (Matt. 27:45); but on the other hand it is argued that the great intensity of darkness caused by an eclipse never lasts for more than six minutes, and this darkness lasted for three hours. Moreover......

ED
witness, a word not found in the original Hebrew, nor in the LXX. and Vulgate, but added by the translators in the Authorized Version, also in the Revised Version, of Josh. 22:34. The words are literally rendered: "And the children of Reuben and the children of Gad named the altar. It is a witness between us that Jehovah is God." This great altar stood probably on the east side of the Jordan, in t......

EDAR
tower of the flock, a tower between Bethlehem and Hebron, near which Jacob first halted after leaving Bethlehem (Gen. 35:21). In Micah 4:8 the word is rendered "tower of the flock" (marg., "Edar"), and is used as a designation of Bethlehem, which figuratively represents the royal line of David as sprung from Bethlehem. ......

EDEN
delight. (1.) The garden in which our first parents dewlt (Gen. 2:8). No geographical question has been so much discussed as that bearing on its site. It has been placed in Armenia, in the region west of the Caspian Sea, in Media, near Damascus, in Palestine, in Southern Arabia, and in Babylonia. The site must undoubtedly be sought for somewhere along the course of the great streams the Tigris and......

EDER
flock. (1.) A city in the south of Judah, on the border of Idumea (Josh. 15:21). (2.) The second of the three sons of Mushi, of the family of Merari, appointed to the Levitical office (1-Chr 23:23;24:30). ......

EDOM
(1.) The name of Esau (q.v.), Gen. 25:30, Gen. 25: "Feed me, I pray thee, with that same red pottage [Heb. haadom, haadom, i.e., 'the red pottage, the red pottage'] ...Therefore was his name called Edom", i.e., Red. (2.) Idumea (Isa. 34:5, Isa. 34: 6; Ezek. 35:15). "The field of Edom" (Gen. 32:3), "the land of Edom" (Gen. 36:16), was mountainous (Obad. 1:8, Obad. 1: 9, 19, 21). It was called the......

EDREI
mighty; strength. (1.) One of the chief towns of the kingdom of Bashan (Josh. 12:4, Josh. 12: 5). Here Og was defeated by the Israelites, and the strength of the Amorites broken (Num. 21:33). It subsequently belonged to Manasseh, for a short time apparently, and afterwards became the abode of banditti and outlaws (Josh. 13:31). It has been identified with the modern Edr'a, which stands on a rocky ......

EFFECTUAL CALL
See CALL. ......

EFFECTUAL PRAYER
occurs in Authorized Version, James 5:16. The Revised Version renders appropriately: "The supplication of a righteous man availeth much in its working", i.e., "it moves the hand of Him who moves the world." ......

EGG
(Heb. beytsah, "whiteness"). Eggs deserted (Isa. 10:14), of a bird (Deut. 22:6), an ostrich (Job 39:14), the cockatrice (Isa. 59:5). In Luke 11:12, Luke 11: an egg is contrasted with a scorpion, which is said to be very like an egg in its appearance, so much so as to be with difficulty at times distinguished from it. In Job 6:6 ("the white of an egg") the word for egg (hallamuth') occurs nowhere e......

EGLAH
a heifer, one of David's wives, and mother of Ithream (2-Sam 3:5; 1-Chr 3:3). According to a Jewish tradition she was Michal. ......

EGLAIM
two ponds, (Isa. 15:8), probably En-eglaim of Ezek. 47:10. ......

EGLON
the bullock; place of heifers. (1.) Chieftain or king of one of the Moabite tribes (Judg. 3:12). Having entered into an alliance with Ammon and Amalek, he overran the trans-Jordanic region, and then crossing the Jordan, seized on Jericho, the "city of palm trees," which had been by this time rebuilt, but not as a fortress. He made this city his capital, and kept Israel in subjection for eighteen y......

EGYPT
the land of the Nile and the pyramids, the oldest kingdom of which we have any record, holds a place of great significance in Scripture. The Egyptians belonged to the white race, and their original home is still a matter of dispute. Many scholars believe that it was in Southern Arabia, and recent excavations have shown that the valley of the Nile was originally inhabited by a low-class populatio......

EHUD
union. (1.) A descendant of Benjamin (1-Chr 7:10), his great-grandson. (2.) The son of Gera, of the tribe of Benjamin (Judg. 3:15). After the death of Othniel the people again fell into idolatry, and Eglon, the king of Moab, uniting his bands with those of the Ammonites and the Amalekites, crossed the Jordan and took the city of Jericho, and for eighteen years held that whole district in subject......

EKRON
firm-rooted, the most northerly of the five towns belonging to the lords of the Philistines, about 11 miles north of Gath. It was assigned to Judah (Josh. 13:3), and afterwards to Dan (19:43), but came again into the full possession of the Philistines (1-Sam 5:10). It was the last place to which the Philistines carried the ark before they sent it back to Israel (1-Sam 5:10;6:1). There was here a n......

EL-BETHEL
God of Bethel, the name of the place where Jacob had the vision of the ladder, and where he erected an altar (Gen. 31:13;35:7). ......

EL-ELOHE-ISREAL
mighty one; God of Israel, the name which Jacob gave to the alter which he erected on the piece of land where he pitched his tent before Shechem, and which he afterwards purchased from the sons of Hamor (Gen. 33:20).......

ELAH
terebinth or oak. (1.) Valley of, where the Israelites were encamped when David killed Goliath (1-Sam 17:2, 1-Sam 17: 19). It was near Shochoh of Judah and Azekah (17:1). It is the modern Wady es-Sunt, i.e., "valley of the acacia." "The terebinths from which the valley of Elah takes its name still cling to their ancient soil. On the west side of the valley, near Shochoh, there is a very large and ......

ELAM
highland, the son of Shem (Gen. 10:22), and the name of the country inhabited by his descendants (14:1, 14: 9; Isa. 11:11;21:2, 21: etc.) lying to the east of Babylonia, and extending to the shore of the Mediterranean, a distance in a direct line of about 1,000 miles. The name Elam is an Assyrian word meaning "high." "The inhabitants of Elam, or 'the Highlands,' to the east of Babylon, were call......

ELASAH
God made. (1.) One of the descendants of Judah, of the family of Hezron (1-Chr 2:39, 1-Chr 2: "Eleasah"). (2.) A descendant of king Saul (1-Chr 8:37;9:43). (3.) The son of Shaphan, one of the two who were sent by Zedekiah to Nebuchadnezzar, and also took charge of Jeremiah's letter to the captives in Babylon (Jer. 29:3). ......

ELATH
grove; trees, (Deut. 2:8), also in plural form Eloth (1-Kings 9:26, 1-Kings 9: etc.); called by the Greeks and Romans Elana; a city of Idumea, on the east, i.e., the Elanitic, gulf, or the Gulf of Akabah, of the Red Sea. It is first mentioned in Deut. 2:8. It is also mentioned along with Ezion-geber in 1-Kings 9:26. It was within the limits of Solomon's dominion, but afterwards revolted. It was, h......

ELDAD
whom God has loved, one of the seventy elders whom Moses appointed (Num. 11:26, Num. 11: 27) to administer justice among the people. He, with Medad, prophesied in the camp instead of going with the rest to the tabernacle, as Moses had commanded. This incident was announced to Moses by Joshua, who thought their conduct in this respect irregular. Moses replied, "Enviest thou for my sake? would God t......

ELDER
a name frequently used in the Old Testament as denoting a person clothed with authority, and entitled to respect and reverence (Gen. 50:7). It also denoted a political office (Num. 22:7). The "elders of Israel" held a rank among the people indicative of authority. Moses opened his commission to them (Exo 3:16). They attended Moses on all important occasions. Seventy of them attended on him at the ......

ELEALEH
God has ascended, a place in the pastoral country east of Jordan, in the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:3, Num. 32: 37). It is not again mentioned till the time of Isaiah (15:4;16:9) and Jeremiah (8:34). It is now an extensive ruin called el-A'al, about one mile north-east of Heshbon. ......

ELEAZAR
God has helped. (1.) The third son of Aaron (Exo 6:23). His wife, a daughter of Putiel, bore him Phinehas (Exo 6:25). After the death of Nadab and Abihu (Lev. 10:12; Num. 3:4) he was appointed to the charge of the sanctuary (Num. 3:32). On Mount Hor he was clothed with the sacred vestments, which Moses took from off his brother Aaron and put upon him as successor to his father in the high priest's......

ELECT LADY
to whom the Second Epistle of John is addressed (2-John 1:1). Some think that the word rendered "lady" is a proper name, and thus that the expression should be "elect Kyria."......

ELECTION OF GRACE
The Scripture speaks (1) of the election of individuals to office or to honour and privilege, e.g., Abraham, Jacob, Saul, David, Solomon, were all chosen by God for the positions they held; so also were the apostles. (2) There is also an election of nations to special privileges, e.g., the Hebrews (Deut. 7:6; Rom. 9:4). (3) But in addition there is an election of individuals to eternal life (2-The......

ELEMENTS
In its primary sense, as denoting the first principles or constituents of things, it is used in 2-Pet 3:10: "The elements shall be dissolved." In a secondary sense it denotes the first principles of any art or science. In this sense it is used in Gal. 4:3, Gal. 4: 9; Col. 2:8, Col. 2: 20, where the expressions, "elements of the world," "week and beggarly elements," denote that state of religious k......

ELEPHANT
not found in Scripture except indirectly in the original Greek word (elephantinos) translated "of ivory" in Rev. 18:12, Rev. 18: and in the Hebrew word (shenhabim, meaning "elephant's tooth") rendered "ivory" in 1-Kings 10:22 and 2-Chr 9:21.......

ELHANAN
whom God has graciously bestowed. (1.) A warrior of the time of David famed for his exploits. In the Authorized Version (2-Sam 21:19) it is recorded that "Elhanan the son of Jaare-oregim, a Bethlehemite, slew the brother of Goliath." The Revised Version here rightly omits the words "the brother of." They were introduced in the Authorized Version to bring this passage into agreement with 1-Chr 20:5......

ELI
ascent, the high priest when the ark was at Shiloh (1-Sam 1:3, 1-Sam 1: 9). He was the first of the line of Ithamar, Aaron's fourth son (1-Chr 24:3; comp. 2-Sam 8:17), who held that office. The office remained in his family till the time of Abiathar (1-Kings 2:26, 1-Kings 2: 27), whom Solomon deposed, and appointed Zadok, of the family of Eleazar, in his stead (35). He acted also as a civil judge ......

ELIAB
to whom God is father. (1.) A Reubenite, son of Pallu (Num. 16:1, Num. 16: 12;26:8, 26: 9; Deut. 11:6). (2.) A son of Helon, and chief of the tribe of Zebulun at the time of the census in the wilderness (Num. 1:9;2:7). (3.) The son of Jesse, and brother of David (1-Sam 16:6). It was he who spoke contemptuously to David when he proposed to fight Goliath (1-Sam 17:28). (4.) One of the Gadite h......

ELIADA
whom God cares for. (1.) One of David's sons born after his establishment in Jerusalem (2-Sam 5:16). (2.) A mighty man of war, a Benjamite (2-Chr 17:17). (3.) An Aramite of Zobah, captain of a marauding band that troubled Solomon (1-Kings 11:23).......

ELIAKIM
whom God will raise up. (1.) The son of Melea (Luke 3:30), and probably grandson of Nathan. (2.) The son of Abiud, of the posterity of Zerubbabel (Matt. 1:13). (3.) The son of Hilkiah, who was sent to receive the message of the invading Assyrians and report it to Isaiah (2-Kings 18:18;19:2; Isa. 36:3;37:2). In his office as governor of the palace of Hezekiah he succeeded Shebna (Isa. 22:15). H......

ELIAM
God's people. (1.) The father of Bathsheba, the wife of Uriah (2-Sam 11:3). In 1-Chr 3:5 his name is Ammiel. (2.) This name also occurs as that of a Gilonite, the son of Ahithophel, and one of David's thirty warriors (2-Sam 23:34). perhaps these two were the same person.......

ELIAS
the Greek form of Elijah (Matt. 11:14;16:14, 16: etc.), which the Revised Version has uniformly adopted in the New Testament. (See ELIJAH.)......

ELIASHIB
whom God will restore. (1.) A priest, head of one of the courses of the priests of the time of David (1-Chr 24:12). (2.) A high priest in the time of Ezra and Nehemiah (Neh. 12:22, Neh. 12: 23). He rebuilt the eastern city wall (3:1), his own mansion being in that quarter, on the ridge Ophel (3:20, 3: 21). His indulgence of Tobiah the Ammonite provoked the indignation of Nehemiah (13:4, 13: 7).......

ELIATHAH
to whom God will come, one of the foureen sons of the Levite Heman, and musician of the temple in the time of David (1-Chr 25:4).......

ELIDAD
whom God has loved, son of Chislon, and chief of the tribe of Benjamin; one of those who were appointed to divide the Promised Land among the tribes (Num. 34:21).......

ELIEL
to whom God is might. (1.) A chief of Manasseh, on the east of Jordan (1-Chr 5:24). (2.) A Gadite who joined David in the hold at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:11). (3.) One of the overseers of the offerings in the reign of Hezekiah (2-Chr 31:13).......

ELIEZER
God his help. (1.) "Of Damascus," the "steward" (R.V., "possessor") of Abraham's house (Gen. 15:2, Gen. 15: 3). It was probably he who headed the embassy sent by Abraham to the old home of his family in Padan-aram to seek a wife for his son Isaac. The account of this embassy is given at length in Gen. 24. (2.) The son of Becher, and grandson of Benjamin (1-Chr 7:8). (3.) One of the two sons of......

ELIHU
whose God is he. (1.) "The son of Barachel, a Buzite" (Job 32:2), one of Job's friends. When the debate between Job and his friends is brought to a close, Elihu for the first time makes his appearance, and delivers his opinion on the points at issue (Job 32-37). (2.) The son of Tohu, and grandfather of Elkanah (1-Sam 1:1). He is called also Eliel (1-Chr 6:34) and Eliab (6:27). (3.) One of the ......

ELIJAH
whose God is Jehovah. (1.) "The Tishbite," the "Elias" of the New Testament, is suddenly introduced to our notice in 1-Kings 17:1 as delivering a message from the Lord to Ahab. There is mention made of a town called Thisbe, south of Kadesh, but it is impossible to say whether this was the place referred to in the name given to the prophet. Having delivered his message to Ahab, he retired at the ......

ELIKA
God is his rejector, one of David's thirty-seven distinguished heros (2-Sam 23:25).......

ELIM
trees, (Exo 15:27; Num. 33:9), the name of the second station where the Israelites encamped after crossing the Red Sea. It had "twelve wells of water and threescore and ten palm trees." It has been identified with the Wady Ghurundel, the most noted of the four wadies which descend from the range of et-Tih towards the sea. Here they probably remained some considerable time. The form of expression i......

ELIMELECH
God his king, a man of the tribe of Judah, of the family of the Hezronites, and kinsman of Boaz, who dwelt in Bethlehem in the days of the judges. In consequence of a great dearth he, with his wife Naomi and his two sons, went to dwell in the land of Moab. There he and his sons died (Ruth 1:2, Ruth 1:3;2:1, 2:3;4:3, 4:9). Naomi afterwards returned to Palestine with her daughter Ruth.......

ELIOENAI
toward Jehovah are my eyes, the name of several men mentioned in the Old Testament (1-Chr 7:8;4:36; Ezra 10:22, Ezra 10: 27). Among these was the eldest son of Neariah, son of Shemaiah, of the descendants of Zerubbabel. His family are the latest mentioned in the Old Testament (1-Chr 3:23, 1-Chr 3: 24).......

ELIPHALET
God his deliverance, one of David's sons (2-Sam 5:16); called also Eliphelet (1-Chr 3:8).......

ELIPHAZ
God his strength. (1.) One of Job's "three friends" who visited him in his affliction (4:1). He was a "Temanite", i.e., a native of Teman, in Idumea. He first enters into debate with Job. His language is uniformly more delicate and gentle than that of the other two, although he imputes to Job special sins as the cause of his present sufferings. He states with remarkable force of language the infin......

ELIPHELEH
God will distinguish him, one of the porters appointed to play "on the Sheminith" on the occasion of the bringing up of the ark to the city of David (1-Chr 15:18, 1-Chr 15: 21).......

ELIPHELET
God his deliverance. (1.) One of David's distinguished warriors (2-Sam 23:34); called also Eliphal in 1-Chr 11:35. (2.) One of the sons of David born at Jerusalem (1-Chr 3:6;14:5); called Elpalet in 1-Chr 14:5. Also another of David's sons (1-Chr 3:8); called Eliphalet in 2-Sam 5:16; 1-Chr 14:7. (3.) A descendant of king Saul through Jonathan (1-Chr 8:39).......

ELISABETH
God her oath, the mother of John the Baptist (Luke 1:5). She was a descendant of Aaron. She and her husband Zacharias (q.v.) "were both righteous before God" (Luke 1:5, Luke 1: 13). Mary's visit to Elisabeth is described 1:39.......

ELISHA
God his salvation, the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah, who became the attendant and disciple of Elijah (1-Kings 19:16). His name first occurs in the command given to Elijah to anoint him as his successor (1-Kings 19:16). This was the only one of the three commands then given to Elijah which he accomplished. On his way from Sinai to Damascus he found Elisha at his native place engaged in the labour......

ELISHAH
the oldest of the four sons of Javan (Gen. 10:4), whose descendants peopled Greece. It has been supposed that Elishah's descendants peopled the Peloponnesus, which was known by the name of Elis. This may be meant by "the isles of Elishah" (Ezek. 27:7).......

ELISHAMA
whom God hears. (1.) A prince of Benjamin, grandfather of Joshua (Num. 1:10; 1-Chr 7:26). (2.) One of David's sons (2-Sam 5:16). (3.) Another of David's sons (1-Chr 3:6). (4.) A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to teach the people the law (2-Chr 17:8).......

ELISHAPHAT
whom God has judged, one of the "captains of hundreds" associated with Jehoiada in the league to overthrow the usurpation of Athaliah (2-Chr 23:1).......

ELISHEBA
God is her oath, the daughter of Amminadab and the wife of Aaron (Exo 6:23).......

ELISHUA
God his salvation, a son of David, 2-Sam 5:15 = Elishama, 1-Chr 3:6.......

ELKANAH
God-created. (1.) The second son of Korah (Exo 6:24), or, according to 1-Chr 6:22, 1-Chr 6: 23, more correctly his grandson. (2.) Another Levite of the line of Heman the singer, although he does not seem to have performed any of the usual Levitical offices. He was father of Samuel the prophet (1-Chr 6:27, 1-Chr 6: 34). He was "an Ephrathite" (1-Sam 1:1, 1-Sam 1: 4, 8), but lived at Ramah, a man ......

ELKOSH
God my bow, the birth-place of Nahum the prophet (Nah. 1:1). It was probably situated in Galilee, but nothing definite is known of it.......

ELLASAR
the oak or heap of Assyria, a territory in Asia of which Arioch was king (Gen. 14:1, Gen. 14: 9). It is supposed that the old Chaldean town of Larsa was the metropolis of this kingdom, situated nearly half-way between Ur (now Mugheir) and Erech, on the left bank of the Euphrates. This town is represented by the mounds of Senkereh, a little to the east of Erech.......

ELM
Hos. 4:13; rendered "terebinth" in the Revised Version. It is the Pistacia terebinthus of Linn., a tree common in Palestine, long-lived, and therefore often employed for landmarks and in designating places (Gen. 35:4; Judg. 6:11, Judg. 6: 19. Rendered "oak" in both A.V. and R.V.). (See TEIL+TREE.)......

ELNATHAN
whom God has given. (1.) An inhabitant of Jerusalem, the father of Nehushta, who was the mother of king Jehoiachin (2-Kings 24:8). Probably the same who tried to prevent Jehoiakim from burning the roll of Jeremiah's prophecies (Jer. 26:22;36:12). (2.) Ezra 8:16.......

ELON
oak. (1.) A city of Dan (Josh. 19:43). (2.) A Hittite, father of Bashemath, Esau's wife (Gen. 26:34). (3.) One of the sons of Zebulun (Gen. 46:14). (4.) The eleventh of the Hebrew judges. He held office for ten years (Judg. 12:11, Judg. 12: 12). He is called the Zebulonite.......

ELPARAN
oak of Paran, a place on the edge of the wilderness bordering the territory of the Horites (Gen. 14:6). This was the farthest point to which Chedorlaomer's expedition extended. It is identified with the modern desert of et-Tih. (See PARAN.)......

ELTEKEH
God is its fear, a city in the tribe of Dan. It was a city of refuge and a Levitical city (Josh. 21:23). It has been identified with Beit-Likia, north-east of latrum.......

ELUL
(Neh. 6:15), the name of the sixth month of the ecclesiastical year, and the twelfth of the civil year. It began with the new moon of our August and September, and consisted of twenty-nine days.......

ELYMAS
magician or sorcerer, the Arabic name of the Jew Bar-jesus, who withstood Paul and Barnabas in Cyprus. He was miraculously struck with blindness (Acts 13:11).......

EMBALMING
the process of preserving a body by means of aromatics (Gen. 50:2, Gen. 50: 3, 26). This art was practised by the Egyptians from the earliest times, and there brought to great perfection. This custom probably originated in the belief in the future reunion of the soul with the body. The process became more and more complicated, and to such perfection was it carried that bodies embalmed thousands of......

EMBROIDER
The art of embroidery was known to the Jews (Exo 26:36;35:35;38:23; Judg. 5:30; Psa 45:14). The skill of the women in this art was seen in the preparation of the sacerdotal robes of the high priest (Exo 28). It seems that the art became hereditary in certain families (1-Chr 4:21). The Assyrians were also noted for their embroidered robes (Ezek. 27:24).......

EMERALD
Heb. nophek (Exo 28:18;39:11); i.e., the "glowing stone", probably the carbuncle, a precious stone in the breastplate of the high priest. It is mentioned (Rev. 21:19) as one of the foundations of the New Jerusalem. The name given to this stone in the New Testament Greek is smaragdos, which means "live coal."......

EMEROD
See HAEMORRHOIDS.......

EMIMS
terrors, a warlike tribe of giants who were defeated by Chedorlaomer and his allies in the plain of Kiriathaim. In the time of Abraham they occupied the country east of Jordan, afterwards the land of the Moabites (Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:10). They were, like the Anakim, reckoned among the Rephaim, and were conquered by the Moabites, who gave them the name of Emims, i.e., "terrible men" (Deut. 2:11). Th......

EMMANUEL
God with us, Matt. 1:23). (See IMMANUEL.)......

EMMAUS
hot baths, a village "three-score furlongs" from jerusalem, where our Lord had an interview with two of his disciples on the day of his resurrection (Luke 24:13). This has been identified with the modern el-Kubeibeh, lying over 7 miles north-west of Jerusalem. This name, el-Kubeibeh, meaning "little dome," is derived from the remains of the Crusaders' church yet to be found there. Others have iden......

EMMOR
an ass, Acts 7:16. (See HAMOR.)......

EN-EGLAIM
fountain of two calves, a place mentioned only in Ezek. 47:10. Somewhere near the Dead Sea.......

EN-GANNIM
fountain of gardens. (1.) A town in the plains of Judah (Josh. 15:34), north-west of Jerusalem, between Zanoah and Tappuah. It is the modern Umm Jina. (2.) A city on the border of Machar (Josh. 19:21), allotted to the Gershonite Levites (21:29). It is identified with the modern Jenin, a large and prosperous town of about 4,000 inhabitants, situated 15 miles south of Mount Tabor, through which th......

EN-HAKKORE
fountain of the crier, the name of the spring in Lehi which burst forth in answer to Samson's prayer when he was exhausted with the slaughter of the Philistines (Judg. 15:19). It has been identified with the spring 'Ayun Kara, near Zoreah.......

EN-ROGEL
fountain of the treaders; i.e., "foot-fountain;" also called the "fullers' fountain," because fullers here trod the clothes in water. It has been identified with the "fountain of the virgin" (q.v.), the modern 'Ain Ummel-Daraj. Others identify it, with perhaps some probability, with the Bir Eyub, to the south of the Pool of Siloam, and below the junction of the valleys of Kidron and Hinnom. (See F......

EN-SHEMESH
fountain of the sun a spring which formed one of the landmarks on the boundary between Judah and Benjamin (Josh. 15:7;18:17). It was between the "ascent of Adummim" and the spring of En-rogel, and hence was on the east of Jerusalem and of the Mount of Olives. It is the modern 'Ain-Haud i.e., the "well of the apostles" about a mile east of Bethany, the only spring on the road to Jericho. The sun sh......

ENCAMP
An encampment was the resting-place for a longer or shorter period of an army or company of travellers (Exo 13:20;14:19; Josh. 10:5;11:5). The manner in which the Israelites encamped during their march through the wilderness is described in Num. 2 and 3. The order of the encampment (see CAMP) was preserved in the march (Num. 2:17), the signal for which was the blast of two silver trumpets. Detai......

ENCHANTMENTS
(1.) The rendering of Hebrew _latim_ or _lehatim_, which means "something covered," "muffled up;" secret arts, tricks (Exo 7:11, Exo 7: 22;8:7, 8: 18), by which the Egyptian magicians imposed on the credulity of Pharaoh. (2.) The rendering of the Hebrew _keshaphim_, "muttered spells" or "incantations," rendered "sorceries" in Isa. 47:9, Isa. 47: 12, i.e., the using of certain formulae under the ......

END
in Heb. 13:7, Heb. 13: is the rendering of the unusual Greek word _ekbasin_, meaning "outcome", i.e., death. It occurs only elsewhere in 1-Cor 10:13, 1-Cor 10: where it is rendered "escape."......

ENDOR
fountain of Dor; i.e., "of the age", a place in the territory of Issachar (Josh. 17:11) near the scene of the great victory which was gained by Deborah and Barak over Sisera and Jabin (comp. Psa 83:9, Psa 83: 10). To Endor, Saul resorted to consult one reputed to be a witch on the eve of his last engagement with the Philistines (1-Sam 28:7). It is identified with the modern village of Endur, "a di......

ENGEDI
fountain of the kid, place in the wilderness of Judah (Josh. 15:62), on the western shore of the Dead Sea (Ezek. 47:10), and nearly equidistant from both extremities. To the wilderness near this town David fled for fear of Saul (Josh. 15:62; 1-Sam 23:29). It was at first called Hazezon-tamar (Gen. 14:7), a city of the Amorites. The vineyards of Engedi were celebrated in Solomon's time (1:4). It ......

ENGINES
(1.) Heb. hishalon i.e., "invention" (as in Eccl. 7:29) contrivances indicating ingenuity. In 2-Chr 26:15 it refers to inventions for the purpose of propelling missiles from the walls of a town, such as stones (the Roman balista) and arrows (the catapulta). (2.) Heb. mechi kobollo, i.e., the beating of that which is in front a battering-ram (Ezek. 26:9), the use of which was common among the Egy......

ENGRAVER
Heb. harash (Exo 35:35;38:23) means properly an artificer in wood, stone, or metal. The chief business of the engraver was cutting names or devices on rings and seals and signets (Exo 28:11, Exo 28: 21, 36; Gen. 38:18).......

ENMITY
deep-rooted hatred. "I will put enmity between thee and the woman, between thy seed and her seed" (Gen. 3:15). The friendship of the world is "enmity with God" (James 4:4; 1-John 2:15, 1-John 2: 16). The "carnal mind" is "enmity against God" (Rom. 8:7). By the abrogation of the Mosaic institutes the "enmity" between Jew and Gentile is removed. They are reconciled, are "made one" (Eph. 2:15, Eph. 2......

ENOCH
initiated. (1.) The eldest son of Cain (Gen. 4:17), who built a city east of Eden in the land of Nod, and called it "after the name of his son Enoch." This is the first "city" mentioned in Scripture. (2.) The son of Jared, and father of Methuselah (Gen. 5:21; Luke 3:37). His father was one hundred and sixty-two years old when he was born. After the birth of Methuselah, Enoch "walked with God thr......

ENOS
man the son of Seth, and grandson of Adam (Gen. 5:6; Luke 3:38). He lived nine hundred and five years. In his time "men began to call upon the name of the Lord" (Gen. 4:26), meaning either (1) then began men to call themselves by the name of the Lord (marg.) i.e., to distinguish themselves thereby from idolaters; or (2) then men in some public and earnest way began to call upon the Lord, indicatin......

ENSIGN
(1.) Heb. 'oth, a military standard, especially of a single tribe (Num. 2:2). Each separate tribe had its own "sign" or "ensign." (2.) Heb. nes, a lofty signal, as a column or high pole (Num. 21:8, Num. 21: 9); a standard or signal or flag placed on high mountains to point out to the people a place of rendezvous on the irruption of an enemy (Isa. 5:26;11:12;18:3;62:10; Jer. 4:6, Jer. 4: 21; Psa ......

ENTERTAIN
Entertainments, "feasts," were sometimes connected with a public festival (Deut. 16:11, Deut. 16: 14), and accompanied by offerings (1-Sam 9:13), in token of alliances (Gen. 26:30); sometimes in connection with domestic or social events, as at the weaning of children (Gen. 21:8), at weddings (Gen. 29:22; John 2:1), on birth-days (Matt. 14:6), at the time of sheep-shearing (2-Sam 13:23), and of vin......

EPAENETUS
commendable, a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutation (Rom. 16:5). He is spoken of as "the first fruits of Achaia" (R.V., "of Asia", i.e., of proconsular Asia, which is probably the correct reading). As being the first convert in that region, he was peculiarly dear to the apostle. He calls him his "well beloved."......

EPAPHRAS
lovely, spoken of by Paul (Col. 1:7;4:12) as "his dear fellow-servant," and "a faithful minister of Christ." He was thus evidently with him at Rome when he wrote to the Colossians. He was a distinguished disciple, and probably the founder of the Colossian church. He is also mentioned in the Epistle to Philemon (1:23), where he is called by Paul his "fellow-prisoner."......

EPAPHRODITUS
fair, graceful; belonging to Aphrodite or Venus the messenger who came from Phillipi to the apostle when he was a prisoner at Rome (Phil. 2:25;4:10). Paul mentions him in words of esteem and affection. On his return to Philippi he was the bearer of Paul's letter to the church there.......

EPHAH
gloom. (1.) One of the five sons of Midian, and grandson of Abraham (Gen. 25:4). The city of Ephah, to which he gave his name, is mentioned Isa. 60:6, Isa. 60: 7. This city, with its surrounding territory, formed part of Midian, on the east shore of the Dead Sea. It abounded in dromedaries and camels (Judg. 6:5). (2.) 1-Chr 2:46, 1-Chr 2: a concubine of Caleb. (3.) 1-Chr 2:47, 1-Chr 2: a desce......

EPHER
a calf. (1.) One of the sons of Midian, who was Abraham's son by Keturah (Gen. 25:4). (2.) The head of one of the families of trans-Jordanic Manasseh who were carried captive by Tiglath-pileser (1-Chr 5:24).......

EPHES-DAMMIM
boundary of blood, a place in the tribe of Judah where the Philistines encamped when David fought with Goliath (1-Sam 17:1). It was probably so called as having been the scene of frequent sanguinary conflicts between Israel and the Philistines. It is called Pas-dammim (1-Chr 11:13). It has been identified with the modern Beit Fased, i.e., "house of bleeding", near Shochoh (q.v.).......

EPHESIANS, EPISTLE TO
was written by Paul at Rome about the same time as that to the Colossians, which in many points it resembles. Contents of. The Epistle to the Colossians is mainly polemical, designed to refute certain theosophic errors that had crept into the church there. That to the Ephesians does not seem to have originated in any special circumstances, but is simply a letter springing from Paul's love to the......

EPHESUS
the capital of proconsular Asia, which was the western part of Asia Minor. It was colonized principally from Athens. In the time of the Romans it bore the title of "the first and greatest metropolis of Asia." It was distinguished for the Temple of Diana (q.v.), who there had her chief shrine; and for its theatre, which was the largest in the world, capable of containing 50,000 spectators. It was, ......

EPHOD
something girt, a sacred vestment worn originally by the high priest (Exo 28:4), afterwards by the ordinary priest (1-Sam 22:18), and characteristic of his office (1-Sam 2:18, 1-Sam 2: 28;14:3). It was worn by Samuel, and also by David (2-Sam 6:14). It was made of fine linen, and consisted of two pieces, which hung from the neck, and covered both the back and front, above the tunic and outer garme......

EPHPHATHA
the Greek form of a Syro-Chaldaic or Aramaic word, meaning "Be opened," uttered by Christ when healing the man who was deaf and dumb (Mark 7:34). It is one of the characteristics of Mark that he uses the very Aramaic words which fell from our Lord's lips. (3:17;5:41;7:11;14:36;15:34.)......

EPHRAIM
double fruitfulness ("for God had made him fruitful in the land of his affliction"). The second son of Joseph, born in Egypt (Gen. 41:52;46:20). The first incident recorded regarding him is his being placed, along with his brother Manasseh, before their grandfather, Jacob, that he might bless them (8:10; 27:1). The intention of Joseph was that the right hand of the aged patriarch should be placed ......

EPHRAIM IN THE WILDERNESS
(John 11:54), a town to which our Lord retired with his disciples after he had raised Lazarus, and when the priests were conspiring against him. It lay in the wild, uncultivated hill-country to the north-east of Jerusalem, betwen the central towns and the Jordan valley.......

EPHRAIM, GATE OF
one of the gates of Jerusalem (2-Kings 14:13; 2-Chr 25:23), on the side of the city looking toward Ephraim, the north side.......

EPHRAIM, MOUNT
the central mountainous district of Palestine occupied by the tribe of Ephraim (Josh. 17:15;19:50;20:7), extending from Bethel to the plain of Jezreel. In Joshua's time (Josh. 17:18) these hills were densely wooded. They were intersected by well-watered, fertile valleys, referred to in Jer. 50:19. Joshua was buried at Timnath-heres among the mountains of Ephraim, on the north side of the hill of G......

EPHRAIM, THE TRIBE OF
took precedence over that of Manasseh by virtue of Jacob's blessing (Gen. 41:52;48:1). The descendants of Joseph formed two of the tribes of Israel, whereas each of the other sons of Jacob was the founder of only one tribe. Thus there were in reality thirteen tribes; but the number twelve was preserved by excluding that of Levi when Ephraim and Manasseh are mentioned separately (Num. 1:32; Josh. 1......

EPHRAIM, WOOD OF
a forest in which a fatal battle was fought between the army of David and that of Absalom, who was killed there (2-Sam 18:6, 2-Sam 18: 8). It lay on the east of Jordan, not far from Mahanaim, and was some part of the great forest of Gilead.......

EPHRATAH
fruitful. (1.) The second wife of Caleb, the son of Hezron, mother of Hur, and grandmother of Caleb, who was one of those that were sent to spy the land (1-Chr 2:19, 1-Chr 2: 50). (2.) The ancient name of Bethlehem in Judah (Gen. 35:16, Gen. 35: 19;48:7). In Ruth 1:2 it is called "Bethlehem-Judah," but the inhabitants are called "Ephrathites;" in Micah 5:2, Micah 5: "Bethlehem-Ephratah;" in Matt......

EPHRATHITE
a citizen of Ephratah, the old name of Bethlehem (Ruth 1:2; 1-Sam 17:12), or Bethlehem-Judah.......

EPHRON
fawn-like. (1.) The son of Zohar a Hittite, the owner of the field and cave of Machpelah (q.v.), which Abraham bought for 400 shekels of silver (Gen. 23:8;25:9;49:29, 49: 30). (2.) A mountain range which formed one of the landmarks on the north boundary of the tribe of Judah (Josh. 15:9), probably the range on the west side of the Wady Beit-Hanina.......

EPICUREANS
followers of Epicurus (who died at Athens B.C. 270), or adherents of the Epicurean philosophy (Acts 17:18). This philosophy was a system of atheism, and taught men to seek as their highest aim a pleasant and smooth life. They have been called the "Sadducees" of Greek paganism. They, with the Stoics, ridiculed the teaching of Paul (Acts 17:18). They appear to have been greatly esteemed at Athens.......

EPISTLES
the apostolic letters. The New Testament contains twenty-one in all. They are divided into two classes. (1.) Paul's Epistles, fourteen in number, including Hebrews. These are not arranged in the New Testament in the order of time as to their composition, but rather according to the rank of the cities or places to which they were sent. Who arranged them after this manner is unknown. Paul's letters ......

ERASTUS
beloved. (1.) The "chamberlain" of the city of Corinth (Rom. 16:23), and one of Paul's disciples. As treasurer of such a city he was a public officer of great dignity, and his conversion to the gospel was accordingly a proof of the wonderful success of the apostle's labours. (2.) A companion of Paul at Ephesus, who was sent by him along with Timothy into Macedonia (Acts 19:22). Corinth was his u......

ERECH
(LXX., "Orech"), length, or Moon-town, one of the cities of Nimrod's kingdom in the plain of Shinar (Gen. 10:10); the Orchoe of the Greeks and Romans. It was probably the city of the Archevites, who were transplanted to Samaria by Asnapper (Ezra 4:9). It lay on the left bank of the Euphrates, about 120 miles south-east of Babylon, and is now represented by the mounds and ruins of Warka. It appears......

ESAIAS
the Greek form for Isaiah, constantly used in the Authorized Version of the New Testament (Matt. 3:3;4:14), but in the Revised Version always "Isaiah."......

ESARHADDON
Assur has given a brother, successor of Sennacherib (2-Kings 19:37; Isa. 37:38). He ascended the throne about B.C. 681. Nothing further is recorded of him in Scripture, except that he settled certain colonists in Samaria (Ezra 4:2). But from the monuments it appears that he was the most powerful of all the Assyrian monarchs. He built many temples and palaces, the most magnificent of which was the ......

ESAU
hairy, Rebekah's first-born twin son (Gen. 25:25). The name of Edom, "red", was also given to him from his conduct in connection with the red lentil "pottage" for which he sold his birthright (30, 31). The circumstances connected with his birth foreshadowed the enmity which afterwards subsisted between the twin brothers and the nations they founded (25:22, 25: 23, 26). In process of time Jacob, fo......

ESCHEW
from old French eschever, "to flee from" (Job 1:1, Job 1: 8;2:3; 1-Pet 3:11).......

ESDRAELON
the Greek form of the Hebrew "Jezreel," the name of the great plain (called by the natives Merj Ibn Amer; i.e., "the meadow of the son of Amer") which stretches across Central Palestine from the Jordan to the Mediterraanean, separating the mountain ranges of Carmel and Samaria from those of Galilee, extending about 14 miles from north to south, and 9 miles from east to west. It is drained by "that......

ESEK
quarrel, a well which Isaac's herdsmen dug in the valley of Gerar, and so called because the herdsmen of Gerar quarrelled with them for its possession (Gen. 26:20).......

ESHBAAL
man of Baal, the fourth son of king Saul (1-Chr 8:33;9:39). He is also called Ish-bosheth (q.v.), 2-Sam 2:8.......

ESHCOL
bunch; brave. (1.) A young Amoritish chief who joined Abraham in the recovery of Lot from the hands of Chedorlaomer (Gen. 14:13, Gen. 14: 24). (2.) A valley in which the spies obtained a fine cluster of grapes (Num. 13:23, Num. 13: 24; "the brook Eshcol," A.V.; "the valley of Eshcol," R.V.), which they took back with them to the camp of Israel as a specimen of the fruits of the Promised Land. On......

ESHEAN
a place in the mountains of Judah (5:52), supposed to be the ruin es-Simia, near Dumah, south of Hebron.......

ESHTAOL
narrow pass or recess, a town (Josh. 15:33) in the low country, the She-phelah of Judah. It was allotted to the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:41), and was one of their strongholds. Here Samson spent his boyhood, and first began to show his mighty strength; and here he was buried in the burying-place of Manoah his father (Judg. 13:25;16:31;18:2, 18: 8, 11, 12). It is identified with the modern Yeshua, on ......

ESHTEMOA
obedience, a town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 21:14; 1-Chr 6:57), which was allotted, with the land round it, to the priests. It was frequented by David and his followers during their wanderings; and he sent presents of the spoil of the Amalekites to his friends there (1-Sam 30:28). It is identified with es-Semu'a, a village about 3 1/2 miles east of Socoh, and 7 or 8 miles south of Hebron, a......

ESPOUSE
(2-Sam 3:14), to betroth. The espousal was a ceremony of betrothing, a formal agreement between the parties then coming under obligation for the purpose of marriage. Espousals are in the East frequently contracted years before the marriage is celebrated. It is referred to as figuratively illustrating the relations between God and his people (Jer. 2:2; Matt. 1:18; 2-Cor 11:2). (See BETROTH.) ......

ESSENES
a Jewish mystical sect somewhat resembling the Pharisees. They affected great purity. They originated about B.C. 100, and disappeared from history after the destruction of Jerusalem. They are not directly mentioned in Scripture, although they may be referred to in Matt. 19:11, Matt. 19: 12, Col. 2:8, Col. 2: 18, 23. ......

ESTHER
the queen of Ahasuerus, and heroine of the book that bears her name. She was a Jewess named Hadas'sah (the myrtle), but when she entered the royal harem she received the name by which she henceforth became known (Esther 2:7). It is a Syro-Arabian modification of the Persian word satarah, which means a star. She was the daughter of Abihail, a Benjamite. Her family did not avail themselves of the pe......

ESTHER, BOOK OF
The authorship of this book is unknown. It must have been obviously written after the death of Ahasuerus (the Xerxes of the Greeks), which took place B.C. 465. The minute and particular account also given of many historical details makes it probable that the writer was contemporary with Mordecai and Esther. Hence we may conclude that the book was written probably about B.C. 444-434, and that the a......

ETAM
eyrie. (1.) A village of the tribe of Simeon (1-Chr 4:32). Into some cleft ("top," A.V.,; R.V., "cleft") of a rock here Samson retired after his slaughter of the Philistines (Judg. 15:8, Judg. 15: 11). It was a natural stronghold. It has been identified with Beit 'Atab, west of Bethlehem, near Zorah and Eshtaol. On the crest of a rocky knoll, under the village, is a long tunnel, which may be the "......

ETERNAL DEATH
The miserable fate of the wicked in hell (Matt. 25:46; Mark 3:29; Heb. 6:2; 2-Thess 1:9; Matt. 18:8;25:41; Jude 1:7). The Scripture as clearly teaches the unending duration of the penal sufferings of the lost as the "everlasting life," the "eternal life" of the righteous. The same Greek words in the New Testament (aion, aionios, aidios) are used to express (1) the eternal existence of God (1-Tim 1......

ETERNAL LIFE
This expression occurs in the Old Testament only in Dan. 12:2 (R.V., "everlasting life"). It occurs frequently in the New Testament (Matt. 7:14;18:8, 18: 9; Luke 10:28; 18:18). It comprises the whole future of the redeemed (Luke 16:9), and is opposed to "eternal punishment" (Matt. 19:29;25:46). It is the final reward and glory into which the children of God enter (1-Tim 6:12, 1-Tim 6: 19; Rom. 6......

ETH-BAAL
with Baal, a king of Sidon (B.C. 940-908), father of Jezebel, who was the wife of Ahab (1-Kings 16:31). He is said to have been also a priest of Astarte, whose worship was closely allied to that of Baal, and this may account for his daughter's zeal in promoting idolatry in Israel. This marriage of Ahab was most fatal to both Israel and Judah. Dido, the founder of Carthage, was his granddaughter. ......

ETHAM
perhaps another name for Khetam, or "fortress," on the Shur or great wall of Egypt, which extended from the Mediterranean to the Gulf of Suez. Here the Israelites made their third encampment (Exo 13:20; Num. 33:6). The camp was probably a little to the west of the modern town of Ismailia. Here the Israelites were commanded to change their route (Exo 14:2), and "turn" towards the south, and encamp ......

ETHAN
firm. (1.) "The Ezrahite," distinguished for his wisdom (1-Kings 4:31). He is named as the author of the 89th Psalm. He was of the tribe of Levi. (2.) A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the leaders of the temple music (1-Chr 6:44;15:17, 15: 19). He was probably the same as Jeduthun. He is supposed by some to be the same also as (1). ......

ETHANIM
the month of gifts, i.e., of vintage offerings; called Tisri after the Exile; corresponding to part of September and October. It was the first month of the civil year, and the seventh of the sacred year (1-Kings 8:2). ......

ETHIOPIA
country of burnt faces; the Greek word by which the Hebrew Cush is rendered (Gen. 2:13; 2-Kings 19:9; Esther 1:1; Job 28:19; Psa 68:31;87:4), a country which lay to the south of Egypt, beginning at Syene on the First Cataract (Ezek. 29:10;30:6), and extending to beyond the confluence of the White and Blue Nile. It corresponds generally with what is now known as the Soudan (i.e., the land of the bl......

ETHIOPIAN EUNUCH
the chief officer or prime minister of state of Candace (q.v.), queen of Ethiopia. He was converted to Christianity through the instrumentality of Philip (Act 8:27). The northern portion of Ethiopia formed the kingdom of Meroe, which for a long period was ruled over by queens, and it was probably from this kingdom that the eunuch came. ......

ETHIOPIAN WOMAN
the wife of Moses (Num. 12:1). It is supposed that Zipporah, Moses' first wife (Exo 2:21), was now dead. His marriage of this "woman" descended from Ham gave offence to Aaron and Miriam. ......

EUNICE
happily conquering, the mother of Timothy, a believing Jewess, but married to a Greek (Acts 16:1). She trained her son from his childhood in the knowledge of the Scriptures (2-Tim 3:15). She was distinguished by her "unfeigned faith." ......

EUNUCH
literally bed-keeper or chamberlain, and not necessarily in all cases one who was mutilated, although the practice of employing such mutilated persons in Oriental courts was common (2-Kings 9:32; Esther 2:3). The law of Moses excluded them from the congregation (Deut. 23:1). They were common also among the Greeks and Romans. It is said that even to-day there are some in Rome who are employed in si......

EUODIAS
a good journey, a female member of the church at Philippi. She was one who laboured much with Paul in the gospel. He exhorts her to be of one mind with Syntyche (Phil. 4:2). From this it seems they had been at variance with each other. ......

EUPHRATES
Hebrew, Perath; Assyrian, Purat; Persian cuneiform, Ufratush, whence Greek Euphrates, meaning "sweet water." The Assyrian name means "the stream," or "the great stream." It is generally called in the Bible simply "the river" (Exo 23:31), or "the great river" (Deut. 1:7). The Euphrates is first mentioned in Gen. 2:14 as one of the rivers of Paradise. It is next mentioned in connection with the co......

EUROCLYDON
south-east billow, the name of the wind which blew in the Adriatic Gulf, and which struck the ship in which Paul was wrecked on the coast of Malta (Acts 27:14; R.V., "Euraquilo," i.e., north-east wind). It is called a "tempestuous wind," i.e., as literally rendered, a "typhonic wind," or a typhoon. It is the modern Gregalia or Levanter. (Comp. Jonah 1:4.) ......

EUTYCHUS
fortunate, (Acts 20:9), a young man of Troas who fell through drowsiness from the open window of the third floor of the house where Paul was preaching, and was "taken up dead." The lattice-work of the window being open to admit the air, the lad fell out and down to the court below. Paul restored him to life again. (Comp. 1-Kings 17:21; 2-Kings 4:34.) ......

EVANGELIST
a "publisher of glad tidings;" a missionary preacher of the gospel (Eph. 4:11). This title is applied to Philip (Acts 21:8), who appears to have gone from city to city preaching the word (8:4, 8: 40). Judging from the case of Philip, evangelists had neither the authority of an apostle, nor the gift of prophecy, nor the responsibility of pastoral supervision over a portion of the flock. They were i......

EVE
life; living, the name given by Adam to his wife (Gen. 3:20;4:1). The account of her creation is given in Gen. 2:21, Gen. 2: 22. The Creator, by declaring that it was not good for man to be alone, and by creating for him a suitable companion, gave sanction to monogamy. The commentator Matthew Henry says: "This companion was taken from his side to signify that she was to be dear unto him as his own......

EVENING
the period following sunset with which the Jewish day began (Gen. 1:5; Mark 13:35). The Hebrews reckoned two evenings of each day, as appears from Exo 16:12:30:8;12:6 (marg.); Lev. 23:5 (marg. R.V., "between the two evenings"). The "first evening" was that period when the sun was verging towards setting, and the "second evening" the moment of actual sunset. The word "evenings" in Jer. 5:6 should b......

EVERLASTING
eternal, applied to God (Gen. 21:33; Deut. 33:27; Psa 41:13;90:2). We also read of the "everlasting hills" (Gen. 49:26); an "everlasting priesthood" (Exo 40:15; Num. 25:13). (See ETERNAL.) ......

EVIL EYE
(Prov. 23:6), figuratively, the envious or covetous. (Comp. Deut. 15:9; Matt. 20:15.) ......

EVIL-MERODACH
Merodach's man, the son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon (2-Kings 25:27; Jer. 52:31, Jer. 52: 34). He seems to have reigned but two years (B.C. 562-560). Influenced probably by Daniel, he showed kindness to Jehoiachin, who had been a prisoner in Babylon for thirty-seven years. He released him, and "spoke kindly to him." He was murdered by Nergal-sharezer=Neriglissar, his brother-in......

EVIL-SPEAKING
is expressly forbidden (Titus 3:2; James 4:11), and severe punishments are denounced against it (1-Cor 5:11;6:10). It is spoken of also with abhorrence (Psa 15:3; Prov. 18:6, Prov. 18: 7), and is foreign to the whole Christian character and the example of Christ. ......

EXAMPLE
of Christ (1-Pet 2:21; John 13:15); of pastors to their flocks (Phil. 3:17; 2-Thess 3:9; 1-Tim 4:12; 1-Pet 5:3); of the Jews as a warning (Heb. 4:11); of the prophets as suffering affliction (James 5:10). ......

EXECUTIONER
(Mark 6:27). Instead of the Greek word, Mark here uses a Latin word, speculator, which literally means "a scout," "a spy," and at length came to denote one of the armed bodyguard of the emperor. Herod Antipas, in imitation of the emperor, had in attendance on him a company of speculatores. They were sometimes employed as executioners, but this was a mere accident of their office. (See MARK, GOSPEL......

EXERCISE, BODILY
(1-Tim 4:8). An ascetic mortification of the flesh and denial of personal gratification (comp. Col. 2:23) to which some sects of the Jews, especially the Essenes, attached importance. ......

EXILE
(1.) Of the kingdom of Israel. In the time of Pekah, Tiglath-pileser II. carried away captive into Assyria (2-Kings 15:29; comp. Isa. 10:5, Isa. 10: 6) a part of the inhabitants of Galilee and of Gilead (B.C. 741). After the destruction of Samaria (B.C. 720) by Shalmaneser and Sargon (q.v.), there was a general deportation of the Israelites into Mesopotamia and Media (2-Kings 17:6;18:9; 1-Chr 5:......

EXODUS
the great deliverance wrought for the children of Isreal when they were brought out of the land of Egypt with "a mighty hand and with an outstretched arm" (Ex 12:51; Deut. 26:8; Ps 114; 136), about B.C. 1490, and four hundred and eighty years (1-Kings 6:1) before the building of Solomon's temple. The time of their sojourning in Egypt was, according to Exo 12:40, Exo 12: the space of four hundred......

EXODUS, BOOK OF
Exodus is the name given in the LXX. to the second book of the Pentateuch (q.v.). It means "departure" or "outgoing." This name was adopted in the Latin translation, and thence passed into other languages. The Hebrews called it by the first words, according to their custom, Ve-eleh shemoth (i.e., "and these are the names"). It contains, (1.) An account of the increase and growth of the Israelite......

EXORCIST
(Acts 19:13). "In that sceptical and therefore superstitious age professional exorcist abounded. Many of these professional exorcists were disreputable Jews, like Simon in Samaria and Elymas in Cyprus (8:9;13:6)." Other references to exorcism as practised by the Jews are found in Matt. 12:27; Mark 9:38; Luke 9:49, Luke 9: 50. It would seem that it was an opinion among the Jews that miracles might ......

EXPIATION
Guilt is said to be expiated when it is visited with punishment falling on a substitute. Expiation is made for our sins when they are punished not in ourselves but in another who consents to stand in our room. It is that by which reconciliation is effected. Sin is thus said to be "covered" by vicarious satisfaction. The cover or lid of the ark is termed in the LXX. hilasterion, that which covere......

EYE
(Heb. 'ain, meaning "flowing"), applied (1) to a fountain, frequently; (2) to colour (Num. 11:7; R.V., "appearance," marg. "eye"); (3) the face (Exo 10:5, Exo 10: 15; Num. 22:5, Num. 22: 11), in Num. 14:14, Num. 14: "face to face" (R.V. marg., "eye to eye"). "Between the eyes", i.e., the forehead (Exo 13:9, Exo 13: 16). The expression (Prov. 23:31), "when it giveth his colour in the cup," is lit......

EZEKIAS
Grecized form of Hezekiah (Matt. 1:9, Matt. 1: 10). ......

EZEKIEL
God will strengthen. (1.) 1-Chr 24:16, 1-Chr 24: "Jehezekel." (2.) One of the great prophets, the son of Buzi the priest (Ezek. 1:3). He was one of the Jewish exiles who settled at Tel-Abib, on the banks of the Chebar, "in the land of the Chaldeans." He was probably carried away captive with Jehoiachin (1:2; 2-Kings 24:14) about B.C. 597. His prophetic call came to him "in the fifth year of Jeho......

EZEKIEL, BOOK OF
consists mainly of three groups of prophecies. After an account of his call to the prophetical office (1-3:21), Ezekiel (1) utters words of denunciation against the Jews (3:22), warning them of the certain destruction of Jerusalem, in opposition to the words of the false prophets (4:1). The symbolical acts, by which the extremities to which Jerusalem would be reduced are described in ch. 4,5, show......

EZEL
a separation, (1-Sam 20:19), a stone, or heap of stones, in the neighbourhood of Saul's residence, the scene of the parting of David and Jonathan (42). The margin of the Authorized Version reads, "The stone that sheweth the way," in this rendering following the Targum. ......

EZER
treasure. (1.) One of the sons of Seir, the native princes, "dukes," of Mount Hor (Gen. 36:21, Gen. 36: 27). (2.) 1-Chr 7:21; (3.)4:4. (4.) One of the Gadite champions who repaired to David at Ziklag (12:9). (5.) A Levite (Neh. 3:19). (6.) A priest (12:42). ......

EZION-GEBER
the giant's backbone (so called from the head of a mountain which runs out into the sea), an ancient city and harbour at the north-east end of the Elanitic branch of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Akabah, near Elath or Eloth (Num. 33:35; Deut. 2:8). Here Solomon built ships, "Tarshish ships," like those trading from Tyre to Tarshish and the west, which traded with Ophir (1-Kings 9:26; 2-Chr 8:17); and h......

EZRA
help. (1.) A priest among those that returned to Jerusalem under Zerubabel (Neh. 12:1). (2.) The "scribe" who led the second body of exiles that returned from Babylon to Jerusalem B.C. 459, and author of the book of Scripture which bears his name. He was the son, or perhaps grandson, of Seraiah (2-Kings 25:18), and a lineal descendant of Phinehas, the son of Aaron (Ezra 7:1). All we know of his ......

EZRA, BOOK OF
This book is the record of events occurring at the close of the Babylonian exile. It was at one time included in Nehemiah, the Jews regarding them as one volume. The two are still distinguished in the Vulgate version as I. and II. Esdras. It consists of two principal divisions: (1.) The history of the first return of exiles, in the first year of Cyrus (B.C. 536), till the completion and dedicati......

EZRAHITE
a title given to Ethan (1-Kings 4:31; Ps. 89, title) and Heman (Ps. 88, title). They were both sons of Zerah (1-Chr 2:6). ......

EZRI
help of Jehovah, the son of Chelub. He superintended, under David, those who "did the work of the field for tillage" (1-Chr 27:26). ......

FABLE
applied in the New Testament to the traditions and speculations, "cunningly devised fables", of the Jews on religious questions (1-Tim 1:4;4:7; 2-Tim 4:4; Titus 1:14; 2-Pet 1:16). In such passages the word means anything false and unreal. But the word is used as almost equivalent to parable. Thus we have (1) the fable of Jotham, in which the trees are spoken of as choosing a king (Judg. 9:8); and ......

FACE
means simply presence, as when it is recorded that Adam and Eve hid themselves from the "face [R.V., 'presence'] of the Lord God" (Gen. 3:8; comp. Exo 33:14, Exo 33: 15, where the same Hebrew word is rendered "presence"). The "light of God's countenance" is his favour (Psa 44:3; Dan. 9:17). "Face" signifies also anger, justice, severity (Gen. 16:6, Gen. 16: 8; Exo 2:15; Psa 68:1; Rev. 6:16). To "p......

FAIR HAVENS
a harbour in the south of Crete, some 5 miles to the east of which was the town of Lasea (Acts 27:8). Here the ship of Alexandria in which Paul and his companions sailed was detained a considerable time waiting for a favourable wind. Contrary to Paul's advice, the master of the ship determined to prosecute the voyage, as the harbour was deemed incommodious for wintering in (9-12). The result was t......

FAIRS
(Heb. 'izabhonim), found seven times in Ezek. 27, and nowhere else. The Authorized Version renders the word thus in all these instances, except in verse 33, where "wares" is used. The Revised Version uniformly renders by "wares," which is the correct rendering of the Hebrew word. It never means "fairs" in the modern sense of the word. ......

FAITH
Faith is in general the persuasion of the mind that a certain statement is true (Phil. 1:27; 2-Thess 2:13). Its primary idea is trust. A thing is true, and therefore worthy of trust. It admits of many degrees up to full assurance of faith, in accordance with the evidence on which it rests. Faith is the result of teaching (Rom. 10:14). Knowledge is an essential element in all faith, and is someti......

FAITHFUL
as a designation of Christians, means full of faith, trustful, and not simply trustworthy (Acts 10:45;16:1; 2-Cor 6:15; Col. 1:2; 1-Tim 4:3, 1-Tim 4: 12;5:16;6:2; Titus 1:6; Eph. 1:1; 1-Cor 4:17, 1-Cor 4: etc.). It is used also of God's word or covenant as true and to be trusted (Psa 119:86, Psa 119: 138; Isa. 25:1; 1-Tim 1:15; Rev. 21:5;22:6, 22: etc.). ......

FALL OF MAN
an expression probably borrowed from the Apocryphal Book of Wisdom, to express the fact of the revolt of our first parents from God, and the consequent sin and misery in which they and all their posterity were involved. The history of the Fall is recorded in Gen. 2 and 3. That history is to be literally interpreted. It records facts which underlie the whole system of revealed truth. It is referr......

FALLOW-DEER
Deut. 14:5 (R.V., "Wild goat"); 1-Kings 4:23 (R.V., "roebucks"). This animal, called in Hebrew _yahmur_, from a word meaning "to be red," is regarded by some as the common fallow-deer, the Cervus dama, which is said to be found very generally over Western and Southern Asia. It is called "fallow" from its pale-red or yellow colour. Some interpreters, however, regard the name as designating the buba......

FALLOW-GROUND
The expression, "Break up your fallow ground" (Hos. 10:12; Jer. 4:3) means, "Do not sow your seed among thorns", i.e., break off all your evil habits; clear your hearts of weeds, in order that they may be prepared for the seed of righteousness. Land was allowed to lie fallow that it might become more fruitful; but when in this condition, it soon became overgrown with thorns and weeds. The cultivat......

FAMILIAR SPIRIT
Sorcerers or necormancers, who professed to call up the dead to answer questions, were said to have a "familiar spirit" (Deut. 18:11; 2-Kings 21:6; 2-Chr 33:6; Lev. 19:31;20:6; Isa. 8:19;29:4). Such a person was called by the Hebrews an _'ob_, which properly means a leathern bottle; for sorcerers were regarded as vessels containing the inspiring demon. This Hebrew word was equivalent to the pytho ......

FAMINE
The first mentioned in Scripture was so grievous as to compel Abraham to go down to the land of Egypt (Gen. 26:1). Another is mentioned as having occurred in the days of Isaac, causing him to go to Gerar (Gen. 26:1, Gen. 26: 17). But the most remarkable of all was that which arose in Egypt in the days of Joseph, which lasted for seven years (Gen. 41-45). Famines were sent as an effect of God's a......

FAN
a winnowing shovel by which grain was thrown up against the wind that it might be cleansed from broken straw and chaff (Isa. 30:24; Jer. 15:7; Matt. 3:12). (See AGRICULTURE.) ......

FARM
(Matt. 22:5). Every Hebrew had a certain portion of land assigned to him as a possession (Num. 26:33). In Egypt the lands all belonged to the king, and the husbandmen were obliged to give him a fifth part of the produce; so in Palestine Jehovah was the sole possessor of the soil, and the people held it by direct tenure from him. By the enactment of Moses, the Hebrews paid a tithe of the produce to......

FARTHING
(1.) Matt. 10:29; Luke 12:6. Greek assarion, i.e., a small _as_, which was a Roman coin equal to a tenth of a denarius or drachma, nearly equal to a halfpenny of our money. (2.) Matt. 5:26; Mark 12:42 (Gr. kodrantes), the quadrant, the fourth of an _as_, equal to two lepta, mites. The lepton (mite) was the very smallest copper coin. ......

FAST
The sole fast required by the law of Moses was that of the great Day of Atonement (q.v.), Lev. 23:26. It is called "the fast" (Acts 27:9). The only other mention of a periodical fast in the Old Testament is in Zech. 7:1;8:19, 8: from which it appears that during their captivity the Jews observed four annual fasts. (1.) The fast of the fourth month, kept on the seventeenth day of Tammuz, the an......

FAT
(Heb. heleb) denotes the richest part of the animal, or the fattest of the flock, in the account of Abel's sacrifice (Gen. 4:4). It sometimes denotes the best of any production (Gen. 45:18; Num. 18:12; Psa 81:16;147:47). The fat of sacrifices was to be burned (Lev. 3:9;4:8;7:3;8:25; Num. 18:17. Comp. Exo 29:13; Lev. 3:3). It is used figuratively for a dull, stupid state of mind (Psa 17:10). In......

FATHER
a name applied (1) to any ancestor (Deut. 1:11; 1-Kings 15:11; Matt. 3:9;23:30, 23: etc.); and (2) as a title of respect to a chief, ruler, or elder, etc. (Judg. 17:10;18:19; 1-Sam 10:12; 2-Kings 2:12; Matt. 23:9, Matt. 23: etc.). (3) The author or beginner of anything is also so called; e.g., Jabal and Jubal (Gen. 4:20, Gen. 4: 21; comp. Job 38:28). Applied to God (Exo 4:22; Deut. 32:6; 2-Sam 7......

FATHOM
(Old A.S. faethm, "bosom," or the outstretched arms), a span of six feet (Acts 27:28). Gr. orguia (from orego, "I stretch"), the distance between the extremities of both arms fully stretched out. ......

FATLING
(1.) A fatted animal for slaughter (2-Sam 6:13; Isa. 11:6; Ezek. 39:18. Comp. Matt. 22:4, Matt. 22: where the word used in the original, sitistos, means literally "corn-fed;" i.e., installed, fat). (2.) Psa 66:15 (Heb. meah, meaning "marrowy," "fat," a species of sheep). (3.) 1-Sam 15:9 (Heb. mishneh, meaning "the second," and hence probably "cattle of a second quality," or lambs of the second bir......

FEAR OF THE LORD THE
is in the Old Testament used as a designation of true piety (Prov. 1:7; Job 28:28; Psa 19:9). It is a fear conjoined with love and hope, and is therefore not a slavish dread, but rather filial reverence. (Comp. Deut. 32:6; Hos. 11:1; Isa. 1:2;63:16;64:8.) God is called "the Fear of Isaac" (Gen. 31:42, Gen. 31: 53), i.e., the God whom Isaac feared. A holy fear is enjoined also in the New Testamen......

FEAST
as a mark of hospitality (Gen. 19:3; 2-Sam 3:20; 2-Kings 6:23); on occasions of domestic joy (Luke 15:23; Gen. 21:8); on birthdays (Gen. 40:20; Job 1:4; Matt. 14:6); and on the occasion of a marriage (Judg. 14:10; Gen. 29:22). Feasting was a part of the observances connected with the offering up of sacrifices (Deut. 12:6, Deut. 12: 7; 1-Sam 9:19;16:3, 16: 5), and with the annual festivals (Deut.......

FELIX
happy, the Roman procurator of Judea before whom Paul "reasoned" (Acts 24:25). He appears to have expected a bribe from Paul, and therefore had several interviews with him. The "worthy deeds" referred to 24:2 was his clearing the country of banditti and impostors. At the end of a two years' term, Porcius Festus was appointed in the room of Felix (A.D. 60), who proceeded to Rome, and was there ac......

FELLOWSHIP
(1.) With God, consisting in the knowledge of his will (Job 22:21; John 17:3); agreement with his designs (Amos 3:2); mutual affection (Rom. 8:38, Rom. 8: 39); enjoyment of his presence (Psa 4:6); conformity to his image (1-John 2:6;1:6); and participation of his felicity (1-John 1:3, 1-John 1: 4; Eph. 3:14). (2.) Of saints with one another, in duties (Rom. 12:5; 1-Cor 12:1; 1-Thess 5:17, 1-Thes......

FENCE
(Heb. gader), Num. 22:24 (R.V.). Fences were constructions of unmortared stones, to protect gardens, vineyards, sheepfolds, etc. From various causes they were apt to bulge out and fall (Psa 62:3). In Psa 80:12, Psa 80: R.V. (see Isa. 5:5), the psalmist says, "Why hast thou broken down her fences?" Serpents delight to lurk in the crevices of such fences (Eccl. 10:8; comp. Amos 5:19). ......

FENCED CITIES
There were in Palestine (1) cities, (2) unwalled villages, and (3) villages with castles or towers (1-Chr 27:25). Cities, so called, had walls, and were thus fenced. The fortifications consisted of one or two walls, on which were towers or parapets at regular intervals (2-Chr 32:5; Jer. 31:38). Around ancient Jerusalem were three walls, on one of which were ninety towers, on the second fourteen, a......

FERRET
Lev. 11:30 (R.V., "gecko"), one of the unclean creeping things. It was perhaps the Lacerta gecko which was intended by the Hebrew word (anakah, a cry, "mourning," the creature which groans) here used, i.e., the "fan-footed" lizard, the gecko which makes a mournful wail. The LXX. translate it by a word meaning "shrew-mouse," of which there are three species in Palestine. The Rabbinical writers rega......

FERRY BOAT
(2-Sam 19:18), some kind of boat for crossing the river which the men of Judah placed at the service of the king. Floats or rafts for this purpose were in use from remote times (Isa. 18:2). ......

FESTIVALS, RELIGIOUS
There were daily (Lev. 23), weekly, monthly, and yearly festivals, and great stress was laid on the regular observance of them in every particular (Num. 28:1; Exo 29:38; Lev. 6:8; Exo 30:7;27:20). (1.) The septenary festivals were, (a) The weekly Sabbath (Lev. 23:1; Exo 19:3;20:8;31:12, 31: etc.). (b) The seventh new moon, or the feast of Trumpets (Num. 28:11;29:1). (c) The Sabbatical year......

FESTUS, PORCIUS
the successor of Felix (A.D. 60) as procurator of Judea (Acts 24:27). A few weeks after he had entered on his office the case of Paul, then a prisoner at Caesarea, was reported to him. The "next day," after he had gone down to Caesarea, he heard Paul defend himself in the presence of Herod Agrippa II. and his sister Bernice, and not finding in him anything worthy of death or of bonds, would have s......

FEVER
(Deut. 28:22; Matt. 8:14; Mark 1:30; John 4:52; Acts 28:8), a burning heat, as the word so rendered denotes, which attends all febrile attacks. In all Eastern countries such diseases are very common. Peter's wife's mother is said to have suffered from a "great fever" (Luke 4:38), an instance of Luke's professional exactitude in describing disease. He adopts here the technical medical distinction, ......

FIELD
(Heb. sadeh), a cultivated field, but unenclosed. It is applied to any cultivated ground or pasture (Gen. 29:2;31:4;34:7), or tillage (Gen. 37:7;47:24). It is also applied to woodland (Psa 132:6) or mountain top (Judg. 9:32, Judg. 9: 36; 2-Sam 1:21). It denotes sometimes a cultivated region as opposed to the wilderness (Gen. 33:19;36:35). Unwalled villages or scattered houses are spoken of as "in ......

FIG
First mentioned in Gen. 3:7. The fig-tree is mentioned (Deut. 8:8) as one of the valuable products of Palestine. It was a sign of peace and prosperity (1-Kings 4:25; Micah 4:4; Zech. 3:10). Figs were used medicinally (2-Kings 20:7), and pressed together and formed into "cakes" as articles of diet (1-Sam 30:12; Jer. 24:2). Our Lord's cursing the fig-tree near Bethany (Mark 11:13) has occasioned m......

FILLETS
Heb. hashukum, plur., joinings (Exo 27:17;38:17, 38: 28), the rods by which the tops of the columns around the tabernacle court were joined together, and from which the curtains were suspended (Exo 27:10, Exo 27: 11;36:38). In Jer. 52:21 the rendering of a different word, _hut_, meaning a "thread," and designating a measuring-line of 12 cubits in length for the circumference of the copper pillar......

FINER
a worker in silver and gold (Prov. 25:4). In Judg. 17:4 the word (tsoreph) is rendered "founder," and in Isa. 41:7 "goldsmith." ......

FINING POT
a crucible, melting-pot (Prov. 17:3;27:21). ......

FIR
the uniform rendering in the Authorized Version (marg. R.V., "cypress") of _berosh_ (2-Sam 6:5; 1-Kings 5:8, 1-Kings 5: 10;6:15, 6: 34;9:11, 9: etc.), a lofty tree (Isa. 55:13) growing on Lebanon (37:24). Its wood was used in making musical instruments and doors of houses, and for ceilings (2-Chr 3:5), the decks of ships (Ezek. 27:5), floorings and spear-shafts (Nah. 2:3, Nah. 2: R.V.). The true f......

FIRE
(1.) For sacred purposes. The sacrifices were consumed by fire (Gen. 8:20). The ever-burning fire on the altar was first kindled from heaven (Lev. 6:9, Lev. 6: 13;9:24), and afterwards rekindled at the dedication of Solomon's temple (2-Chr 7:1, 2-Chr 7: 3). The expressions "fire from heaven" and "fire of the Lord" generally denote lightning, but sometimes also the fire of the altar was so called (......

FIREBRAND
Isa. 7:4, Isa. 7: Amos 4:11, Amos 4: Zech. 3:2, Zech. 3: denotes the burnt end of a stick (Heb. 'ud); in Judg. 15:4, Judg. 15: a lamp or torch, a flambeau (Heb. lappid); in Prov. 26:18 (comp. Eph. 6:16), burning darts or arrows (Heb. zikkim). ......

FIREPAN
(Exo 27:3;38:3), one of the vessels of the temple service (rendered "snuff-dish" Exo 25:38;37:23; and "censer" Lev. 10:1;16:12). It was probably a metallic cinder-basin used for the purpose of carrying live coal for burning incense, and of carrying away the snuff in trimming the lamps. ......

FIRKIN
Used only in John 2:6; the Attic amphora, equivalent to the Hebrew bath (q.v.), a measure for liquids containing about 8 7/8 gallons. ......

FIRMAMENT
from the Vulgate firmamentum, which is used as the translation of the Hebrew _raki'a_. This word means simply "expansion." It denotes the space or expanse like an arch appearing immediately above us. They who rendered _raki'a_ by firmamentum regarded it as a solid body. The language of Scripture is not scientific but popular, and hence we read of the sun rising and setting, and also here the use o......

FIRST-BORN
sons enjoyed certain special privileges (Deut. 21:17; Gen. 25:23, Gen. 25: 31, 34;49:3; 1-Chr 5:1; Heb. 12:16; Psa 89:27). (See BIRTHRIGHT.) The "first-born of the poor" signifies the most miserable of the poor (Isa. 14:30). The "church of the first-born" signifies the church of the redeemed. The destruction of the first-born was the last of the ten plagues inflicted on the Egyptians (Exo 11:1......

FIRST-BORN, REDEMPTION OF
From the beginning the office of the priesthood in each family belonged to the eldest son. But when the extensive plan of sacrificial worship was introduced, requiring a company of men to be exclusively devoted to this ministry, the primitive office of the first-born was superseded by that of the Levites (Num. 3:11), and it was ordained that the first-born of man and of unclean animals should henc......

FIRST-BORN, SANCTIFICATION OF THE
A peculiar sanctity was attached to the first-born both of man and of cattle. God claimed that the first-born males of man and of animals should be consecrated to him, the one as a priest (Exo 19:22, Exo 19: 24), representing the family to which he belonged, and the other to be offered up in sacrifice (Gen. 4:4). ......

FIRST-FRUITS
The first-fruits of the ground were offered unto God just as the first-born of man and animals. The law required, (1.) That on the morrow after the Passover Sabbath a sheaf of new corn should be waved by the priest before the altar (Lev. 23:5, Lev. 23: 6, 10, 12;2:12). (2.) That at the feast of Pentecost two loaves of leavened bread, made from the new flour, were to be waved in like manner (Le......

FISH
called _dag_ by the Hebrews, a word denoting great fecundity (Gen. 9:2; Num. 11:22; Jonah 2:1, Jonah 2: 10). No fish is mentioned by name either in the Old or in the New Testament. Fish abounded in the Mediterranean and in the lakes of the Jordan, so that the Hebrews were no doubt acquainted with many species. Two of the villages on the shores of the Sea of Galilee derived their names from their f......

FISH-HOOKS
were used for catching fish (Amos 4:2; comp. Isa. 37:29; Jer. 16:16; Ezek. 29:4; Job. 41:1, Job. 41: 2; Matt. 17:27). ......

FISH-POOLS
(7:4) should be simply "pools," as in the Revised Version. The reservoirs near Heshbon (q.v.) were probably stocked with fish (2-Sam 2:13;4:12; Isa. 7:3;22:9, 22: 11). ......

FISHER
Besides its literal sense (Luke 5:2), this word is also applied by our Lord to his disciples in a figurative sense (Matt. 4:19; Mark 1:17). ......

FISHING, THE ART OF
was prosecuted with great industry in the waters of Palestine. It was from the fishing-nets that Jesus called his disciples (Mark 1:16), and it was in a fishing-boat he rebuked the winds and the waves (Matt. 8:26) and delivered that remarkable series of prophecies recorded in Matt. 13. He twice miraculously fed multitudes with fish and bread (Matt. 14:19;15:36). It was in the mouth of a fish that ......

FITCHES
(Isa. 28:25, Isa. 28: 27), the rendering of the Hebrew _ketsah_, "without doubt the Nigella sativa, a small annual of the order Ranunculacece, which grows wild in the Mediterranean countries, and is cultivated in Egypt and Syria for its seed." It is rendered in margin of the Revised Version "black cummin." The seeds are used as a condiment. In Ezek. 4:9 this word is the rendering of the Hebrew _......

FLAG
(Heb., or rather Egyptian, ahu, Job 8:11), rendered "meadow" in Gen. 41:2, Gen. 41: 18; probably the Cyperus esculentus, a species of rush eaten by cattle, the Nile reed. It also grows in Palestine. In Exo 2:3, Exo 2: 5, Isa. 19:6, Isa. 19: it is the rendering of the Hebrew _suph_, a word which occurs frequently in connection with _yam_; as _yam suph_, to denote the "Red Sea" (q.v.) or the sea o......

FLAGON
Heb. ashishah, (2-Sam 6:19; 1-Chr 16:3; 2:5; Hos. 3:1), meaning properly "a cake of pressed raisins." "Flagons of wine" of the Authorized Version should be, as in the Revised Version, "cakes of raisins" in all these passages. In Isa. 22:24 it is the rendering of the Hebrew _nebel_, which properly means a bottle or vessel of skin. (Comp. 1-Sam 1:24;10:3;25:18; 2-Sam 16:1, 2-Sam 16: where the same H......

FLAME OF FIRE
is the chosen symbol of the holiness of God (Exo 3:2; Rev. 2:18), as indicating "the intense, all-consuming operation of his holiness in relation to sin." ......

FLAX
(Heb. pishtah, i.e., "peeled", in allusion to the fact that the stalks of flax when dried were first split or peeled before being steeped in water for the purpose of destroying the pulp). This plant was cultivated from earliest times. The flax of Egypt was destroyed by the plague of hail when it "was bolled", i.e., was forming pods for seed (Exo 9:31). It was extensively cultivated both in Egypt a......

FLEA
David at the cave of Adullam thus addressed his persecutor Saul (1-Sam 24:14): "After whom is the king of Israel come out? after whom dost thou pursue? after a dead dog, after a flea?" He thus speaks of himself as the poor, contemptible object of the monarch's pursuit, a "worthy object truly for an expedition of the king of Israel with his picked troops!" This insect is in Eastern language the pop......

FLEECE
the wool of a sheep, whether shorn off or still attached to the skin (Deut. 18:4; Job 31:20). The miracle of Gideon's fleece (Judg. 6:37) consisted in the dew having fallen at one time on the fleece without any on the floor, and at another time in the fleece remaining dry while the ground was wet with dew. ......

FLESH
in the Old Testament denotes (1) a particular part of the body of man and animals (Gen. 2:21;41:2; Psa 102:5, Psa 102: marg.); (2) the whole body (Psa 16:9); (3) all living things having flesh, and particularly humanity as a whole (Gen. 6:12, Gen. 6: 13); (4) mutability and weakness (2-Chr 32:8; comp. Isa. 31:3; Psa 78:39). As suggesting the idea of softness it is used in the expression "heart of ......

FLESH-HOOK
a many-pronged fork used in the sacrificial services (1-Sam 2:13, 1-Sam 2: 14; Exo 27:3;38:3) by the priest in drawing away the flesh. The fat of the sacrifice, together with the breast and shoulder (Lev. 7:29), were presented by the worshipper to the priest. The fat was burned on the alter (3:3), and the breast and shoulder became the portion of the priests. But Hophni and Phinehas, not content w......

FLINT
abounds in all the plains and valleys of the wilderness of the forty years' wanderings. In Isa. 50:7 and Ezek. 3:9 the expressions, where the word is used, means that the "Messiah would be firm and resolute amidst all contempt and scorn which he would meet; that he had made up his mind to endure it, and would not shrink from any kind or degree of suffering which would be necessary to accomplish th......

FLOOD
an event recorded in Gen. 7 and 8. (See DELUGE.) In Josh. 24:2, Josh. 24: 3, 14, 15, the word "flood" (R.V., "river") means the river Euphrates. In Psa 66:6, Psa 66: this word refers to the river Jordan. ......

FLOUR
Grain reduced to the form of meal is spoken of in the time of Abraham (Gen. 18:6). As baking was a daily necessity, grain was also ground daily at the mills (Jer. 25:10). The flour mingled with water was kneaded in kneading-troughs, and sometimes leaven (Exo 12:34) was added and sometimes omitted (Gen. 19:3). The dough was then formed into thin cakes nine or ten inches in diameter and baked in the......

FLOWERS
Very few species of flowers are mentioned in the Bible although they abounded in Palestine. It has been calculated that in Western Syria and Palestine from two thousand to two thousand five hundred plants are found, of which about five hundred probably are British wild-flowers. Their beauty is often alluded to (2:12; Matt. 6:28). They are referred to as affording an emblem of the transitory nature......

FLUTE
a musical instrument, probably composed of a number of pipes, mentioned Dan. 3:5, Dan. 3: 7, 10, 15. In Matt. 9:23, Matt. 9: 24, notice is taken of players on the flute, here called "minstrels" (but in R.V. "flute-players"). Flutes were in common use among the ancient Egyptians. ......

FLY
Heb. zebub, (Eccl. 10:1; Isa. 7:18). This fly was so grievous a pest that the Phoenicians invoked against it the aid of their god Baal-zebub (q.v.). The prophet Isaiah (7:18) alludes to some poisonous fly which was believed to be found on the confines of Egypt, and which would be called by the Lord. Poisonous flies exist in many parts of Africa, for instance, the different kinds of tsetse. Heb. ......

FOAM
(Hos. 10:7), the rendering of _ketseph_, which properly means twigs or splinters (as rendered in the LXX. and marg. R.V.). The expression in Hosea may therefore be read, "as a chip on the face of the water," denoting the helplessness of the piece of wood as compared with the irresistable current. ......

FODDER
Heb. belil, (Job 6:5), meaning properly a mixture or medley (Lat. farrago), "made up of various kinds of grain, as wheat, barley, vetches, and the like, all mixed together, and then sown or given to cattle" (Job 24:6, Job 24: A.V. "corn," R.V. "provender;" Isa. 30:24, Isa. 30: provender"). ......

FOLD
an enclosure for flocks to rest together (Isa. 13:20). Sheep-folds are mentioned Num. 32:16, Num. 32: 24, 36; 2-Sam 7:8; Zeph. 2:6; John 10:1, John 10: etc. It was prophesied of the cities of Ammon (Ezek. 25:5), Aroer (Isa. 17:2), and Judaea, that they would be folds or couching-places for flocks. "Among the pots," of the Authorized Version (Psa 68:13), is rightly in the Revised Version, "among th......

FOOD
Originally the Creator granted the use of the vegetable world for food to man (Gen. 1:29), with the exception mentioned (2:17). The use of animal food was probably not unknown to the antediluvians. There is, however, a distinct law on the subject given to Noah after the Deluge (Gen. 9:2). Various articles of food used in the patriarchal age are mentioned in Gen. 18:6;25:34;27:3, 27: 4;43:11. Regar......

FOOTSTOOL
connected with a throne (2-Chr 9:18). Jehovah symbolically dwelt in the holy place between the cherubim above the ark of the covenant. The ark was his footstool (1-Chr 28:2; Psa 99:5;132:7). And as heaven is God's throne, so the earth is his footstool (Psa 110:1; Isa. 66:1; Matt. 5:35). ......

FORCES
of the Gentiles (Isa. 60:5, Isa. 60: 11; R.V., "the wealth of the nations") denotes the wealth of the heathen. The whole passage means that the wealth of the Gentile world should be consecrated to the service of the church. ......

FORD
Mention is frequently made of the fords of the Jordan (Josh. 2:7; Judg. 3:28;12:5, 12: 6), which must have been very numerous; about fifty perhaps. The most notable was that of Bethabara. Mention is also made of the ford of the Jabbok (Gen. 32:22), and of the fords of Arnon (Isa. 16:2) and of the Euphrates (Jer. 51:32). ......

FOREHEAD
The practice common among Oriental nations of colouring the forehead or impressing on it some distinctive mark as a sign of devotion to some deity is alluded to in Rev. 13:16, Rev. 13: 17;14:9;17:5;20:4. The "jewel on thy forehead" mentioned in Ezek. 16:12 (R.V., "a ring upon thy nose") was in all probability the "nose-ring" (Isa. 3:21). In Ezek. 3:7 the word "impudent" is rightly rendered in ......

FOREIGNER
a Gentile. Such as resided among the Hebrews were required by the law to be treated with kindness (Exo 22:21;23:9; Lev. 19:33, Lev. 19: 34;23:22; Deut. 14:28;16:10, 16: 11;24:19). They enjoyed in many things equal rights with the native-born residents (Exo 12:49; Lev. 24:22; Num. 15:15;35:15), but were not allowed to do anything which was an abomination according to the Jewish law (Exo 20:10; Lev.......

FOREKNOWLEDGE OF GOD
Acts 2:23; Rom. 8:29;11:2; 1-Pet 1:2), one of those high attributes essentially appertaining to him the full import of which we cannot comprehend. In the most absolute sense his knowledge is infinite (1-Sam 23:9; Jer. 38:17;42:9, 42: Matt. 11:21, Matt. 11: 23; Acts 15:18). ......

FORERUNNER
John the Baptist went before our Lord in this character (Mark 1:2, Mark 1: 3). Christ so called (Heb. 6:20) as entering before his people into the holy place as their head and guide. ......

FOREST
Heb. ya'ar, meaning a dense wood, from its luxuriance. Thus all the great primeval forests of Syria (Eccl. 2:6; Isa. 44:14; Jer. 5:6; Micah 5:8). The most extensive was the trans-Jordanic forest of Ephraim (2-Sam 18:6, 2-Sam 18: 8; Josh. 17:15, Josh. 17: 18), which is probably the same as the wood of Ephratah (Psa 132:6), some part of the great forest of Gilead. It was in this forest that Absalom ......

FORGIVENESS OF SIN
one of the constituent parts of justification. In pardoning sin, God absolves the sinner from the condemnation of the law, and that on account of the work of Christ, i.e., he removes the guilt of sin, or the sinner's actual liability to eternal wrath on account of it. All sins are forgiven freely (Acts 5:31;13:38; 1-John 1:6). The sinner is by this act of grace for ever freed from the guilt and pe......

FORNICATION
in every form of it was sternly condemned by the Mosaic law (Lev. 21:9;19:29; Deut. 22:20, Deut. 22: 21, 23-29;23:18; Exo 22:16). (See ADULTERY.) But this word is more frequently used in a symbolical than in its ordinary sense. It frequently means a forsaking of God or a following after idols (Isa. 1:2; Jer. 2:20; Ezek. 16; Hos. 1:2;2:1; Jer. 3:8, Jer. 3:9). ......

FORTUNATUS
fortunate, a disciple of Corinth who visited Paul at Ephesus, and returned with Stephanas and Achaicus, the bearers of the apostle's first letter to the Corinthians (1-Cor 16:17). ......

FOUNTAIN
(Heb. 'ain; i.e., "eye" of the water desert), a natural source of living water. Palestine was a "land of brooks of water, of fountains, and depths that spring out of valleys and hills" (Deut. 8:7;11:11). These fountains, bright sparkling "eyes" of the desert, are remarkable for their abundance and their beauty, especially on the west of Jordan. All the perennial rivers and streams of the country......

FOUNTAIN OF THE VIRGIN
the perennial source from which the Pool of Siloam (q.v.) is supplied, the waters flowing in a copious stream to it through a tunnel cut through the rock, the actual length of which is 1,750 feet. The spring rises in a cave 20 feet by 7. A serpentine tunnel 67 feet long runs from it toward the left, off which the tunnel to the Pool of Siloam branches. It is the only unfailing fountain in Jerusalem......

FOWLER
the arts of, referred to Psa 91:3;124:7; Prov. 6:5; Jer. 5:26; Hos. 9:8; Ezek. 17:20; Eccl. 9:12. Birds of all kinds abound in Palestine, and the capture of these for the table and for other uses formed the employment of many persons. The traps and snares used for this purpose are mentioned Hos. 5:1; Prov. 7:23;22:5; Amos 3:5; Psa 69:22; comp. Deut. 22:6, Deut. 22: 7. ......

FOX
(Heb. shu'al, a name derived from its digging or burrowing under ground), the Vulpes thaleb, or Syrian fox, the only species of this animal indigenous to Palestine. It burrows, is silent and solitary in its habits, is destructive to vineyards, being a plunderer of ripe grapes (2:15). The Vulpes Niloticus, or Egyptian dog-fox, and the Vulpes vulgaris, or common fox, are also found in Palestine. T......

FRANKINCENSE
(Heb. lebonah; Gr. libanos, i.e., "white"), an odorous resin imported from Arabia (Isa. 60:6; Jer. 6:20), yet also growing in Palestine (4:14). It was one of the ingredients in the perfume of the sanctuary (Exo 30:34), and was used as an accompaniment of the meat-offering (Lev. 2:1, Lev. 2: 16;6:15;24:7). When burnt it emitted a fragrant odour, and hence the incense became a symbol of the Divine n......

FREE-WILL OFFERING
a spontaneous gift (Exo 35:29), a voluntary sacrifice (Lev. 22:23; Ezra 3:5), as opposed to one in consequence of a vow, or in expiation of some offence. ......

FREEDOM
The law of Moses pointed out the cases in which the servants of the Hebrews were to receive their freedom (Exo 21:2, Exo 21: 7, 8; Lev. 25:39, Lev. 25: 47-55; Deut. 15:12). Under the Roman law the "freeman" (ingenuus) was one born free; the "freedman" (libertinus) was a manumitted slave, and had not equal rights with the freeman (Acts 22:28; comp. Acts 16:37;21:39;22:25;25:11, 25: 12). ......

FROG
(Heb. tsepharde'a, meaning a "marsh-leaper"). This reptile is mentioned in the Old Testament only in connection with one of the plagues which fell on the land of Egypt (Exo 8:2; Psa 78:45;105:30). In the New Testament this word occurs only in Rev. 16:13, Rev. 16: where it is referred to as a symbol of uncleanness. The only species of frog existing in Palestine is the green frog (Rana esculenta),......

FRONTLETS
occurs only in Exo 13:16; Deut. 6:8, Deut. 6: 11:18. The meaning of the injunction to the Israelites, with regard to the statues and precepts given them, that they should "bind them for a sign upon their hand, and have them as frontlets between their eyes," was that they should keep them distinctly in view and carefully attend to them. But soon after their return from Babylon they began to interpr......

FROST
(Heb. kerah, from its smoothness) Job 37:10 (R.V., "ice"); Gen. 31:40; Jer. 36:30; rendered "ice" in Job 6:16, Job 6:38:29; and "crystal" in Ezek. 1:22. "At the present day frost is entirely unknown in the lower portions of the valley of the Jordan, but slight frosts are sometimes felt on the sea-coast and near Lebanon." Throughout Western Asia cold frosty nights are frequently succeeded by warm d......

FRUIT
a word as used in Scripture denoting produce in general, whether vegetable or animal. The Hebrews divided the fruits of the land into three classes:, (1.) The fruit of the field, "corn-fruit" (Heb. dagan); all kinds of grain and pulse. (2.) The fruit of the vine, "vintage-fruit" (Heb. tirosh); grapes, whether moist or dried. (3.) "Orchard-fruits" (Heb. yitshar), as dates, figs, citrons, etc.......

FRYING-PAN
(Heb. marhesheth, a "boiler"), a pot for boiling meat (Lev. 2:7;7:9). ......

FUEL
Almost every kind of combustible matter was used for fuel, such as the withered stalks of herbs (Matt. 6:30), thorns (Psa 58:9; Eccl. 7:6), animal excrements (Ezek. 4:12;15:4, 15: 6;21:32). Wood or charcoal is much used still in all the towns of Syria and Egypt. It is largely brought from the region of Hebron to Jerusalem. (See COAL.) ......

FUGITIVE
Gen. 4:12, Gen. 4: 14, a rover or wanderer (Heb. n'a); Judg. 12:4, Judg. 12: a refugee, one who has escaped (Heb. palit); 2-Kings 25:11, 2-Kings 25: a deserter, one who has fallen away to the enemy (Heb. nophel); Ezek. 17:21, Ezek. 17: one who has broken away in flight (Heb. mibrah); Isa. 15:5;43:14, 43: a breaker away, a fugitive (Heb. beriah), one who flees away. ......

FULLER
The word "full" is from the Anglo-Saxon fullian, meaning "to whiten." To full is to press or scour cloth in a mill. This art is one of great antiquity. Mention is made of "fuller's soap" (Mal. 3:2), and of "the fuller's field" (2-Kings 18:17). At his transfiguration our Lord's rainment is said to have been white "so as no fuller on earth could white them" (Mark 9:3). En-rogel (q.v.), meaning liter......

FULLER'S FIELD
a spot near Jerusalem (2-Kings 18:17; Isa. 36:2;7:3), on the side of the highway west of the city, not far distant from the "upper pool" at the head of the valley of Hinnom. Here the fullers pursued their occupation. ......

FULLER'S SOAP
(Heb. borith mekabbeshim, i.e., "alkali of those treading cloth"). Mention is made (Prov. 25:20; Jer. 2:22) of nitre and also (Mal. 3:2) of soap (Heb. borith) used by the fuller in his operations. Nitre is found in Syria, and vegetable alkali was obtained from the ashes of certain plants. (See SOAP.) ......

FULNESS
(1.) Of time (Gal. 4:4), the time appointed by God, and foretold by the prophets, when Messiah should appear. (2.) Of Christ (John 1:16), the superabundance of grace with which he was filled. (3.) Of the Godhead bodily dwelling in Christ (Col. 2:9), i.e., the whole nature and attributes of God are in Christ. (4.) Eph. 1:23, Eph. 1: the church as the fulness of Christ, i.e., the church makes Christ......

FUNERAL
Burying was among the Jews the only mode of disposing of corpses (Gen. 23:19;25:9;35:8, 35: 9, etc.). The first traces of burning the dead are found in 1-Sam 31:12. The burning of the body was affixed by the law of Moses as a penalty to certain crimes (Lev. 20:14;21:9). To leave the dead unburied was regarded with horror (1-Kings 13:22;14:11;16:4;21:24, 21: etc.). In the earliest times of wh......

FURLONG
a stadium, a Greek measure of distance equal to 606 feet and 9 inches (Luke 24:13; John 6:19;11:18; Rev. 14:20;21:16). ......

FURNACE
(1.) Chald. attun, a large furnace with a wide open mouth, at the top of which materials were cast in (Dan. 3:22, Dan. 3: 23; comp. Jer. 29:22). This furnace would be in constant requisition, for the Babylonians disposed of their dead by cremation, as did also the Accadians who invaded Mesopotamia. (2.) Heb. kibshan, a smelting furnace (Gen. 19:28), also a lime-kiln (Isa. 33:12; Amos 2:1). (3.......

FURROW
an opening in the ground made by the plough (Psa 65:10; Hos. 10:4, Hos. 10: 10). ......

FURY
as attributed to God, is a figurative expression for dispensing afflictive judgments (Lev. 26:28; Job 20:23; Isa. 63:3; Jer. 4:4; Ezek. 5:13; Dan. 9:16; Zech. 8:2).......

GAAL
loathing, the son of Ebed, in whom the Shechemites "placed their confidence" when they became discontented with Abimelech. He headed the revolution, and led out the men of Shechem against Abimelech; but was defeated, and fled to his own home (Judg. 9:26). We hear no more of him after this battle.......

GAASH
a shaking, a hill, on the north side of which Joshua was buried (Josh. 24:30; Judg. 2:9), in the territory of Ephraim. (See TIMNATH-SERAH.)......

GABBATHA
Gab Baitha, i.e., "the ridge of the house" = "the temple-mound," on a part of which the fortress of Antonia was built. This "temple-mound" was covered with a tesselated "pavement" (Gr. lithostroton, i.e., "stone-paved"). A judgement-seat (bema) was placed on this "pavement" outside the hall of the "praetorium" (q.v.), the judgment-hall (John 18:28;19:13).......

GABRIEL
champion of God, used as a proper name to designate the angel who was sent to Daniel (8:16) to explain the vision of the ram and the he-goat, and to communicate the prediction of the seventy weeks (Dan. 9:21). He announced also the birth of John the Baptist (Luke 1:11), and of the Messiah (26). He describes himself in the words, "I am Gabriel, who stand in the presence of God" (1:19).......

GAD
fortune; luck. (1.) Jacob's seventh son, by Zilpah, Leah's handmaid, and the brother of Asher (Gen. 30:11;46:16, 46: 18). In the Authorized Version 30:11 the words, "A troop cometh: and she called," etc., should rather be rendered, "In fortune [R.V., 'Fortunate']: and she called," etc., or "Fortune cometh," etc. The tribe of Gad during the march through the wilderness had their place with Simeon......

GADARA
the capital of the Roman province of Peraea. It stood on the summit of a mountain about 6 miles south-east of the Sea of Galilee. Mark (5:1) and Luke (8:26) describe the miracle of the healing of the demoniac (Matthew [8:28] says two demoniacs) as having been wrought "in the country of the Gadarenes," thus describing the scene generally. The miracle could not have been wrought at Gadara itself, fo......

GADARENES
the inhabitants of Gadara, in Revised Version "Gerasenes" (Mark 5:1; Luke 8:26, Luke 8: 37). In Matt. 8:28 they are called Gergesenes, Revised Version "Gadarenes."......

GADDI
fortunate, the representative of the tribe of Manasseh among the twelve "spies" sent by Moses to spy the land (Num. 13:11).......

GADDIEL
fortune (i.e., sent) of God, the representative of the tribe of Zebulum among the twelve spies (Num. 13:10).......

GAHAR
lurking-place, one of the chief of the Nethinim, whose descendants returned to Jerusalem under Zerubbabel (Ezra 2:47).......

GAIUS
(1.) A Macedonian, Paul's fellow-traveller, and his host at Corinth when he wrote his Epistle to the Romans (16:23). He with his household were baptized by Paul (1-Cor 1:14). During a heathen outbreak against Paul at Ephesus the mob seized Gaius and Aristarchus because they could not find Paul, and rushed with them into the theatre. Some have identified this Gaius with No. (2). (2.) A man of Der......

GALATIA
has been called the "Gallia" of the East, Roman writers calling its inhabitants Galli. They were an intermixture of Gauls and Greeks, and hence were called Gallo-Graeci, and the country Gallo-Graecia. The Galatians were in their origin a part of that great Celtic migration which invaded Macedonia about B.C. 280. They were invited by the king of Bithynia to cross over into Asia Minor to assist him ......

GALATIANS, EPISTLE TO
The genuineness of this epistle is not called in question. Its Pauline origin is universally acknowledged. Occasion of. The churches of Galatia were founded by Paul himself (Acts 16:6; Gal. 1:8;4:13, 4: 19). They seem to have been composed mainly of converts from heathenism (4:8), but partly also of Jewish converts, who probably, under the influence of Judaizing teachers, sought to incorporate t......

GALBANUM
Heb. helbenah, (Exo 30:34), one of the ingredients in the holy incense. It is a gum, probably from the Galbanum officinale.......

GALEED
heap of witness, the name of the pile of stones erected by Jacob and Laban to mark the league of friendship into which they entered with each other (Gen. 31:47, Gen. 31: 48). This was the name given to the "heap" by Jacob. It is Hebrew, while the name Jegar-sahadutha, given to it by Laban, is Aramaic (Chaldee or Syriac). Probably Nahor's family originally spoke Aramaic, and Abraham and his descend......

GALILEAN
an inhabitant or native of Galilee. This word was used as a name of contempt as applied to our Lord's disciples (Luke 22:59; Acts 2:7). All the apostles, with the exception of Judas Iscariot (Acts 1:11), were Galileans. Peter was detected by his Galilean accent (Matt. 26:69; Mark 14:70). This was also one of the names of reproach given to the early Christians. Julian the Apostate, as he is calle......

GALILEE
circuit. Solomon rewarded Hiram for certain services rendered him by the gift of an upland plain among the mountains of Naphtali. Hiram was dissatisfied with the gift, and called it "the land of Cabul" (q.v.). The Jews called it Galil. It continued long to be occupied by the original inhabitants, and hence came to be called "Galilee of the Gentiles" (Matt. 4:15), and also "Upper Galilee," to disti......

GALILEE, SEA OF
(Matt. 4:18;15:29), is mentioned in the Bible under three other names. (1.) In the Old Testament it is called the "sea of Chinnereth" (Num. 34:11; Josh. 12:3;13:27), as is supposed from its harp-like shape. (2). The "lake of Gennesareth" once by Luke (5:1), from the flat district lying on its west coast. (3.) John (6:1;21:1) calls it the "sea of Tiberias" (q.v.). The modern Arabs retain this name,......

GALL
(1) Heb. mererah, meaning "bitterness" (Job 16:13); i.e., the bile secreted in the liver. This word is also used of the poison of asps (20:14), and of the vitals, the seat of life (25). (2.) Heb. rosh. In Deut. 32:33 and Job 20:16 it denotes the poison of serpents. In Hos. 10:4 the Hebrew word is rendered "hemlock." The original probably denotes some bitter, poisonous plant, most probably the po......

GALLERY
(1.) Heb. 'attik (Ezek. 41:15, Ezek. 41: 16), a terrace; a projection; ledge. (2.) Heb. rahit (1:17), translated "rafters," marg. "galleries;" probably panel-work or fretted ceiling.......

GALLIM
heaps, (1-Sam 25:44; Isa. 10:30). The native place of Phalti, to whom Michal was given by Saul. It was probably in Benjamin, to the north of Jerusalem.......

GALLIO
the elder brother of Seneca the philosopher, who was tutor and for some time minister of the emperor Nero. He was "deputy", i.e., proconsul, as in Revised Version, of Achaia, under the emperor Claudius, when Paul visited Corinth (Acts 18:12). The word used here by Luke in describing the rank of Gallio shows his accuracy. Achaia was a senatorial province under Claudius, and the governor of such a p......

GALLOWS
Heb. 'ets, meaning "a tree" (Esther 6:4), a post or gibbet. In Gen. 40:19 and Deut. 21:22 the word is rendered "tree."......

GAMALIEL
reward of God. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh at the census at Sinai (Num. 1:10;2:20;7:54, 7: 59). (2.) The son of rabbi Simeon, and grandson of the famous rabbi Hillel. He was a Pharisse, and therefore the opponent of the party of the Sadducees. He was noted for his learning, and was president of the Sanhedrim during the regins of Tiberius, Caligula, and Claudius, and died, it is said, a......

GAMES
(1.) Of children (Zech. 8:5; Matt. 11:16). The Jewish youth were also apparently instructed in the use of the bow and the sling (Judg. 20:16; 1-Chr 12:2). (2.) Public games, such as were common among the Greeks and Romans, were foreign to the Jewish institutions and customs. Reference, however, is made to such games in two passages (Psa 19:5; Eccl. 9:11). (3.) Among the Greeks and Romans games......

GAMMADIM
(Ezek. 27:11) brave warriors; R.V. marg., "valorous men;" others interpret this word as meaning "short-swordsmen," or "daring ones", the name of a class of men who were defenders of the towers of Tyre.......

GAMUL
weaned the leader of one of the priestly courses (1-Chr 24:17).......

GAP
a rent or opening in a wall (Ezek. 13:5; comp. Amos 4:3). The false prophets did not stand in the gap (Ezek. 22:30), i.e., they did nothing to stop the outbreak of wickedness.......

GARDENS
mentioned in Scripture, of Eden (Gen. 2:8, Gen. 2: 9); Ahab's garden of herbs (1-Kings 21:2); the royal garden (2-Kings 21:18); the royal garden at Susa (Esther 1:5); the garden of Joseph of Arimathea (John 19:41); of Gethsemane (John 18:1). The "king's garden" mentioned 2-Kings 25:4, 2-Kings 25: Neh. 3:15, Neh. 3: was near the Pool of Siloam. Gardens were surrounded by hedges of thorns (Isa. ......

GAREB
scabby; itch. (1.) One of David's warriors (2-Sam 23:38), an Ithrite. (2.) A hill near Jerusalem (Jer. 31:39), probably the hill of lepers, and consequently a place outside the boundary of the city.......

GARLANDS
(Acts 14:13). In heathen sacrifices the victims were adorned with fillets and garlands made of wool, with leaves and flowers interwoven. The altar and the priests and attendants were also in like manner adorned.......

GARLIC
(Heb. shum, from its strong odour), mentioned only once (Num. 11:5). The garlic common in Eastern countries is the Allium sativum or Allium Ascalonicum, so called from its having been brought into Europe from Ascalon by the Crusaders. It is now known by the name of "shallot" or "eschalot."......

GARNER
(1.) Heb. 'otsar, a treasure; a store of goods laid up, and hence also the place where they are deposited (Joel 1:17; 2-Chr 32:27, 2-Chr 32: rendered "treasury"). (2.) Heb. mezev, a cell, storeroom (Psa 144:13); Gr. apotheke, a place for storing anything, a granary (Matt. 3:12; Luke 3:17).......

GARNISH
overlay with stones (2-Chr 3:6), adorn (Rev. 21:19), deck with garlands (Matt. 23:29), furnish (12:44). In Job 26:13 (Heb. shiphrah, meaning "brightness"), "By his spirit the heavens are brightness" i.e., are bright, splendid, beautiful.......

GARRISON
(1.) Heb. matstsab, a station; a place where one stands (1-Sam 14:12); a military or fortified post (1-Sam 13:23;14:1, 14: 4, 6, etc.). (2.) Heb. netsib, a prefect, superintendent; hence a military post (1-Sam 10:5;13:3, 13: 4; 2-Sam 8:6). This word has also been explained to denote a pillar set up to mark the Philistine conquest, or an officer appointed to collect taxes; but the idea of a milit......

GATE
(1.) Of cities, as of Jerusalem (Jer. 37:13; Neh. 1:3;2:3;3:3), of Sodom (Gen. 19:1), of Gaza (Judg. 16:3). (2.) Of royal palaces (Neh. 2:8). (3.) Of the temple of Solomon (1-Kings 6:34, 1-Kings 6: 35; 2-Kings 18:16); of the holy place (1-Kings 6:31, 1-Kings 6: 32; Ezek. 41:23, Ezek. 41: 24); of the outer courts of the temple, the beautiful gate (Acts 3:2). (4.) Tombs (Matt. 27:60). (5.) P......

GATH
a wine-vat, one of the five royal cities of the Philistines (Josh. 13:3) on which the ark brought calamity (1-Sam 5:8, 1-Sam 5: 9;6:17). It was famous also as being the birthplace or residence of Goliath (1-Sam 17:4). David fled from Saul to Achish, king of Gath (1-Sam 21:10;27:2; Ps. 56), and his connection with it will account for the words in 2-Sam 1:20. It was afterwards conquered by David (2-......

GATH-HEPHER
wine-press of the well, a town of Lower Galilee, about 5 miles from Nazareth; the birthplace of Jonah (2-Kings 14:25); the same as Gittah-hepher (Josh. 19:13). It has been identified with the modern el-Meshed, a village on the top of a rocky hill. Here the supposed tomb of Jonah, Neby Yunas, is still pointed out.......

GATH-RIMMON
press of the pomegranate. (1.) A Levitical city in the tribe of Dan (Josh. 19:45;21:24; 1-Chr 6:69). (2.) Another city of the same name in Manasseh, west of the Jordan (Josh. 21:25), called also Bileam (1-Chr 6:70).......

GAULANITIS
a name derived from "Golan" (q.v.), one of the cities of refuge in the territory of Manasseh (Josh. 20:8;21:27; Deut. 4:43). This was one of the provinces ruled by Herod Antipas. It lay to the east of the Lake of Galilee, and included among its towns Bethsaida-Julias (Mark 8:22) and Seleucia.......

GAZA
called also Azzah, which is its Hebrew name (Deut. 2:23; 1-Kings 4:24; Jer. 25:20), strong, a city on the Mediterranean shore, remarkable for its early importance as the chief centre of a great commercial traffic with Egypt. It is one of the oldest cities of the world (Gen. 10:19; Josh. 15:47). Its earliest inhabitants were the Avims, who were conquered and displaced by the Caphtorims (Deut. 2:23;......

GEBA
the hill, (2-Sam 5:25 [1-Chr 14:16, 1-Chr 14: "Gibeon"]; 2-Kings 23:8; Neh. 11:31), a Levitical city of Benjamin (1-Kings 15:22; 1-Sam 13:16;14:5, 14: wrongly "Gibeah" in the A.V.), on the north border of Judah near Gibeah (Isa. 10:29; Josh. 18:24, Josh. 18: 28). "From Geba to Beersheba" expressed the whole extent of the kingdom of Judah, just as "from Dan to Beersheba" described the whole length ......

GEBAL
a line (or natural boundary, as a mountain range). (1.) A tract in the land of Edom south of the Dead Sea (Psa 83:7); now called Djebal. (2.) A Phoenician city, not far from the sea coast, to the north of Beyrout (Ezek. 27:9); called by the Greeks Byblos. Now Jibeil. Mentioned in the Amarna tablets. An important Phoenician text, referring to the temple of Baalath, on a monument of Yehu-melek, ......

GEBALITES
(1-Kings 5:18 R.V., in A.V. incorrectly rendered, after the Targum, "stone-squarers," but marg. "Giblites"), the inhabitants of Gebal (2).......

GEBER
a valiant man, (1-Kings 4:19), one of Solomon's purveyors, having jurisdiction over a part of Gilead, comprising all the kingdom of Sihon and part of the kingdom of Og (Deut. 2; 31).......

GEBIM
cisterns, (rendered "pits," Jer. 14:3; "locusts," Isa. 33:4), a small place north of Jerusalem, whose inhabitants fled at the approach of the Assyrian army (Isa. 10:31). It is probably the modern el-Isawiyeh.......

GEDALIAH
made great by Jehovah. (1.) the son of Jeduthum (1-Chr 25:3, 1-Chr 25: 9). (2.) The grandfather of the prophet Zephaniah, and the father of Cushi (Zeph. 1:1). (3.) One of the Jewish nobles who conspired against Jeremiah (Jer. 38:1). (4.) The son of Ahikam, and grandson of Shaphan, secretary of king Josiah (Jer. 26:24). After the destruction of Jerusalem (see ZEDEKIAH), Nebuchadnezzar left him to g......

GEDER
a walled place, (Josh. 12:13), perhaps the same as Gederah or Gedor (15:58).......

GEDERAH
the fortress; a fortified place, a town in the plain (shephelah) of Judah (Josh. 15:36). This is a very common Canaanite and Phoenician name. It is the feminine form of Geder (12:13); the plural form is Gederoth (15:41). This place has by some been identified with Jedireh, a ruin 9 miles from Lydda, toward Eleutheropolis, and 4 miles north of Sur'ah (Zorah), in the valley of Elah.......

GEDERATHITE
an epithet applied to Josabad, one of David's warriors at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:4), a native of Gederah. ......

GEDOR
a wall. (1.) A city in the mountains or hill country of Judah (Josh. 15:58), identified with Jedar, between Jerusalem and Hebron. (2.) 1-Chr 4:39, 1-Chr 4: the Gederah of Josh. 15:36, Josh. 15: or the well-known Gerar, as the LXX. read, where the patriarchs of old had sojourned and fed their flocks (Gen. 20:1, Gen. 20: 14, 15;26:1, 26: 6, 14). (3.) A town apparently in Benjamin (1-Chr 12:7), t......

GEHAZI
valley of vision, Elisha's trusted servant (2-Kings 4:31;5:25;8:4, 8: 5). He appears in connection with the history of the Shunammite (2-Kings 4:14, 2-Kings 4: 31) and of Naaman the Syrian. On this latter occasion he was guilty of duplicity and dishonesty of conduct, causing Elisha to denounce his crime with righteous sternness, and pass on him the terrible doom that the leprosy of Naaman would cl......

GEHENNA
(originally Ge bene Hinnom; i.e., "the valley of the sons of Hinnom"), a deep, narrow glen to the south of Jerusalem, where the idolatrous Jews offered their children in sacrifice to Molech (2-Chr 28:3;33:6; Jer. 7:31;19:2). This valley afterwards became the common receptacle for all the refuse of the city. Here the dead bodies of animals and of criminals, and all kinds of filth, were cast and con......

GELILOTH
circles; regions, a place in the border of Benjamin (Josh. 18:17); called Gilgal 15:7. ......

GEMARIAH
Jehovah has made perfect. (1.) The son of Shaphan, and one of the Levites of the temple in the time of Jehoiakim (Jer. 36:10; 2-Kings 22:12). Baruch read aloud to the people from Gemariah's chamber, and again in the hearing of Gemariah and other scribes, the prophecies of Jeremiah (Jer. 36:11), which filled him with terror. He joined with others in entreating the king not to destroy the roll of th......

GENERATION
Gen. 2:4, Gen. 2: "These are the generations," means the "history."5:1, 5: "The book of the generations," means a family register, or history of 37:2, 37: "The generations of Jacob" = the history of Jacob and his 7:1, 7: "In this generation" = in this age. Psa 49:19, Psa 49: "The generation of his fathers" = the dwelling of his fathers, i.e., the grave. Psa 73:15, Psa 73: "The generation of thy ch......

GENESIS
The five books of Moses were collectively called the Pentateuch, a word of Greek origin meaning "the five-fold book." The Jews called them the Torah, i.e., "the law." It is probable that the division of the Torah into five books proceeded from the Greek translators of the Old Testament. The names by which these several books are generally known are Greek. The first book of the Pentateuch (q.v.) ......

GENNESARET
a garden of riches. (1.) A town of Naphtali, called Chinnereth (Josh. 19:35), sometimes in the plural form Chinneroth (11:2). In later times the name was gradually changed to Genezar and Gennesaret (Luke 5:1). This city stood on the western shore of the lake to which it gave its name. No trace of it remains. The plain of Gennesaret has been called, from its fertility and beauty, "the Paradise of G......

GENTILES
(Heb., usually in plural, goyim), meaning in general all nations except the Jews. In course of time, as the Jews began more and more to pride themselves on their peculiar privileges, it acquired unpleasant associations, and was used as a term of contempt. In the New Testament the Greek word Hellenes, meaning literally Greek (as in Acts 16:1, Acts 16: 3;18:17; Rom. 1:14), generally denotes any no......

GENUBATH
theft, the son of Hadad, of the Edomitish royal family. He was brought up in Pharaoh's household. His mother was a sister of Tahpenes, the king of Egypt's wife, mentioned in 1-Kings 11:20. ......

GERA
grain. (1.) The son of Bela and grandson of Benjamin (1-Chr 8:3, 1-Chr 8: 5,7). (2.) The father of Ehud the judge (Judg. 3:15). (3.) The father of Shimei, who so grossly abused David (2-Sam 16:5;19:16, 19: 18). ......

GERAH
a bean, probably of the carob tree, the smallest weight, and also the smallest piece of money, among the Hebrews, equal to the twentieth part of a shekel (Exo 30:13; Lev. 27:25; Num. 3:47). This word came into use in the same way as our word "grain," from a grain of wheat. ......

GERAR
a region; lodging-place, a very ancient town and district in the south border of Palestine, which was ruled over by a king named Abimelech (Gen. 10:19;20:1, 20: 2). Abraham sojourned here, and perhaps Isaac was born in this place. Both of these patriarchs were guilty of the sin of here denying their wives, and both of them entered into a treaty with the king before they departed to Beersheba (21:2......

GERGESA
=Gerasa, identified with the modern Khersa, "over against Galilee," close to the lake. This was probably the scene of the miracle, Mark 5:1, Mark 5: etc. "From the base of the great plateau of Bashan, 2,000 feet or more overhead, the ground slopes down steeply, in places precipitously, to the shore. And at the foot of the declivity a bold spur runs out to the water's edge. By it the frantic swine ......

GERIZIM
a mountain of Samaria, about 3,000 feet above the Mediterranean. It was on the left of the valley containing the ancient town of Shechem (q.v.), on the way to Jerusalem. It stood over against Mount Ebal, the summits of these mountains being distant from each other about 2 miles (Deut. 27; Josh. 8:30). On the slopes of this mountain the tribes descended from the handmaids of Leah and Rachel, togeth......

GERSHOM
expulsion. (1.) The eldest son of Levi (1-Chr 6:16, 1-Chr 6: 17, 20, 43, 62, 71;15:7)=GERSHON (q.v.). (2.) The elder of the two sons of Moses born to him in Midian (Exo 2:22;18:3). On his way to Egypt with his family, in obedience to the command of the Lord, Moses was attacked by a sudden and dangerous illness (4:24), which Zipporah his wife believed to have been sent because he had neglected to......

GERSHON
=Ger'shom expulsion, the eldest of Levi's three sons (Gen. 46:11; Exo 6:16). In the wilderness the sons of Gershon had charge of the fabrics of the tabernacle when it was moved from place to place, the curtains, veils, tent-hangings (Num. 3:21). Thirteen Levitical cities fell to the lot of the Gershonites (Josh. 21:27). ......

GESHEM
or Gashmu, firmness, probably chief of the Arabs south of Palestine, one of the enemies of the Jews after the return from Babylon (Neh. 2:19;6:1, 6: 2). He united with Sanballat and Tobiah in opposing the rebuilding of the wall of Jerusalem. ......

GESHUR
bridge, the name of a district or principality of Syria near Gilead, between Mount Hermon and the Lake of Tiberias (2-Sam 15:8; 1-Chr 2:23). The Geshurites probably inhabited the rocky fastness of Argob, the modern Lejah, in the north-east corner of Bashan. In the time of David it was ruled by Talmai, whose daughter he married, and who was the mother of Absalom, who fled to Geshur after the murder......

GESHURITES
(1.) The inhabitants of Geshur. They maintained friendly relations with the Israelites on the east of Jordan (Josh. 12:5;13:11, 13: 13). (2.) Another aboriginal people of Palestine who inhabited the south-west border of the land. Geshuri in Josh. 13:2 should be "the Geshurite," not the Geshurites mentioned in ver. 11, 13, but the tribe mentioned in 1-Sam 27:8. ......

GETHSEMANE
oil-press, the name of an olive-yard at the foot of the Mount of Olives, to which Jesus was wont to retire (Luke 22:39) with his disciples, and which is specially memorable as being the scene of his agony (Mark 14:32; John 18:1; Luke 22:44). The plot of ground pointed out as Gethsemane is now surrounded by a wall, and is laid out as a modern European flower-garden. It contains eight venerable oliv......

GEZER
a precipice, an ancient royal Canaanitish city (Josh. 10:33;12:12). It was allotted with its suburbs to the Kohathite Levites (21:21; 1-Chr 6:67). It stood between the lower Beth-horon and the sea (Josh. 16:3; 1-Kings 9:17). It was the last point to which David pursued the Philistines (2-Sam 5:25; 1-Chr 14:16) after the battle of Baal-perazim. The Canaanites retained possession of it till the time......

GHOST
an old Saxon word equivalent to soul or spirit. It is the translation of the Hebrew _nephesh_ and the Greek _pneuma_, both meaning "breath," "life," "spirit," the "living principle" (Job 11:20; Jer. 15:9; Matt. 27:50; John 19:30). The expression "to give up the ghost" means to die (Lam. 1:19; Gen. 25:17;35:29;49:33; Job 3:11). (See HOLY+GHOST.) ......

GIANTS
(1.) Heb. nephilim, meaning "violent" or "causing to fall" (Gen. 6:4). These were the violent tyrants of those days, those who fell upon others. The word may also be derived from a root signifying "wonder," and hence "monsters" or "prodigies." In Num. 13:33 this name is given to a Canaanitish tribe, a race of large stature, "the sons of Anak." The Revised Version, in these passages, simply transli......

GIBBETHON
a height, a city of the Philistines in the territory of Dan, given to the Kohathites (Josh. 19:44;21:23). Nadab the king of Israel, while besieging it, was slain under its walls by Baasha, one of his own officers (1-Kings 15:27). It was in the possession of the Philistines after the secession of the ten tribes (2-Chr 11:13, 2-Chr 11: 14). ......

GIBEAH
a hill or hill-town, "of Benjamin" (1-Sam 13:15), better known as "Gibeah of Saul" (11:4; Isa. 10:29). It was here that the terrible outrage was committed on the Levite's concubine which led to the almost utter extirpation of the tribe of Benjamin (Judg. 19; 20), only six hundred men surviving after a succession of disastrous battles. This was the birthplace of Saul, and continued to be his reside......

GIBEAH OF JUDAH
(Josh. 15:57), a city in the mountains of Judah, the modern Jeba, on a hill in the Wady Musurr, about 7 1/2 miles west-south-west of Bethlehem. ......

GIBEAH OF PHINEHAS
(Josh. 15:57, Josh. 15: R.V. marg.), a city on Mount Ephraim which had been given to Phinehas (24:33 "hill," A.V.; R.V. marg. and Heb., "Gibeah."). Here Eleazar the son of Aaron was buried. It has been identified with the modern Khurbet Jibia, 5 miles north of Guphna towards Shechem. ......

GIBEAH-HAARALOTH
(Josh. 5:3, Josh. 5: marg.), hill of the foreskins, a place at Gilgal where those who had been born in the wilderness were circumcised. All the others, i.e., those who were under twenty years old at the time of the sentence at Kadesh, had already been circumcised. ......

GIBEON
hill-city, "one of the royal cities, greater than Ai, and all the men thereof were mighty" (Josh. 10:2). Its inhabitants were Hivites (11:19). It lay within the territory of Benjamin, and became a priest-city (18:25;21:17). Here the tabernacle was set up after the destruction of Nob, and here it remained many years till the temple was built by Solomon. It is represented by the modern el-Jib, to th......

GIDEON
called also Jerubbaal (Judg. 6:29, Judg. 6: 32), was the first of the judges whose history is circumstantially narrated (Judg. 6-8). His calling is the commencement of the second period in the history of the judges. After the victory gained by Deborah and Barak over Jabin, Israel once more sank into idolatry, and the Midianites (q.v.) and Amalekites, with other "children of the east," crossed the ......

GIER EAGLE
Heb. raham = "parental affection," Lev. 11:18; Deut. 14:17; R.V., "vulture"), a species of vulture living entirely on carrion. "It is about the size of a raven; has an almost triangular, bald, and wrinkled head, a strong pointed beak, black at the tip, large eyes and ears, the latter entirely on the outside, and long feet." It is common in Egypt, where it is popularly called "Pharaoh's chicken" (t......

GIFT
(1.) An gratuity (Prov. 19:6) to secure favour (18:16;21:14), a thank-offering (Num. 18:11), or a dowry (Gen. 34:12). (2.) An oblation or proppitatory gift (2Sa 8:2, 2Sa 8:6; 1Ch 18:2, 1Ch 18:6; 2Ch 26:8; Psa 45:12;72:10). (3.) A bribe to a judge to obtain a favourable verdict (Exo 23:8; Deut. 16:19). (4.) Simply a thing given (Matt. 7:11; Luke 11:13; Eph. 4:8); sacrifical (Matt. 5:23, Matt.......

GIFTS, SPIRITUAL
(Gr. charismata), gifts supernaturally bestowed on the early Christians, each having his own proper gift or gifts for the edification of the body of Christ. These were the result of the extraordinary operation of the Spirit, as on the day of Pentecost. They were the gifts of speaking with tongues, casting out devils, healing, etc. (Mark 16:17, Mark 16: 18), usually communicated by the medium of th......

GIHON
a stream. (1.) One of the four rivers of Eden (Gen. 2:13). It has been identified with the Nile. Others regard it as the Oxus, or the Araxes, or the Ganges. But as, according to the sacred narrative, all these rivers of Eden took their origin from the head-waters of the Euphrates and the Trigris, it is probable that the Gihon is the ancient Araxes, which, under the modern name of the Arras, discha......

GILBOA
boiling spring, a mountain range, now Jebel Fukua', memorable as the scene of Saul's disastrous defeat by the Philistines. Here also his three sons were slain, and he himself died by his own hand (1-Sam 28:4;31:1; 2-Sam 1:6;21:12; 1-Chr 10:1, 1-Chr 10: 8). It was a low barren range of mountains bounding the valley of Esdraelon (Jezreel) on the east, between it and the Jordan valley. When the tidin......

GILEAD
hill of testimony, (Gen. 31:21), a mountainous region east of Jordan. From its mountainous character it is called "the mount of Gilead" (Gen. 31:25). It is called also "the land of Gilead" (Num. 32:1), and sometimes simply "Gilead" (Psa 60:7; Gen. 37:25). It comprised the possessions of the tribes of Gad and Reuben and the south part of Manasseh (Deut. 3:13; Num. 32:40). It was bounded on the nort......

GILEAD, BALM OF
The region of Gilead abounded in spices and aromatic gums, which were exported to Egypt and Tyre (Gen. 37:25; Jer. 8:22;46:11; Ezek. 27:17). The word "balm" is a contracted form of "balsam," a word derived from the Greek _balsamon_, which was adopted as the representative of the Hebrew words _baal shemen_, meaning "lord" or "chief of oils." The Hebrew name of this balm was _tsori_. The tree yiel......

GILGAL
rolling. (1.) From the solemn transaction of the reading of the law in the valley of Shechem between Ebal and Gerizim the Israelites moved forward to Gilgal, and there made a permanent camp (Josh. 9:6;10:6). It was "beside the oaks of Moreh," near which Abraham erected his first altar (Gen. 12:6, Gen. 12: 7). This was one of the three towns to which Samuel resorted for the administration of justic......

GILOH
exile, a city in the south-west part of the hill-country of Judah (Josh. 15:51). It was the native place or residence of the traitor Ahithophel "the Gilonite" (Josh. 15:51; 2-Sam 15:12), and where he committed suicide (17:23). It has been identified with Kurbet Jala, about 7 miles north of Hebron. ......

GIMZO
a place fertile in sycamores, a city in the plain of Judah, the villages of which were seized by the Philistines (2-Chr 28:18). It is now called Jimzu, about 3 miles south-east of Ludd, i.e., Lydda. ......

GIN
a trap. (1.) Psa 140:5, Psa 140:141:9, 141: Amos 3:5, Amos 3: the Hebrew word used, _mokesh_, means a noose or "snare," as it is elsewhere rendered (Psa 18:5; Prov. 13:14, Prov. 13: etc.). (2.) Job 18:9, Job 18: Isa. 8:14, Isa. 8: Heb. pah, a plate or thin layer; and hence a net, a snare, trap, especially of a fowler (Psa 69:22, Psa 69: "Let their table before them become a net;" Amos 3:5, Amos ......

GIRDLE
(1.) Heb. hagor, a girdle of any kind worn by soldiers (1-Sam 18:4; 2-Sam 20:8; 1-Kings 2:5; 2-Kings 3:21) or women (Isa. 3:24). (2.) Heb. 'ezor, something "bound," worn by prophets (2-Kings 1:8; Jer. 13:1), soldiers (Isa. 5:27; 2-Sam 20:8; Ezek. 23:15), Kings (Job 12:18). (3.) Heb. mezah, a "band," a girdle worn by men alone (Psa 109:19; Isa. 22:21). (4.) Heb. 'abnet, the girdle of sacerdot......

GIRGASHITE
dwelling in clayey soil, the descendants of the fifth son of Canaan (Gen. 10:16), one of the original tribes inhabiting the land of Canaan before the time of the Israelites (Gen. 15:21; Deut. 7:1). They were a branch of the great family of the Hivites. Of their geographical position nothing is certainly known. Probably they lived somewhere in the central part of Western Palestine. ......

GITTAH-HEPHER
(Josh. 19:13). See GATH-HEPHER. ......

GITTAIM
two wine-presses, (2-Sam 4:3; Neh. 11:33), a town probably in Benjamin to which the Beerothites fled. ......

GITTITE
a native of the Philistine city of Gath (Josh. 13:3). Obed-edom, in whose house the ark was placed, is so designated (2-Sam 6:10). Six hundred Gittites came with David from Gath into Israel (15:18, 15: 19). ......

GITTITH
a stringed instrument of music. This word is found in the titles of Ps. 8, 81, 84. In these places the LXX. render the word by "on the wine-fats." The Targum explains by "on the harp which David brought from Gath." It is the only stringed instrument named in the titles of the Psalms. ......

GIZONITE
a name given to Hashem, an inhabitant of Gizoh, a place somewhere in the mountains of Judah (1-Chr 11:34; 2-Sam 23:32, 2-Sam 23: 34). ......

GLASS
was known to the Egyptians at a very early period of their national history, at least B.C. 1500. Various articles both useful and ornamental were made of it, as bottles, vases, etc. A glass bottle with the name of Sargon on it was found among the ruins of the north-west palace of Nimroud. The Hebrew word _zekukith_ (Job 28:17), rendered in the Authorized Version "crystal," is rightly rendered in t......

GLEAN
The corners of fields were not to be reaped, and the sheaf accidentally left behind was not to be fetched away, according to the law of Moses (Lev. 19:9;23:22; Deut. 24:21). They were to be left for the poor to glean. Similar laws were given regarding vineyards and oliveyards. (Comp. Ruth 2:2.) ......

GLEDE
an Old English name for the common kite, mentioned only in Deut. 14:13 (Heb. ra'ah), the Milvus ater or black kite. The Hebrew word does not occur in the parallel passage in Leviticus (11:14, 11: da'ah, rendered "vulture;" in R.V., "kite"). It was an unclean bird. The Hebrew name is from a root meaning "to see," "to look," thus designating a bird with a keen sight. The bird intended is probably th......

GLORIFY
(1.) To make glorious, or cause so to appear (John 12:28;13:31, 13: 32;17:4, 17:5). (2.) Spoken of God to "shew forth his praise" (1-Cor 6:20;10:31). ......

GLORY
(Heb. kabhod; Gr. doxa). (1.) Abundance, wealth, treasure, and hence honour (Psa 49:12); glory (Gen. 31:1; Matt. 4:8; Rev. 21:24, Rev. 21: 26). (2.) Honour, dignity (1-Kings 3:13; Heb. 2:7 1-Pet 1:24); of God (Psa 19:1;29:1); of the mind or heart (Gen. 49:6; Psa 7:5; Acts 2:46). (3.) Splendour, brightness, majesty (Gen. 45:13; Isa. 4:5; Acts 22:11; 2-Cor 3:7); of Jehovah (Isa. 59:19;60:1; 2-Th......

GLUTTON
(Deut. 21:20), Heb. zolel, from a word meaning "to shake out," "to squander;" and hence one who is prodigal, who wastes his means by indulgence. In Prov. 23:21, Prov. 23: the word means debauchees or wasters of their own body. In Prov. 28:7, Prov. 28: the word (pl.) is rendered Authorized Version "riotous men;" Revised Version, "gluttonous." Matt. 11:19, Matt. 11: Luke 7:34, Luke 7: Greek phagos, ......

GNASH
Heb. harak, meaning "to grate the teeth", (Job 16:9; Psa 112:10; Lam. 2:16), denotes rage or sorrow. (See also Acts 7:54; Mark 9:18.) ......

GNAT
only in Matt. 23:24, Matt. 23: a small two-winged stinging fly of the genus Culex, which includes mosquitoes. Our Lord alludes here to the gnat in a proverbial expression probably in common use, "who strain out the gnat;" the words in the Authorized Version, "strain at a gnat," being a mere typographical error, which has been corrected in the Revised Version. The custom of filtering wine for this ......

GOAD
(Heb. malmad, only in Judg. 3:31), an instrument used by ploughmen for guiding their oxen. Shamgar slew six hundred Philistines with an ox-goad. "The goad is a formidable weapon. It is sometimes ten feet long, and has a sharp point. We could now see that the feat of Shamgar was not so very wonderful as some have been accustomed to think." In 1-Sam 13:21, 1-Sam 13: a different Hebrew word is used......

GOAT
(1.) Heb. 'ez, the she-goat (Gen. 15:9;30:35;31:38). This Hebrew word is also used for the he-goat (Exo 12:5; Lev. 4:23; Num. 28:15), and to denote a kid (Gen. 38:17, Gen. 38: 20). Hence it may be regarded as the generic name of the animal as domesticated. It literally means "strength," and points to the superior strength of the goat as compared with the sheep. (2.) Heb. 'attud, only in plural; ......

GOATH
a lowing, a place near Jerusalem, mentioned only in Jer. 31:39. ......

GOB
a pit, a place mentioned in 2-Sam 21:18, 2-Sam 21: 19; called also Gezer, in 1-Chr 20:4. ......

GOBLET
a laver or trough for washing garments. In 7:2, 7: a bowl or drinking vessel, a bowl for mixing wine; in Exo 24:6, Exo 24: a sacrificial basin. (See CUP.) ......

GOD
(A.S. and Dutch God; Dan. Gud; Ger. Gott), the name of the Divine Being. It is the rendering (1) of the Hebrew _'El_, from a word meaning to be strong; (2) of _'Eloah_, plural _'Elohim_. The singular form, _Eloah_, is used only in poetry. The plural form is more commonly used in all parts of the Bible, The Hebrew word Jehovah (q.v.), the only other word generally employed to denote the Supreme Bei......

GODHEAD
(Acts 17:29; Rom. 1:20; Col. 2:9), the essential being or the nature of God. ......

GODLINESS
the whole of practical piety (1-Tim 4:8; 2-Pet 1:6). "It supposes knowledge, veneration, affection, dependence, submission, gratitude, and obedience." In 1-Tim 3:16 it denotes the substance of revealed religion. ......

GOEL
in Hebrew the participle of the verb _gaal_, "to redeem." It is rendered in the Authorized Version "kinsman," Num. 5:8; Ruth 3:12;4:1, 4:6, 4:8; "redeemer," Job 19:25; "avenger," Num. 35:12; Deut. 19:6, Deut. 19: etc. The Jewish law gave the right of redeeming and repurchasing, as well as of avenging blood, to the next relative, who was accordingly called by this name. (See REDEEMER.) ......

GOG
(1.) A Reubenite (1-Chr 5:4), the father of Shimei. (2.) The name of the leader of the hostile party described in Ezek. 38,39, as coming from the "north country" and assailing the people of Israel to their own destruction. This prophecy has been regarded as fulfilled in the conflicts of the Maccabees with Antiochus, the invasion and overthrow of the Chaldeans, and the temporary successes and des......

GOLAN
exile, a city of Bashan (Deut. 4:43), one of the three cities of refuge east of Jordan, about 12 miles north-east of the Sea of Galilee (Josh. 20:8). There are no further notices of it in Scripture. It became the head of the province of Gaulanitis, one of the four provinces into which Bashan was divided after the Babylonish captivity, and almost identical with the modern Jaulan, in Western Hauran,......

GOLD
(1.) Heb. zahab, so called from its yellow colour (Exo 25:11; 1-Chr 28:18; 2-Chr 3:5). (2.) Heb. segor, from its compactness, or as being enclosed or treasured up; thus precious or "fine gold" (1-Kings 6:20;7:49). (3.) Heb. paz, native or pure gold (Job 28:17; Psa 19:10;21:3, 21: etc.). (4.) Heb. betzer, "ore of gold or silver" as dug out of the mine (Job 36:19, Job 36: where it means simply......

GOLDEN CALF
(Exo 32:4, Exo 32:8; Deut. 9:16; Neh. 9:18). This was a molten image of a calf which the idolatrous Israelites formed at Sinai. This symbol was borrowed from the custom of the Egyptians. It was destroyed at the command of Moses (Exo 32:20). (See AARON; MOSES.) ......

GOLDSMITH
(Neh. 3:8, Neh. 3:32; Isa. 40:19;41:7;46:6). The word so rendered means properly a founder or finer. ......

GOLGOTHA
the common name of the spot where Jesus was crucified. It is interpreted by the evangelists as meaning "the place of a skull" (Matt. 27:33; Mark 15:22; John 19:17). This name represents in Greek letters the Aramaic word Gulgaltha, which is the Hebrew Gulgoleth (Num. 1:2; 1-Chr 23:3, 1-Chr 23: 24; 2-Kings 9:35), meaning "a skull." It is identical with the word Calvary (q.v.). It was a little knoll ......

GOLIATH
great. (1.) A famous giant of Gath, who for forty days openly defied the armies of Israel, but was at length slain by David with a stone from a sling (1-Sam 17:4). He was probably descended from the Rephaim who found refuge among the Philistines after they were dispersed by the Ammonites (Deut. 2:20, Deut. 2: 21). His height was "six cubits and a span," which, taking the cubit at 21 inches, is equ......

GOMER
complete; vanishing. (1.) The daughter of Diblaim, who (probably in vision only) became the wife of Hosea (1:3). (2.) The eldest son of Japheth, and father of Ashkenaz, Riphath, and Togarmah (Gen. 10:2, Gen. 10: 3), whose descendants formed the principal branch of the population of South-eastern Europe. He is generally regarded as the ancestor of the Celtae and the Cimmerii, who in early times s......

GOMORRAH
submersion, one of the five cities of the plain of Siddim (q.v.) which were destroyed by fire (Gen. 10:19;13:10;19:24, 19: 28). These cities probably stood close together, and were near the northern extremity of what is now the Dead Sea. This city is always mentioned next after Sodom, both of which were types of impiety and wickedness (Gen. 18:20; Rom. 9:29). Their destruction is mentioned as an "......

GOODLY TREES
boughs of, were to be carried in festive procession on the first day of the feast of Tabernacles (Lev. 23:40). This was probably the olive tree (Neh. 8:15), although no special tree is mentioned. ......

GOODNESS
in man is not a mere passive quality, but the deliberate preference of right to wrong, the firm and persistent resistance of all moral evil, and the choosing and following of all moral good. ......

GOODNESS OF GOD
a perfection of his character which he exercises towards his creatures according to their various circumstances and relations (Psa 145:8, Psa 145: 9;103:8; 1-John 4:8). Viewed generally, it is benevolence; as exercised with respect to the miseries of his creatures it is mercy, pity, compassion, and in the case of impenitent sinners, long-suffering patience; as exercised in communicating favour on ......

GOPHER
a tree from the wood of which Noah was directed to build the ark (Gen. 6:14). It is mentioned only there. The LXX. render this word by "squared beams," and the Vulgate by "planed wood." Other versions have rendered it "pine" and "cedar;" but the weight of authority is in favour of understanding by it the cypress tree, which grows abundantly in Chaldea and Armenia. ......

GOSHEN
(1.) A district in Egypt where Jacob and his family settled, and in which they remained till the Exodus (Gen. 45:10;46:28, 46: 29, 31, etc.). It is called "the land of Goshen" (7:27), and also simply "Goshen" (6:28), and "the land of Rameses" (7:11; Exo 12:37), for the towns Pithom and Rameses lay within its borders; also Zoan or Tanis (Psa 78:12). It lay on the east of the Nile, and apparently no......

GOSPEL
a word of Anglo-Saxon origin, and meaning "God's spell", i.e., word of God, or rather, according to others, "good spell", i.e., good news. It is the rendering of the Greek _evangelion_, i.e., "good message." It denotes (1) "the welcome intelligence of salvation to man as preached by our Lord and his followers. (2.) It was afterwards transitively applied to each of the four histories of our Lord's ......

GOSPELS
The central fact of Christian preaching was the intelligence that the Saviour had come into the world (Matt. 4:23; Rom. 10:15); and the first Christian preachers who called their account of the person and mission of Christ by the term _evangelion_ (= good message) were called _evangelistai_ (= evangelists) (Eph. 4:11; Acts 21:8). There are four historical accounts of the person and work of Chris......

GOURD
(1.) Jonah's gourd (Jonah 4:6), bearing the Hebrew name _kikayon_ (found only here), was probably the kiki of the Egyptians, the croton. This is the castor-oil plant, a species of ricinus, the palma Christi, so called from the palmate division of its leaves. Others with more probability regard it as the cucurbita the el-keroa of the Arabs, a kind of pumpkin peculiar to the East. "It is grown in gr......

GOVERNMENT OF GOD
See PROVIDENCE. ......

GOVERNMENTS
(1-Cor 12:28), the powers which fit a man for a place of influence in the church; "the steersman's art; the art of guiding aright the vessel of church or state." ......

GOVERNOR
(1.) Heb. nagid, a prominent, conspicuous person, whatever his capacity: as, chief of the royal palace (2-Chr 28:7; comp. 1-Kings 4:6), chief of the temple (1-Chr 9:11; Jer. 20:1), the leader of the Aaronites (1-Chr 12:27), keeper of the sacred treasury (26:24), captain of the army (13:1), the king (1-Sam 9:16), the Messiah (Dan. 9:25). (2.) Heb. nasi, raised; exalted. Used to denote the chiefs ......

GOZAN
a region in Central Asia to which the Israelites were carried away captive (2-Kings 17:6; 1-Chr 5:26; 2-Kings 19:12; Isa. 37:12). It was situated in Mesopotamia, on the river Habor (2-Kings 17:6;18:11), the Khabur, a tributary of the Euphrates. The "river of Gozan" (1-Chr 5:26) is probably the upper part of the river flowing through the province of Gozan, now Kizzel-Ozan. ......

GRACE
(1.) Of form or person (Prov. 1:9;3:22; Psa 45:2). (2.) Favour, kindness, friendship (Gen. 6:8;18:3;19:19; 2-Tim 1:9). (3.) God's forgiving mercy (Rom. 11:6; Eph. 2:5). (4.) The gospel as distinguished from the law (John 1:17; Rom. 6:14; 1-Pet 5:12). (5.) Gifts freely bestowed by God; as miracles, prophecy, tongues (Rom. 15:15; 1-Cor 15:10; Eph. 3:8). (6.) Christian virtues (2-Cor 8:7; 2-Pet 3:18)......

GRACE, MEANS OF
an expression not used in Scripture, but employed (1) to denote those institutions ordained by God to be the ordinary channels of grace to the souls of men. These are the Word, Sacraments, and Prayer. (2.) But in popular language the expression is used in a wider sense to denote those exercises in which we engage for the purpose of obtaining spiritual blessing; as hearing the gospel, reading the......

GRAFT
the process of inoculating fruit-trees (Rom. 11:17). It is peculiarly appropriate to olive-trees. The union thus of branches to a stem is used to illustrate the union of true believers to the true Church. ......

GRAIN
used, in Amos 9:9, Amos 9: of a small stone or kernel; in Matt. 13:31, Matt. 13: of an individual seed of mustard; in John 12:24, John 12: 1-Cor 15:37, 1-Cor 15: of wheat. The Hebrews sowed only wheat, barley, and spelt; rye and oats are not mentioned in Scripture. ......

GRAPE
the fruit of the vine, which was extensively cultivated in Palestine. Grapes are spoken of as "tender" (2:13, 2: 15), "unripe" (Job 15:33), "sour" (Isa. 18:5), "wild" (Isa. 5:2, Isa. 5:4). (See Rev. 14:18; Micah 7:1; Jer. 6:9; Ezek. 18:2, Ezek. 18: for figurative use of the word.) (See VINE.) ......

GRASS
(1.) Heb. hatsir, ripe grass fit for mowing (1-Kings 18:5; Job 40:15; Psa 104:14). As the herbage rapidly fades under the scorching sun, it is used as an image of the brevity of human life (Isa. 40:6, Isa. 40: 7; Psa 90:5). In Num. 11:5 this word is rendered "leeks." (2.) Heb. deshe', green grass (Gen. 1:11, Gen. 1: 12; Isa. 66:14; Deut. 32:2). "The sickly and forced blades of grass which spring......

GRASSHOPPER
belongs to the class of neuropterous insects called Gryllidae. This insect is not unknown in Palestine. In Judg. 6:5;7:12; Job 39:30; Jer. 46:23, Jer. 46: where the Authorized Version has "grasshopper," the Revised Version more correctly renders the Hebrew word ('arbeh) by "locust." This is the case also in Amos 7:1; Nah. 3:17, Nah. 3: where the Hebrew word _gob_ is used; and in Lev. 11:22; Num.......

GRATE
a network of brass for the bottom of the great altar of sacrifice (Exo 27:4;35:16;38:4, 38: 5, 30). ......

GRAVE
Among the ancient Hebrews graves were outside of cities in the open field (Luke 7:12; John 11:30). Kings (1-Kings 2:10) and prophets (1-Sam 25:1) were generally buried within cities. Graves were generally grottoes or caves, natural or hewn out in rocks (Isa. 22:16; Matt. 27:60). There were family cemeteries (Gen. 47:29;50:5; 2-Sam 19:37). Public burial-places were assigned to the poor (Jer. 26:23;......

GRAVEN IMAGE
Deut. 27:15; Psa 97:7 (Heb. pesel), refers to the household gods of idolaters. "Every nation and city had its own gods...Yet every family had its separate household or tutelary god." ......

GRAVING
(1.) Heb. hatsabh. Job 19:24, Job 19: rendered "graven," but generally means hewn stone or wood, in quarry or forest. (2.) Heb. harush. Jer. 17:1, Jer. 17: rendered "graven," and indicates generally artistic work in metal, wood, and stone, effected by fine instruments. (3.) Heb. haqaq. Ezek. 4:1, Ezek. 4: engraving a plan or map, rendered "pourtray;" Job 19:23, Job 19: "written." (4.) Heb. p......

GREAVES
only in 1-Sam 17:6, 1-Sam 17: a piece of defensive armour (q.v.) reaching from the foot to the knee; from French greve, "the shin." They were the Roman cothurni. ......

GRECIANS
Hellenists, Greek-Jews; Jews born in a foreign country, and thus did not speak Hebrew (Acts 6:1;9:29), nor join in the Hebrew services of the Jews in Palestine, but had synagogues of their own in Jerusalem. Joel 3:6 =Greeks.......

GREECE
orginally consisted of the four provinces of Macedonia, Epirus, Achaia, and Peleponnesus. In Acts 20:2 it designates only the Roman province of Macedonia. Greece was conquered by the Romans B.C. 146. After passing through various changes it was erected into an independent monarchy in 1831. Moses makes mention of Greece under the name of Javan (Gen. 10:2); and this name does not again occur in th......

GREEK
Found only in the New Testament, where a distinction is observed between "Greek" and "Grecian" (q.v.). The former is (1) a Greek by race (Acts 16:1;18:17; Rom. 1:14), or (2) a Gentile as opposed to a Jew (Rom. 2:9, Rom. 2: 10). The latter, meaning properly "one who speaks Greek," is a foreign Jew opposed to a home Jew who dwelt in Palestine. The word "Grecians" in Acts 11:20 should be "Greeks," ......

GREYHOUND
(Prov. 30:31), the rendering of the Hebrew _zarzir mothnayim_, meaning literally "girded as to the lions." Some (Gesen.; R.V. marg.) render it "war-horse." The LXX. and Vulgate versions render it "cock." It has been by some interpreters rendered also "stag" and "warrior," as being girded about or panoplied, and "wrestler." The greyhound, however, was evidently known in ancient times, as appears fr......

GRIND
(Exo 32:20; Deut. 9:21; Judg. 16:21), to crush small (Heb. tahan); to oppress the poor (Isa. 3:5). The hand-mill was early used by the Hebrews (Num. 11:8). It consisted of two stones, the upper (Deut. 24:6; 2-Sam 11:21) being movable and slightly concave, the lower being stationary. The grinders mentioned Eccl. 12:3 are the teeth. (See MILL.)......

GRIZZLED
party-coloured, as goats (Gen. 31:10, Gen. 31: 12), horses (Zech. 6:3, Zech. 6: 6).......

GROVE
(1.) Heb. 'asherah, properly a wooden image, or a pillar representing Ashtoreth, a sensual Canaanitish goddess, probably usually set up in a grove (2-Kings 21:7;23:4). In the Revised Version the word "Asherah" (q.v.) is introduced as a proper noun, the name of the wooden symbol of a goddess, with the plurals Asherim (Exo 34:13) and Asheroth (Judg. 3:13). The LXX. have rendered _asherah_ in 2-Chr......

GUARD
(1.) Heb. tabbah (properly a "cook," and in a secondary sense "executioner," because this office fell to the lot of the cook in Eastern countries), the bodyguard of the kings of Egypt (Gen. 37:36) and Babylon (2-Kings 25:8; Jer. 40:1; Dan. 2:14). (2.) Heb. rats, properly a "courier," one whose office was to run before the king's chariot (2-Sam 15:1; 1-Kings 1:5). The couriers were also military ......

GUEST-CHAMBER
the spare room on the upper floor of an Eastern dwelling (Mark 14:14; Luke 22:11). In Luke 2:7 the word is translated "inn" (q.v.).......

GUR
a whelp, a place near Ibleam where Jehu's servants overtook and mortally wounded king Ahaziah (2-Kings 9:27); an ascent from the plain of Jezreel.......

GUR-BAAL
sojourn of Baal, a place in Arabia (2-Chr 26:7) where there was probably a temple of Baal.......

GUTTER
Heb. tsinnor, (2-Sam 5:8). This Hebrew word occurs only elsewhere in Psa 42:7 in the plural, where it is rendered "waterspouts." It denotes some passage through which water passed; a water-course. In Gen. 30:38, Gen. 30: 41 the Hebrew word rendered "gutters" is _rahat_, and denotes vessels overflowing with water for cattle (Exo 2:16); drinking-troughs.......

HABAKKUK
embrace, the eighth of the twelve minor prophets. Of his personal history we have no reliable information. He was probably a member of the Levitical choir. He was contemporary with Jeremiah and Zephaniah.......

HABAKKUK, PROPHECIES OF
were probably written about B.C. 650-627, or, as some think, a few years later. This book consists of three chapters, the contents of which are thus comprehensively described: "When the prophet in spirit saw the formidable power of the Chaldeans approaching and menacing his land, and saw the great evils they would cause in Judea, he bore his complaints and doubts before Jehovah, the just and the p......

HABERGEON
an Old English word for breastplate. In Job 41:26 (Heb. shiryah) it is properly a "coat of mail;" the Revised Version has "pointed shaft." In Exo 28:32, Exo 28:39:23, 39: it denotes a military garment strongly and thickly woven and covered with mail round the neck and breast. Such linen corselets have been found in Egypt. The word used in these verses is _tahra_, which is of Egyptian origin. The R......

HABITATION
God is the habitation of his people, who find rest and safety in him (Psa 71:3;91:9). Justice and judgment are the habitation of God's throne (Psa 89:14, Psa 89: Heb. mekhon, "foundation"), because all his acts are founded on justice and judgment. (See Psa 132:5, Psa 132: 13; Eph. 2:22, Eph. 2: of Canaan, Jerusalem, and the temple as God's habitation.) God inhabits eternity (Isa. 57:15), i.e., dwe......

HABOR
the united stream, or, according to others, with beautiful banks, the name of a river in Assyria, and also of the district through which it flowed (1-Chr 5:26). There is a river called Khabur which rises in the central highlands of Kurdistan, and flows south-west till it falls into the Tigris, about 70 miles above Mosul. This was not, however, the Habor of Scripture. There is another river of th......

HACHILAH
the darksome hill, one of the peaks of the long ridge of el-Kolah, running out of the Ziph plateau, "on the south of Jeshimon" (i.e., of the "waste"), the district to which one looks down from the plateau of Ziph (1-Sam 23:19). After his reconciliation with Saul at Engedi (24:1), David returned to Hachilah, where he had fixed his quarters. The Ziphites treacherously informed Saul of this, and he i......

HADAD
Adod, brave(?), the name of a Syrian god. (1.) An Edomite king who defeated the Midianites (Gen. 36:35; 1-Chr 1:46). (2.) Another Edomite king (1-Chr 1:50, 1-Chr 1: 51), called also Hadar (Gen. 36:39; 1-Chr 1:51). (3.) One of "the king's seed in Edom." He fled into Egypt, where he married the sister of Pharaoh's wife (1-Kings 11:14). He became one of Solomon's adversaries. Hadad, sharp, (a d......

HADAD-RIMMON
(composed of the names of two Syrian idols), the name of a place in the valley of Megiddo. It is alluded to by the prophet Zechariah (12:11) in a proverbial expression derived from the lamentation for Josiah, who was mortally wounded near this place (2-Chr 35:22). It has been identified with the modern Rummaneh, a village "at the foot of the Megiddo hills, in a notch or valley about an hour and a ......

HADADEZER
Hadad is help; called also Hadarezer, Adod is his help, the king of Zobah. Hanun, the king of the Ammonites, hired among others the army of Hadadezer to assist him in his war against David. Joab, who was sent against this confederate host, found them in double battle array, the Ammonities toward their capital of Rabbah, and the Syrian mercenaries near Medeba. In the battle which was fought the Syr......

HADAR
Adod, brave(?). (1.) A son of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15); in 1-Chr 1:30 written Hadad. (2.) One of the Edomitish kings (Gen. 36:39) about the time of Saul. Called also Hadad (1-Chr 1:50, 1-Chr 1: 51). It is probable that in these cases Hadar may be an error simply of transcription for Hadad.......

HADAREZER
Adod is his help, the name given to Hadadezer (2-Sam 8:3) in 2 Sam. 10.......

HADASHAH
new, a city in the valley of Judah (Josh. 15:37).......

HADASSAH
myrtle, the Jewish name of Esther (q.v.), Esther 2:7.......

HADATTAH
new, one of the towns in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:25).......

HADES
that which is out of sight, a Greek word used to denote the state or place of the dead. All the dead alike go into this place. To be buried, to go down to the grave, to descend into hades, are equivalent expressions. In the LXX. this word is the usual rendering of the Hebrew sheol, the common receptacle of the departed (Gen. 42:38; Psa 139:8; Hos. 13:14; Isa. 14:9). This term is of comparatively r......

HADID
pointed, a place in the tribe of Benjamin near Lydda, or Lod, and Ono (Ezra 2:33; Neh. 7:37). It is identified with the modern el-Haditheh, 3 miles east of Lydda.......

HADLAI
resting, an Ephraimite; the father of Amasa, mentioned in 2-Chr 28:12.......

HADORAM
is exalted. (1.) The son of Tou, king of Hamath, sent by his father to congratulate David on his victory over Hadarezer, king of Syria (1-Chr 18:10; called Joram 2-Sam 8:10). (2.) The fifth son of Joktan, the founder of an Arab tribe (Gen. 10:27; 1-Chr 1:21). (3.) One who was "over the tribute;" i.e., "over the levy." He was stoned by the Israelites after they had revolted from Rehoboam (2-Chr......

HADRACH
the name of a country (Zech. 9:1) which cannot be identified. Rawlinson would identify it with Edessa. He mentions that in the Assyrian inscriptions it is recorded that "Shalmanezer III. made two expeditions, the first against Damascus B.C. 773, and the second against Hadrach B.C. 772; and again that Asshurdanin-il II. made expeditions against Hadrach in B.C. 765 and 755."......

HAEMORRHOIDS
or Emerods, bleeding piles known to the ancient Romans as mariscae, but more probably malignant boils of an infectious and fatal character. With this loathsome and infectious disease the men of Ashdod were smitten by the hand of the Lord. This calamity they attributed to the presence of the ark in their midst, and therefore they removed it to Gath (1-Sam 5:6). But the same consequences followed fr......

HAFT
a handle as of a dagger (Judg. 3:22).......

HAGAR
flight, or, according to others, stranger, an Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid (Gen. 16:1;21:9, 21: 10), whom she gave to Abraham (q.v.) as a secondary wife (16:2). When she was about to become a mother she fled from the cruelty of her mistress, intending apparently to return to her relatives in Egypt, through the desert of Shur, which lay between. Wearied and worn she had reached the place she distingu......

HAGARENE
or Hagarite. (1.) One of David's mighty men (1-Chr 11:38), the son of a foreigner. (2.) Used of Jaziz (1-Chr 27:31), who was over David's flocks. "A Hagarite had charge of David's flocks, and an Ishmaelite of his herds, because the animals were pastured in districts where these nomadic people were accustomed to feed their cattle." (3.) In the reign of Saul a great war was waged between the tra......

HAGGAI
festive, one of the twelve so-called minor prophets. He was the first of the three (Zechariah, his contemporary, and Malachi, who was about one hundred years later, being the other two) whose ministry belonged to the period of Jewish history which began after the return from captivity in Babylon. Scarcely anything is known of his personal history. He may have been one of the captives taken to Baby......

HAGGAI, BOOK OF
consists of two brief, comprehensive chapters. The object of the prophet was generally to urge the people to proceed with the rebuilding of the temple. Chapter first comprehends the first address (2-11) and its effects (12-15). Chapter second contains, (1.) The second prophecy (1-9), which was delivered a month after the first. (2.) The third prophecy (10-19), delivered two months and three ......

HAGGITH
festive; the dancer, a wife of David and the mother of Adonijah (2-Sam 3:4; 1-Kings 1:5, 1-Kings 1: 11;2:13; 1-Chr 3:2), who, like Absalom, was famed for his beauty.......

HAGIOGRAPHA
the holy writings, a term which came early into use in the Christian church to denote the third division of the Old Testament scriptures, called by the Jews Kethubim, i.e., "Writings." It consisted of five books, viz., Job, Proverbs, and Psalms, and the two books of Chronicles. The ancient Jews classified their sacred books as the Law, the Prophets, and the Kethubim, or Writings. (See BIBLE.) In......

HAIL
frozen rain-drops; one of the plagues of Egypt (Exo 9:23). It is mentioned by Haggai as a divine judgment (Hag. 2:17). A hail-storm destroyed the army of the Amorites when they fought against Joshua (Josh. 10:11). Ezekiel represents the wall daubed with untempered mortar as destroyed by great hail-stones (Ezek. 13:11). (See 38:22; Rev. 8:7;11:19;16:21.)......

HAIL!
a salutation expressive of a wish for the welfare of the person addressed; the translation of the Greek _Chaire_, "Rejoice" (Luke 1:8). Used in mockery in Matt. 27:29.......

HAIR
(1.) The Egyptians let the hair of their head and beard grow only when they were in mourning, shaving it off at other times. "So particular were they on this point that to have neglected it was a subject of reproach and ridicule; and whenever they intended to convey the idea of a man of low condition, or a slovenly person, the artists represented him with a beard." Joseph shaved himself before goi......

HAKKOZ
the thorn, the head of one of the courses of the priests (1-Chr 24:10).......

HALAH
a district of Media to which captive Israelites were transported by the Assyrian kings (2-Kings 17:6;18:11; 1-Chr 5:26). It lay along the banks of the upper Khabur, from its source to its junction with the Jerujer. Probably the district called by Ptolemy Chalcitis.......

HALAK
smooth; bald, a hill at the southern extremity of Canaan (Josh. 11:17). It is referred to as if it were a landmark in that direction, being prominent and conspicuous from a distance. It has by some been identified with the modern Jebel el-Madura, on the south frontier of Judah, between the south end of the Dead Sea and the Wady Gaian.......

HALHUL
full of hollows, a town in the highlands of Judah (Josh. 15:58). It is now a small village of the same name, and is situated about 5 miles north-east of Hebron on the way to Jerusalem. There is an old Jewish tradition that Gad, David's seer (2-Sam 24:11), was buried here.......

HALL
(Gr. aule, Luke 22:55; R.V., "court"), the open court or quadrangle belonging to the high priest's house. In Matt. 26:69 and Mark 14:66 this word is incorrectly rendered "palace" in the Authorized Version, but correctly "court" in the Revised Version. In John 10:1, John 10:16 it means a "sheep-fold." In Matt. 27:27 and Mark 15:16 (A.V., "common hall;" R.V., "palace") it refers to the proetorium or......

HALLEL
praise, the name given to the group of Psalms 113-118, which are preeminently psalms of praise. It is called "The Egyptian Hallel," because it was chanted in the temple whilst the Passover lambs were being slain. It was chanted also on other festival occasions, as at Pentecost, the feast of Tabernacles, and the feast of Dedication. The Levites, standing before the altar, chanted it verse by verse,......

HALLELUJAH
praise ye Jehovah, frequently rendered "Praise ye the LORD," stands at the beginning of ten of the psalms (106, 111-113, 135, 146-150), hence called "hallelujah psalms." From its frequent occurrence it grew into a formula of praise. The Greek form of the word (alleluia) is found in Rev. 19:1, Rev. 19: 3, 4, 6.......

HALLOW
to render sacred, to consecrate (Exo 28:38;29:1). This word is from the Saxon, and properly means "to make holy." The name of God is "hallowed", i.e., is reverenced as holy (Matt. 6:9).......

HALT
lame on the feet (Gen. 32:31; Psa 38:17). To "halt between two opinions" (1-Kings 18:21) is supposed by some to be an expression used in "allusion to birds, which hop from spray to spray, forwards and backwards." The LXX. render the expression "How long go ye lame on both knees?" The Hebrew verb rendered "halt" is used of the irregular dance ("leaped upon") around the altar (ver. 26). It indicates......

HAM
warm, hot, and hence the south; also an Egyptian word meaning "black", the youngest son of Noah (Gen. 5:32; 9:22, 9:24). The curse pronounced by Noah against Ham, properly against Canaan his fourth son, was accomplished when the Jews subsequently exterminated the Canaanites. One of the most important facts recorded in Gen. 10 is the foundation of the earliest monarchy in Babylonia by Nimrod the ......

HAMAN
(of Persian origin), magnificent, the name of the vizier (i.e., the prime minister) of the Persian king Ahasuerus (Esther 3:1, Esther 3: etc.). He is called an "Agagite," which seems to denote that he was descended from the royal family of the Amalekites, the bitterest enemies of the Jews, as Agag was one of the titles of the Amalekite kings. He or his parents were brought to Persia as captives ta......

HAMATH
fortress, the capital of one of the kingdoms of Upper Syria of the same name, on the Orontes, in the valley of Lebanon, at the northern boundary of Palestine (Num. 13:21;34:8), at the foot of Hermon (Josh. 13:5) towards Damascus (Zech. 9:2; Jer. 49:23). It is called "Hamath the great" in Amos 6:2, Amos 6: and "Hamath-zobah" in 2-Chr 8:3. Hamath, now Hamah, had an Aramaean population, but Hittite......

HAMATH-ZOBAH
fortress of Zobah, (2-Chr 8:3) is supposed by some to be a different place from the foregoing; but this is quite uncertain.......

HAMMATH
warm springs, one of the "fenced cities" of Naphtali (Josh. 19:35). It is identified with the warm baths (the heat of the water ranging from 136 degrees to 144 degrees) still found on the shore a little to the south of Tiberias under the name of Hummam Tabariyeh ("Bath of Tiberias").......

HAMMEDATHA
father of Haman, designated usually "the Agagite" (Esther 3:1, Esther 3: 10;8:5).......

HAMMELECH
the king's, the father of Jerahmeel, mentioned in Jer. 36:26. Some take this word as a common noun, "the king", and understand that Jerahmeel was Jehoiakim's son. Probably, however, it is to be taken as a proper name.......

HAMMER
(1.) Heb. pattish, used by gold-beaters (Isa. 41:7) and by quarry-men (Jer. 23:29). Metaphorically of Babylon (Jer. 50:23) or Nebuchadnezzar. (2.) Heb. makabah, a stone-cutter's mallet (1-Kings 6:7), or of any workman (Judg. 4:21; Isa. 44:12). (3.) Heb. halmuth, a poetical word for a workman's hammer, found only in Judg. 5:26, Judg. 5: where it denotes the mallet with which the pins of the ten......

HAMMOLEKETH
the queen, the daughter of Machir and sister of Gilead (1-Chr 7:17, 1-Chr 7: 18). Abiezer was one of her three children.......

HAMMON
warm springs. (1.) A town in the tribe of Asher, near Zidon (Josh. 19:28), identified with 'Ain Hamul. (2.) A Levitical city of Naphtali (1-Chr 6:76).......

HAMMOTH-DOR
warm springs, a Levitical city of Naphtali (Josh. 21:32); probably Hammath 19:35.......

HAMON
See BAAL-HAMON.......

HAMON-GOG
multitude of Gog, the name of the valley in which the slaughtered forces of Gog are to be buried (Ezek. 39:11, Ezek. 39:15), "the valley of the passengers on the east of the sea."......

HAMONAH
multitude, a name figuratively assigned to the place in which the slaughter and burial of the forces of Gog were to take place (Ezek. 39:16).......

HAMOR
he-ass, a Hivite from whom Jacob purchased the plot of ground in which Joseph was afterwards buried (Gen. 33:19). He is called "Emmor" in Acts 7:16. His son Shechem founded the city of that name which Simeon and Levi destroyed because of his crime in the matter of Dinah, Jacob's daughter (Gen. 34:20). Hamor and Shechem were also slain (ver. 26).......

HAMUL
spared, one of the sons of Pharez, son of Judah (1-Chr 2:5). His descendants are called Hamulites (Num. 26:21).......

HAMUTAL
kinsman of the dew, the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah, wife of king Josiah, and mother of king Jehoahaz (2-Kings 23:31), also of king Zedekiah (2-Kings 24:18).......

HANAMEEL
whom God has graciously given, the cousin of Jeremiah, to whom he sold the field he possessed in Anathoth, before the siege of Jerusalem (Jer. 32:6).......

HANAN
merciful. (1.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 8:23). (2.) One of David's heroes (1-Chr 11:43). (3.) Jer. 35:4. (4.) A descendant of Saul (1-Chr 8:38). (5.) One of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:46). (6.) One of the Levites who assisted Ezra (Neh. 8:7). (7.) One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant (Neh. 10:22).......

HANANEEL
God has graciously given, a tower in the wall of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:1;12:39). It is mentioned also in Jer. 31:38; Zech. 14:10.......

HANANI
God has gratified me, or is gracious. (1.) One of the sons of Heman (1-Chr 25:4, 1-Chr 25: 25). (2.) A prophet who was sent to rebuke king Asa for entering into a league with Benhadad I., king of Syria, against Judah (2-Chr 16:1). He was probably the father of the prophet Jehu (1-Kings 16:7). (3.) Probably a brother of Nehemiah (Neh. 1:2;7:2), who reported to him the melancholy condition of Jerusa......

HANANIAH
Jehovah has given. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1-Chr 8:24). (2.) One of the sons of Heman (1-Chr 25:4, 1-Chr 25:23). (3.) One of Uzziah's military officers (2-Chr 26:11). (4.) Grandfather of the captain who arrested Jeremiah (Jer. 37:13). (5.) Jer. 36:12. (6.) Neh. 10:23. (7.) Shadrach, one of the "three Hebrew children" (Dan. 1;6:7). (8.) Son of Zerubbabel (1-Chr 3:19, 1-Chr 3: 21). (9......

HAND
Called by Galen "the instrument of instruments." It is the symbol of human action (Psa 9:16; Job 9:30; Isa. 1:15; 1-Tim 2:8). Washing the hands was a symbol of innocence (Psa 26:6;73:13; Matt. 27:24), also of sanctification (1-Cor 6:11; Isa. 51:16; Psa 24:3, Psa 24: 4). In Psa 77:2 the correct rendering is, as in the Revised Version, "My hand was stretched out," etc., instead of, as in the Authori......

HANDBREADTH
a measure of four fingers, equal to about four inches (Exo 25:25;37:12; Psa 39:5, Psa 39: etc.).......

HANDKERCHIEF
Only once in Authorized Version (Acts 19:12). The Greek word (sudarion) so rendered means properly "a sweat-cloth." It is rendered "napkin" in John 11:44;20:7; Luke 19:20.......

HANDMAID
servant (Gen. 16:1; Ruth 3:9; Luke 1:48). It is probable that Hagar was Sarah's personal attendant while she was in the house of Pharaoh, and was among those maid-servants whom Abram had brought from Egypt.......

HANDWRITING
(Col. 2:14). The "blotting out the handwriting" is the removal by the grace of the gospel of the condemnation of the law which we had broken.......

HANES
a place in Egypt mentioned only in Isa. 30:4 in connection with a reproof given to the Jews for trusting in Egypt. It was considered the same as Tahpanhes, a fortified town on the eastern frontier, but has been also identified as Ahnas-el-Medeeneh, 70 miles from Cairo.......

HANGING
(as a punishment), a mark of infamy inflicted on the dead bodies of criminals (Deut. 21:23) rather than our modern mode of punishment. Criminals were first strangled and then hanged (Nu. 25:4; Deut. 21:22). (See 2-Sam 21:6 for the practice of the Gibeonites.) Hanging (as a curtain). (1.) Heb. masak, (a) before the entrance to the court of the tabernacle (Exo 35:17); (b) before the door of the ta......

HANNAH
favour, grace, one of the wives of Elkanah the Levite, and the mother of Samuel (1 Sam. 1; 2). Her home was at Ramathaim-zophim, whence she was wont every year to go to Shiloh, where the tabernacle had been pitched by Joshua, to attend the offering of sacrifices there according to the law (Exo 23:15;34:18; Deut. 16:16), probably at the feast of the Passover (comp. Exo 13:10). On occasion of one of......

HANNIEL
grace of God. (1.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh (Num. 34:23). (2.) A chief of the tribe of Asher (1-Chr 7:39).......

HANUN
graciously given. (1.) The son and successor of Nahash, king of Moab. David's messengers, sent on an embassy of condolence to him to Rabbah Ammon, his capital, were so grossly insulted that he proclaimed war against Hanun. David's army, under the command of Joab, forthwith crossed the Jordan, and gained a complete victory over the Moabites and their allies (2-Sam 10:1) at Medeba (q.v.). (2.) Neh......

HARA
mountainous land, a province of Assyria (1-Chr 5:26), between the Tigris and the Euphrates, along the banks of the Khabur, to which some of the Israelite captives were carried. It has not been identified. Some think the word a variation of Haran.......

HARADAH
fright; fear, the twenty-fifth station of the Israelites in their wanderings (Num. 33:24).......

HARAN
(1.) Heb. haran; i.e., "mountaineer." The eldest son of Terah, brother of Abraham and Nahor, and father of Lot, Milcah, and Iscah. He died before his father (Gen. 11:27), in Ur of the Chaldees. (2.) Heb. haran, i.e., "parched;" or probably from the Accadian charana, meaning "a road." A celebrated city of Western Asia, now Harran, where Abram remained, after he left Ur of the Chaldees, till his f......

HARBONA
(a Persian word meaning "ass-driver"), one of the seven eunuchs or chamberlains of king Ahasuerus (Esther 1:10;7:9).......

HARE
(Heb. 'arnebeth) was prohibited as food according to the Mosaic law (Lev. 11:6; Deut. 14:7), "because he cheweth the cud, but divideth not the hoof." The habit of this animal is to grind its teeth and move its jaw as if it actually chewed the cud. But, like the cony (q.v.), it is not a ruminant with four stomachs, but a rodent like the squirrel, rat, etc. Moses speaks of it according to appearance......

HARETH
thicket, a wood in the mountains of Judah where David hid when pursued by Saul (1-Sam 22:5). It was possibly while he was here that the memorable incident narrated in 2-Sam 23:14, 2-Sam 23: 1-Chr 11:16 occurred. This place has not been identified, but perhaps it may be the modern Kharas, on the borders of the chain of mountains some 3 miles east of Keilah.......

HARHAIAH
zeal of Jehovah, (Neh. 3:8) "of the goldsmiths," one whose son helped to repair the wall of Jerusalem.......

HARHUR
fever, one of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:51).......

HARIM
flat-nosed. (1.) The head of the second course of priests (1-Chr 24:8). (2.) Ezra 2:32, Ezra 2: 39; Neh. 7:35, Neh. 7: 42. (3.) Neh. 3:11. (4.)12:3. (5.)10:5......

HARIPH
autumnal rain. (1.) Neh. 7:24. (2.)10:19.......

HARLOT
(1.) Heb. zonah (Gen. 34:31;38:15). In verses 21, 22 the Hebrew word used in _kedeshah_, i.e., a woman consecrated or devoted to prostitution in connection with the abominable worship of Asherah or Astarte, the Syrian Venus. This word is also used in Deut. 23:17; Hos. 4:14. Thus Tamar sat by the wayside as a consecrated kedeshah. It has been attempted to show that Rahab, usually called a "harlot......

HARNEPHER
a chief of the tribe of Asher (1-Chr 7:36).......

HARNESS
(1.) Heb. 'asar, "to bind;" hence the act of fastening animals to a cart (1-Sam 6:7, 1-Sam 6: 10; Jer. 46:4, Jer. 46: etc.). (2.) An Old English word for "armour;" Heb. neshek (2-Chr 9:24). (3.) Heb. shiryan, a coat of mail (1-Kings 22:34; 2-Chr 18:33; rendered "breastplate" in Isa. 59:17). (4.) The children of Israel passed out of Egypt "harnessed" (Exo 13:18), i.e., in an orderly manner, a......

HAROD
palpitation, a fountain near which Gideon and his army encamped on the morning of the day when they encountered and routed the Midianites (Judg. 7). It was south of the hill Moreh. The present 'Ain Jalud ("Goliath's Fountain"), south of Jezreel and nearly opposite Shunem, is probably the fountain here referred to (7:4, 7: 5).......

HARODITE
an epithet applied to two of David's heroes (2-Sam 23:25). (Comp. 1-Chr 11:27.)......

HAROSHETH OF THE GENTILES
(Judg. 4:2) or nations, a city near Hazor in Galilee of the Gentiles, or Upper Galilee, in the north of Palestine. It was here that Jabin's great army was marshalled before it went forth into the great battlefield of Esdraelon to encounter the army of Israel, by which it was routed and put to flight (Judg. 4). It was situated "at the entrance of the pass to Esdraelon from the plain of Acre" at the......

HARP
(Heb. kinnor), the national instrument of the Hebrews. It was invented by Jubal (Gen. 4:21). Some think the word _kinnor_ denotes the whole class of stringed instruments. It was used as an accompaniment to songs of cheerfulness as well as of praise to God (Gen. 31:27; 1-Sam 16:23; 2-Chr 20:28; Psa 33:2;137:2). In Solomon's time harps were made of almug-trees (1-Kings 10:11, 1-Kings 10: 12). In 1......

HARROW
(Heb. harits), a tribulum or sharp threshing sledge; a frame armed on the under side with rollers or sharp spikes (2-Sam 12:31; 1-Chr 20:3). Heb. verb _sadad_, to harrow a field, break its clods (Job 39:10; Isa. 28:4; Hos. 10:11). Its form is unknown. It may have resembled the instrument still in use in Egypt.......

HARSHA
worker or enchanter, one of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:52; Neh. 7:54).......

HART
(Heb. 'ayal), a stag or male deer. It is ranked among the clean animals (Deut. 12:15;14:5;15:22), and was commonly killed for food (1-Kings 4:23). The hart is frequently alluded to in the poetical and prophetical books (Isa. 35:6; 2:8, 2: 9; Lam. 1:6; Psa 42:1).......

HARUM
elevated, (1-Chr 4:8), a descendant of Judah.......

HARUPHITE
a native of Hariph; an epithet given to Shephatiah, one of those who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:5).......

HARUZ
eager, the father of Meshullemeth, the wife of king Manasseh (2-Kings 21:19) and mother of king Amon.......

HARVEST
the season for gathering grain or fruit. On the 16th day of Abib (or April) a handful of ripe ears of corn was offered as a first-fruit before the Lord, and immediately after this the harvest commenced (Lev. 23:9; 2-Sam 21:9, 2-Sam 21: 10; Ruth 2:23). It began with the feast of Passover and ended with Pentecost, thus lasting for seven weeks (Exo 23:16). The harvest was a season of joy (Psa 126:1; ......

HASADIAH
favoured by Jehovah, one of the sons of Pedaiah (1-Chr 3:20), of the royal line of David.......

HASENUAH
bristling or hated, a Benjamite (1-Chr 9:7).......

HASHABIAH
regarded by Jehovah. (1.) Merarite Levite (1-Chr 6:45;9:14). (2.) A son of Jeduthun (25:3, 25: 19). (3.) Son of Kemuel (26:30). (4.) One of the chief Levites (2-Chr 35:9). (5.) A Levite (Neh. 11:22). (6.) One of the chief priests in the time of Ezra (Ezra 8:24). (7.) A chief of the Levites (Neh. 12:24). (8.) Ezra 8:19. (9.) Neh. 3:17.......

HASHABNIAH
(1.) Neh. 3:10. (2.) One of the Levites whom Ezra appointed to interpret the law to the people (Neh. 9:5).......

HASHBADANA
consideration in judging, stood at Ezra's left hand when he read the law (Neh. 8:4).......

HASHMONAH
fatness, the thirtieth halting-place of the Israelites during their wanderings in the wilderness, not far from Mount Hor (Num. 33:29, Num. 33: 30).......

HASHUB
intelligent. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (Neh. 11:15; 1-Chr 9:14). (2.) Neh. 3:233:11.......

HASHUBAH
ibid., a descendant of David (1-Chr 3:20).......

HASHUM
opulent. (1.) Ezra 2:19; Neh. 7:22. (2.) Stood on Ezra's left hand while he read the law (Neh. 8:4).......

HASRAH
poverty, "keeper of the wardrobe," i.e., of the sacerdotal vestments (2-Chr 34:22); called Harhas 2-Kings 22:14. He was husband of the prophetess Huldah.......

HASUPHA
uncovered, one of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:43; Neh. 7:46).......

HAT
Chald. karb'ela, (Dan. 3:21), properly mantle or pallium. The Revised Version renders it "tunic."......

HATACH
verity, one of the eunuchs or chamberlains in the palace of Ahasuerus (Esther 4:5, Esther 4: 6, 9, 10).......

HATHATH
terror, son of Othniel (1-Chr 4:13).......

HATIPHA
captured, one of the Nethinim (Ezra 2:54).......

HATITA
exploration, one of the temple porters or janitors (Ezra 2:42). He returned from Babylon with Zerubbabel.......

HATRED
among the works of the flesh (Gal. 5:20). Altogether different is the meaning of the word in Deut. 21:15; Matt. 6:24; Luke 14:26; Rom. 9:13, Rom. 9: where it denotes only a less degree of love.......

HATTUSH
assembled. (1.) A priest who returned with Zerubbabel (Neh. 12:2). (2.) Ezra 8:2. (3.) Neh. 3:10. (4.) Neh. 10:4. (5.) 1-Chr 3:22.......

HAURAN
cave-land, mentioned only in Ezek. 47:16, Ezek. 47: 18. It was one of the ancient divisions of Bashan (q.v.), and lay on the south-east of Gaulanitis or the Jaulan, and on the south of Lejah, extending from the Arnon to the Hieromax. It was the most fertile region in Syria, and to this day abounds in the ruins of towns, many of which have stone doors and massive walls. It retains its ancient name.......

HAVEN
a harbour (Psa 107:30; Acts 27:12). The most famous on the coast of Palestine was that of Tyre (Ezek. 27:3). That of Crete, called "Fair Havens," is mentioned Acts 27:8.......

HAVILAH
the sand region. (1.) A land mentioned in Gen. 2:11 rich in gold and bdellium and onyx stone. The question as to the locality of this region has given rise to a great diversity of opinion. It may perhaps be identified with the sandy tract which skirts Babylonia along the whole of its western border, stretching from the lower Euphrates to the mountains of Edom. (2.) A district in Arabia-Felix. It......

HAVOTH-JAIR
hamlets of the enlightener a district in the east of Jordan. (1.) Jair, the son of Manasseh, took some villages of Gilead and called them by this name (Num. 32:41). (2.) Again, it is said that Jair "took all the tract of Argob," and called it Bashanhavoth-jair (Deut. 3:14). (See also Josh. 13:30; 1-Kings 4:13; 1-Chr 2:22, 1-Chr 2: 23.)......

HAWK
(Heb. netz, a word expressive of strong and rapid flight, and hence appropriate to the hawk). It is an unclean bird (Lev. 11:16; Deut. 14:15). It is common in Syria and surrounding countries. The Hebrew word includes various species of Falconidae, with special reference perhaps to the kestrel (Falco tinnunculus), the hobby (Hypotriorchis subbuteo), and the lesser kestrel (Tin, Cenchris). The kestr......

HAY
properly so called, was not in use among the Hebrews; straw was used instead. They cut the grass green as it was needed. The word rendered "hay" in Prov. 27:25 means the first shoots of the grass. In Isa. 15:6 the Revised Version has correctly "grass," where the Authorized Version has "hay."......

HAZAEL
whom God beholds, an officer of Ben-hadad II., king of Syria, who ultimately came to the throne, according to the word of the Lord to Elijah (1-Kings 19:15), after he had put the king to death (2-Kings 8:15). His interview with Elisha is mentioned in 2 Kings 8. The Assyrians soon after his accession to the throne came against him and defeated him with very great loss; and three years afterwards ag......

HAZAR-ADDAR
village of Addar, a place in the southern boundary of Palestine (Num. 34:4), in the desert to the west of Kadesh-barnea. It is called Adar in Josh. 15:3.......

HAZAR-ENAN
village of fountains, a place on the north-east frontier of Palestine (Num. 34:9, Num. 34: 10). Some have identified it with Ayan ed-Dara in the heart of the central chain of Anti-Libanus. More probably, however, it has been identified with Kuryetein, about 60 miles east-north-east of Damascus. (Comp. Ezek. 47:17;48:1.)......

HAZAR-GADDAH
village of fortune, a city on the south border of Judah (Josh. 15:27), midway between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.......

HAZAR-HATTICON
village of the midway, a place near Hamath in the confines of Hauran (Ezek. 47:16), probably on the north brow of Hermon.......

HAZAR-MAVETH
court of death, the third son of Joktan, and a region in Arabia-Felix settled by him (Gen. 10:26; 1-Chr 1:20). It is probably the modern province of Hadramaut, situated on the Indian Ocean east of the modern Yemen.......

HAZAR-SHUAL
village or enclosure of the jackal, a city on the south border of Judah (Josh. 15:28; Neh. 11:27). It has been identified with the ruins of Saweh, half-way between Beersheba and Moladah.......

HAZAR-SUSAH
village of the horse, the same as Sansannah, one of Solomon's "chariot cities" (Josh. 15:31; 2-Chr 1:14), a depot in the south border of Judah.......

HAZEL
Heb. luz, (Gen. 30:37), a nutbearing tree. The Hebrew word is rendered in the Vulgate by amygdalinus, "the almond-tree," which is probably correct. That tree flourishes in Syria.......

HAZERIM
villages, probably the name of the temporary villages in which the nomad Avites resided (Deut. 2:23).......

HAZEROTH
fenced enclosures consisting of "a low wall of stones in which thick bundles of thorny acacia are inserted, the tangled branches and long needle-like spikes forming a perfectly impenetrable hedge around the encampment" of tents and cattle which they sheltered. Such like enclosures abound in the wilderness of Paran, which the Israelites entered after leaving Sinai (Num. 11:35;12:16;33:17, 33: 18). ......

HAZEZON-TAMAR
pruning of the palm, the original name of the place afterwards called ENGEDI (q.v.), Gen. 14:7; called also HAZAZON-TAMAR (2-Chr 20:2).......

HAZO
vision, one of the sons of Nahor (Gen. 22:22).......

HAZOR
enclosed; fortified. (1.) A stronghold of the Canaanites in the mountains north of Lake Merom (Josh. 11:1). Jabin the king with his allied tribes here encountered Joshua in a great battle. Joshua gained a signal victory, which virtually completed his conquest of Canaan (11:10). This city was, however, afterwards rebuilt by the Canaanites, and was ruled by a king with the same hereditary name of Ja......

HAZOR-HADATTAH
New Hazor, a city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:25). It is probably identified with the ruins of el-Hazzarah, near Beit Jebrin.......

HE-ASS
Heb. hamor, (Gen. 12:16), the general designation of the donkey used for carrying burdens (Gen. 42:26) and for ploughing (Isa. 30:24). It is described in Gen. 49:14, Gen. 49: 2-Sam 19:26. (See ASS.) ......

HEAD-BANDS
(Heb. kishshurim), properly girdles or belts for the waist (Isa. 3:20, Isa. 3: R.V., "sashes;" Jer. 2:32, Jer. 2: rendered "attire", i.e., a girdle round the waist).......

HEAD-DRESS
Not in common use among the Hebrews. It is first mentioned in Exo 28:40 (A.V., "bonnets;" R.V., "head-tires"). It was used especially for purposes of ornament (Job 29:14; Isa. 3:23;62:3). The Hebrew word here used, _tsaniph_, properly means a turban, folds of linen wound round the head. The Hebrew word _peer_, used in Isa. 61:3, Isa. 61: there rendered "beauty" (A.V.) and "garland" (R.V.), is a he......

HEAP
When Joshua took the city of Ai (Josh. 8), he burned it and "made it an heap [Heb. tel] for ever" (8:28). The ruins of this city were for a long time sought for in vain. It has been at length, however, identified with the mound which simply bears the name of "Tel." "There are many Tels in modern Palestine, that land of Tels, each Tel with some other name attached to it to mark the former site. But......

HEART
According to the Bible, the heart is the centre not only of spiritual activity, but of all the operations of human life. "Heart" and "soul" are often used interchangeably (Deut. 6:5;26:16; comp. Matt. 22:37; Mark 12:30, Mark 12: 33), but this is not generally the case. The heart is the "home of the personal life," and hence a man is designated, according to his heart, wise (1-Kings 3:12, 1-Kings......

HEARTH
Heb. ah (Jer. 36:22, Jer. 36: 23; R.V., "brazier"), meaning a large pot like a brazier, a portable furnace in which fire was kept in the king's winter apartment. Heb. kiyor (Zech. 12:6; R.V., "pan"), a fire-pan. Heb. moqed (Psa 102:3; R.V., "fire-brand"), properly a fagot. Heb. yaqud (Isa. 30:14), a burning mass on a hearth. ......

HEATH
Heb. 'arar, (Jer. 17:6;48:6), a species of juniper called by the Arabs by the same name ('arar), the Juniperus sabina or savin. "Its gloomy, stunted appearance, with its scale-like leaves pressed close to its gnarled stem, and cropped close by the wild goats, as it clings to the rocks about Petra, gives great force to the contrast suggested by the prophet, between him that trusteth in man, naked a......

HEATHEN
(Heb. plural goyum). At first the word _goyim_ denoted generally all the nations of the world (Gen. 18:18; comp. Gal. 3:8). The Jews afterwards became a people distinguished in a marked manner from the other _goyim_. They were a separate people (Lev. 20:23;26:14; Deut. 28), and the other nations, the Amorites, Hittites, etc., were the _goyim_, the heathen, with whom the Jews were forbidden to be a......

HEAVE OFFERING
Heb. terumah, (Exo 29:27) means simply an offering, a present, including all the offerings made by the Israelites as a present. This Hebrew word is frequently employed. Some of the rabbis attach to the word the meaning of elevation, and refer it to the heave offering, which consisted in presenting the offering by a motion up and down, distinguished from the wave offering, which consisted in a repe......

HEAVEN
(1.) Definitions. The phrase "heaven and earth" is used to indicate the whole universe (Gen. 1:1; Jer. 23:24; Acts 17:24). According to the Jewish notion there were three heavens, (a) The firmament, as "fowls of the heaven" (Gen. 2:19;7:3, 7: 23; Psa 8:8, Psa 8: etc.), "the eagles of heaven" (Lam. 4:19), etc. (b) The starry heavens (Deut. 17:3; Jer. 8:2; Matt. 24:29). (c) "The heaven of heav......

HEBER
passing over. (1.) Son of Beriah and grandson of Asher (Gen. 46:17; 1-Chr 7:31, 1-Chr 7: 32). (2.) The Kenite (Judg. 4:11, Judg. 4: 17;5:24), a descendant of Hobab. His wife Jael received Sisera (q.v.) into her tent and then killed him. (3.) 1-Chr 4:18. (4.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 8:17). (5.) A Gadite (5:13). (See EBER.) ......

HEBREW
a name applied to the Israelites in Scripture only by one who is a foreigner (Gen. 39:14, Gen. 39: 17;41:12, 41: etc.), or by the Israelites when they speak of themselves to foreigners (0:15; Exo 1:19), or when spoken of an contrasted with other peoples (Gen. 43:32; Exo 1:3, Exo 1: 7, 15; Deut. 15:12). In the New Testament there is the same contrast between Hebrews and foreigners (Acts 6:1; Phil. ......

HEBREW LANGUAGE
the language of the Hebrew nation, and that in which the Old Testament is written, with the exception of a few portions in Chaldee. In the Old Testament it is only spoken of as "Jewish" (2-Kings 18:26, 2-Kings 18: 28; Isa. 36:11, Isa. 36: 13; 2 32:18). This name is first used by the Jews in times subsequent to the close of the Old Testament. It is one of the class of languages called Semitic, be......

HEBREW OF THE HEBREWS
one whose parents are both Hebrews (Phil. 3:5; 2-Cor 11:22); a genuine Hebrew. ......

HEBREWS
(Acts 6:1) were the Hebrew-speaking Jews, as distinguished from those who spoke Greek. (See GREEKS.) ......

HEBREWS, EPISTLE TO
(1.) Its canonicity. All the results of critical and historical research to which this epistle has been specially subjected abundantly vindicate its right to a place in the New Testament canon among the other inspired books. (2.) Its authorship. A considerable variety of opinions on this subject has at different times been advanced. Some have maintained that its author was Silas, Paul's companio......

HEBRON
a community; alliance. (1.) A city in the south end of the valley of Eshcol, about midway between Jerusalem and Beersheba, from which it is distant about 20 miles in a straight line. It was built "seven years before Zoan in Egypt" (Gen. 13:18; Num. 13:22). It still exists under the same name, and is one of the most ancient cities in the world. Its earlier name was Kirjath-arba (Gen. 23:2; Josh. 14......

HEGAI
eunuch, had charge of the harem of Ahasuerus (Esther 2:8). ......

HEIFER
Heb. 'eglah, (Deut. 21:4, Deut. 21: 6; Jer. 46:20). Untrained to the yoke (Hos. 10:11); giving milk (Isa. 7:21); ploughing (Judg. 14:18); treading out grain (Jer. 50:11); unsubdued to the yoke an emblem of Judah (Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:34). Heb. parah (Gen. 41:2; Num. 19:2). Bearing the yoke (Hos. 4:16); "heifers of Bashan" (Amos 4:1), metaphorical for the voluptuous females of Samaria. The ordinanc......

HEIR
Under the patriarchs the property of a father was divided among the sons of his legitimate wives (Gen. 21:10;24:36;25:5), the eldest son getting a larger portion than the rest. The Mosaic law made specific regulations regarding the transmission of real property, which are given in detail in Deut. 21:17; Num. 27:8;36:6;27:9. Succession to property was a matter of right and not of favour. Christ is ......

HELAH
rust, (1-Chr 4:5, 1-Chr 4: 7), one of the wives of Ashur. ......

HELAM
place of abundance, a place on the east of Jordan and west of the Euphrates where David gained a great victory over the Syrian army (2-Sam 10:16), which was under the command of Shobach. Some would identify it with Alamatta, near Nicephorium. ......

HELBAH
fatness, a town of the tribe of Asher (Judg. 1:31), in the plain of Phoenicia. ......

HELBON
fat; i.e., "fertile", (Ezek. 27:18 only), a place whence wine was brought to the great market of Tyre. It has been usually identified with the modern Aleppo, called Haleb by the native Arabs, but is more probably to be found in one of the villages in the Wady Helbon, which is celebrated for its grapes, on the east slope of Anti-Lebanon, north of the river Barada (Abana). ......

HELDAI
wordly. (1.) 1-Chr 27:15; called also Heleb (2-Sam 23:29); one of David's captains. (2.) Zech. 6:10, Zech. 6: one who returned from Babylon. ......

HELEB
fatness, one of David's warriors (2-Sam 23:29). ......

HELED
this world, (1-Chr 11:30); called Heleb (2-Sam 23:29). ......

HELEK
a portion, (Josh. 17:2), descended from Manasseh. ......

HELEM
a stroke, great-grandson of Asher (1-Chr 7:35). ......

HELEPH
exchange, a city on the north border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:33). ......

HELEZ
strong, or loin (?) (1.) One of Judah's posterity (1-Chr 2:39). (2.) One of David's warriors (2-Sam 23:26). ......

HELI
elevation, father of Joseph in the line of our Lord's ancestry (Luke 3:23). ......

HELKAI
smooth-tongued, one of the chief priests in the time of Joiakim (Neh. 12:15). ......

HELKATH
smoothness, a town of Asher, on the east border (Josh. 19:25;21:31); called also Hukok (1-Chr 6:75). ......

HELKATH-HAZZURIM
plot of the sharp blades, or the field of heroes, (2-Sam 2:16). After the battle of Gilboa, so fatal to Saul and his house, David, as divinely directed, took up his residence in Hebron, and was there anointed king over Judah. Among the fugitives from Gilboa was Ish-bosheth, the only surviving son of Saul, whom Abner, Saul's uncle, took across the Jordan to Mahanaim, and there had him proclaimed ki......

HELL
derived from the Saxon helan, to cover; hence the covered or the invisible place. In Scripture there are three words so rendered: (1.) Sheol, occurring in the Old Testament sixty-five times. This word sheol is derived from a root-word meaning "to ask," "demand;" hence insatiableness (Prov. 30:15, Prov. 30: 16). It is rendered "grave" thirty-one times (Gen. 37:35;42:38;44:29, 44: 31; 1-Sam 2:6, 1......

HELMET
(Heb. kob'a), a cap for the defence of the head (1-Sam 17:5, 1-Sam 17: 38). In the New Testament the Greek equivalent is used (Eph. 6:17; 1-Thess 5:8). (See ARMS.) ......

HELON
strong, father of Eliab, who was "captain of the children of Zebulun" (Num. 1:9;2:7). ......

HELP-MEET
(Heb. 'ezer ke-negdo; i.e., "a help as his counterpart" = a help suitable to him), a wife (Gen. 2:18). ......

HELPS
(1-Cor 12:28) may refer to help (i.e., by interpretation) given to him who speaks with tongues, or more probably simply help which Christians can render to one another, such as caring for the poor and needy, etc. ......

HEM
of a garment, the fringe of a garment. The Jews attached much importance to these, because of the regulations in Num. 15:38, Num. 15: 39. These borders or fringes were in process of time enlarged so as to attract special notice (Matt. 23:5). The hem of Christ's garment touched (9:20;14:36; Luke 8:44). ......

HEMAN
faithful. (1.) 1-Kings 4:31; 1-Chr 2:6, 1-Chr 2: a son of Zerah, noted for his wisdom. (2.) Grandson of Samuel (1-Chr 6:33;15:17), to whom the 88th Psalm probably was inscribed. He was one of the "seers" named in 2-Chr 29:14, 2-Chr 29: 30, and took a leading part in the administration of the sacred services. ......

HEMATH
a Kenite (1-Chr 2:55), the father of the house of Rechab. ......

HEMLOCK
(1.) Heb. rosh (Hos. 10:4; rendered "gall" in Deut. 29:18;32:32; Psa 69:21; Jer. 9:15;23:15; "poison," Job 20:16; "venom," Deut. 32:33). "Rosh is the name of some poisonous plant which grows quickly and luxuriantly; of a bitter taste, and therefore coupled with wormwood (Deut. 29:18; Lam. 3:19). Hence it would seem to be not the hemlock cicuta, nor the colocynth or wild gourd, nor lolium darnel, b......

HEN
common in later times among the Jews in Palestine (Matt. 23:37; Luke 13:34). It is noticeable that this familiar bird is only mentioned in these passages in connection with our Lord's lamentation over the impenitence of Jerusalem. ......

HENA
one of the cities of Mesopotamia destroyed by sennacherib (2-Kings 18:34;19:13). It is identified with the modern Anah, lying on the right bank of the Euphrates, not far from Sepharvaim. ......

HENADAD
favour of Hadad, the name of a Levite after the Captivity (Ezra 3:9). ......

HENOCH
See ENOCH. ......

HEPHER
a well or stream. (1.) A royal city of the Canaanites taken by Joshua (12:17). (2.) The youngest son of Gilead (Num. 26:32;27:1). (3.) The second son of Asher (1-Chr 4:6). (4.) One of David's heroes (1-Chr 11:36). ......

HEPHZIBAH
my delight is in her. (1.) The wife of Hezekiah and mother of king Manasseh (2-Kings 21:1). (2.) A symbolical name of Zion, as representing the Lord's favour toward her (Isa. 62:4). ......

HERB
(1.) Heb. 'eseb, any green plant; herbage (Gen. 1:11, Gen. 1: 12, 29, 30;2:5;3:18, 3: etc.); comprehending vegetables and all green herbage (Amos 7:1, Amos 7: 2). (2.) _Yarak_, green; any green thing; foliage of trees (2-Kings 19:26; Psa 37:2); a plant; herb (Deut. 11:10). (3.) _Or_, meaning "light" In Isa. 26:19 it means "green herbs;" in 2-Kings 4:39 probably the fruit of some plant. (4.) ......

HERD
Gen. 13:5; Deut. 7:14. (See CATTLE.) ......

HERDSMAN
In Egypt herdsmen were probably of the lowest caste. Some of Joseph's brethren were made rulers over Pharaoh's cattle (Gen. 47:6, Gen. 47: 17). The Israelites were known in Egypt as "keepers of cattle;" and when they left it they took their flocks and herds with them (Exo 12:38). Both David and Saul came from "following the herd" to occupy the throne (1 Sam. 9;11:5; Psa 78:70). David's herd-master......

HERES
sun. (1.) "Mount Heres" (Judg. 1:35), Heb. Har-heres, i.e., "sun-mountain;" probably identical with Irshemesh in Josh. 19:41. (2.) Isa. 19:18, Isa. 19: marg. (See ON.) ......

HERESY
from a Greek word signifying (1) a choice, (2) the opinion chosen, and (3) the sect holding the opinion. In the Acts of the Apostles (5:17;15:5;24:5, 24: 14;26:5) it denotes a sect, without reference to its character. Elsewhere, however, in the New Testament it has a different meaning attached to it. Paul ranks "heresies" with crimes and seditions (Gal. 5:20). This word also denotes divisions or s......

HERMAS
Mercury, a Roman Christian to whom Paul sends greetings (Rom. 16:14). Some suppose him to have been the author of the celebrated religious romance called The Shepherd, but it is very probable that that work is the production of a later generation.......

HERMES
Mercury, a Roman Christian (Rom. 16:14).......

HERMOGENES
Mercury-born, at one time Paul's fellow-labourer in Asia Minor, who, however, afterwards abandoned him, along with one Phygellus, probably on account of the perils by which they were beset (2-Tim 1:15).......

HERMON
a peak, the eastern prolongation of the Anti-Lebanon range, reaching to the height of about 9,200 feet above the Mediterranean. It marks the north boundary of Palestine (Deut. 3:8, Deut. 3:4:48; Josh. 11:3, Josh. 11: 17;13:11;12:1), and is seen from a great distance. It is about 40 miles north of the Sea of Galilee. It is called "the Hermonites" (Psa 42:6) because it has more than one summit. The ......

HERMONITES, THE
(Psa 42:6, Psa 42: 7) = "the Hermons", i.e., the three peaks or summits of Hermon, which are about a quarter of a mile apart.......

HEROD AGRIPPA I.
son of Aristobulus and Bernice, and grandson of Herod the Great. He was made tetrarch of the provinces formerly held by Lysanias II., and ultimately possessed the entire kingdom of his grandfather, Herod the Great, with the title of king. He put the apostle James the elder to death, and cast Peter into prison (Luke 3:1; Acts 12:1). On the second day of a festival held in honour of the emperor Clau......

HEROD ANTIPAS
Herod's son by Malthace (Matt. 14:1; Luke 3:1, Luke 3: 19;9:7; Acts 13:1). (See ANTIPAS.)......

HEROD ARCHELAUS
(Matt. 2:22), the brother of Antipas (q.v.).......

HEROD ARIPPA II.
the son of Herod Agrippa I. and Cypros. The emperor Claudius made him tetrarch of the provinces of Philip and Lysanias, with the title of king (Acts 25:13;26:2, 26: 7). He enlarged the city of Caesarea Philippi, and called it Neronias, in honour of Nero. It was before him and his sister that Paul made his defence at Caesarea (Acts 25:12). He died at Rome A.D. 100, in the third year of the emperor ......

HEROD PHILIP I.
(Mark 6:17), the son of Herod the Great by Mariamne, the daughter of Simon, the high priest. He is distinguished from another Philip called "the tetrarch." He lived at Rome as a private person with his wife Herodias and his daughter Salome.......

HEROD PHILIP II.
the son of Herod the Great and Cleopatra of Jerusalem. He was "tetrarch" of Batanea, Iturea, Trachonitis, and Auranitis. He rebuilt the city of Caesarea Philippi, calling it by his own name to distinguish it from the Caesarea on the sea-coast which was the seat of the Roman government. He married Salome, the daughter of Herodias (Matt. 16:13; Mark 8:27; Luke 3:1).......

HEROD THE GREAT
(Matt. 2:1; Luke 1:5; Acts 23:35), the son of Antipater, an Idumaean, and Cypros, an Arabian of noble descent. In the year B.C. 47 Julius Caesar made Antipater, a "wily Idumaean," procurator of Judea, who divided his territories between his four sons, Galilee falling to the lot of Herod, who was afterwards appointed tetrarch of Judea by Mark Antony (B.C. 40), and also king of Judea by the Roman se......

HERODIANS
a Jewish political party who sympathized with (Mark 3:6;12:13; Matt,22:16; Luke 20:20) the Herodian rulers in their general policy of government, and in the social customs which they introduced from Rome. They were at one with the Sadducees in holding the duty of submission to Rome, and of supporting the Herods on the throne. (Comp. Mark 8:15; Matt. 16:6.)......

HERODIAS
(Matt. 14:3; Mark 6:17; Luke 3:19), the daughter of Aristobulus and Bernice. While residing at Rome with her husband Herod Philip I. and her daughter, Herod Antipas fell in with her during one of his journeys to that city. She consented to leave her husband and become his wife. Some time after, Herod met John the Baptist, who boldly declared the marriage to be unlawful. For this he was "cast into ......

HERODION
a Christian at Rome whom Paul salutes and calls his "kinsman" (Rom. 16:11).......

HERON
(Lev. 11:19; Deut. 14:18), ranked among the unclean birds. The Hebrew name is _'anaphah_, and indicates that the bird so named is remarkable for its angry disposition. "The herons are wading-birds, peculiarly irritable, remarkable for their voracity, frequenting marshes and oozy rivers, and spread over the regions of the East." The Ardea russeta, or little golden egret, is the commonest species in......

HESHBON
intelligence, a city ruled over by Sihon, king of the Amorites (Josh. 3:10;13:17). It was taken by Moses (Num. 21:23), and became afterwards a Levitical city (Josh. 21:39) in the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:37). After the Exile it was taken possession of by the Moabites (Isa. 15:4; Jer. 48:2, Jer. 48: 34, 45). The ruins of this town are still seen about 20 miles east of Jordan from the north end of t......

HESHMON
fatness, a town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:27).......

HETH
dread, a descendant of Canaan, and the ancestor of the Hittites (Gen. 10:18; Deut. 7:1), who dwelt in the vicinity of Hebron (Gen. 23:3, Gen. 23: 7). The Hittites were a Hamitic race. They are called "the sons of Heth" (Gen. 23:3, Gen. 23: 5, 7, 10, 16, 18, 20).......

HETHLON
wrapped up, a place on the north border of Palestine. The "way of Hethlon" (Ezek. 47:15;48:1) is probably the pass at the end of Lebanon from the Mediterranean to the great plain of Hamath (q.v.), or the "entrance of Hamath."......

HEZEKIAH
whom Jehovah has strengthened. (1.) Son of Ahaz (2-Kings 18:1; 2-Chr 29:1), whom he succeeded on the throne of the kingdom of Judah. He reigned twenty-nine years (B.C. 726-697). The history of this king is contained in 2-Kings 18:20, 2-Kings 18: Isa. 36-39, and 2 Chr. 29-32. He is spoken of as a great and good king. In public life he followed the example of his great-granfather Uzziah. He set hims......

HEZION
vision, the father of Tabrimon, and grandfather of Ben-hadad, king of Syria (1-Kings 15:18).......

HEZIR
swine or strong. (1.) The head of the seventeenth course of the priests (1-Chr 24:15). (2.) Neh. 10:20, Neh. 10: one who sealed Nehemiah's covenant.......

HEZRO
a Carmelite, one of David's warriors (1-Chr 11:37).......

HEZRON
enclosed. (1.) One of the sons of Reuben (Gen. 46:9; Exo 6:14). (2.) The older of the two sons of Pharez (Gen. 46:12). (3.) A plain in the south of Judah, west of Kadesh-barnea (Josh. 15:3).......

HIDDAI
rejoicing of Jehovah, one of David's thirty-seven guards (2-Sam 23:30).......

HIDDEKEL
called by the Accadians id Idikla; i.e., "the river of Idikla", the third of the four rivers of Paradise (Gen. 2:14). Gesenius interprets the word as meaning "the rapid Tigris." The Tigris rises in the mountains of Armenia, 15 miles south of the source of the Euphrates, which, after pursuing a south-east course, it joins at Kurnah, about 50 miles above Bassorah. Its whole length is about 1,150 mil......

HIEL
life of (i.e., from) God, a native of Bethel, who built (i.e., fortified) Jericho some seven hundred years after its destruction by the Israelites. There fell on him for such an act the imprecation of Joshua (6:26). He laid the foundation in his first-born, and set up the gates in his youngest son (1-Kings 16:34), i.e., during the progress of the work all his children died.......

HIERAPOLIS
sacred city, a city of Phrygia, where was a Christian church under the care of Epaphras (Col. 4:12, Col. 4: 13). This church was founded at the same time as that of Colosse. It now bears the name of Pambuk-Kalek, i.e., "Cotton Castle", from the white appearance of the cliffs at the base of which the ruins are found.......

HIGGAION
in Psa 92:3 means the murmuring tone of the harp. In Psa 9:16 it is a musical sign, denoting probably a pause in the instrumental interlude. In Psa 19:14 the word is rendered "meditation;" and in Lam. 3:62, Lam. 3: "device" (R.V., "imagination").......

HIGH PLACE
an eminence, natural or artificial, where worship by sacrifice or offerings was made (1-Kings 13:32; 2-Kings 17:29). The first altar after the Flood was built on a mountain (Gen. 8:20). Abraham also built an altar on a mountain (12:7, 12: 8). It was on a mountain in Gilead that Laban and Jacob offered sacrifices (31:54). After the Israelites entered the Promised Land they were strictly enjoined to......

HIGH PRIEST
Aaron was the first who was solemnly set apart to this office (Exo 29:7;30:23; Lev. 8:12). He wore a peculiar dress, which on his death passed to his successor in office (Exo 29:29, Exo 29: 30). Besides those garments which he wore in common with all priests, there were four that were peculiar to himself as high priest: (1.) The "robe" of the ephod, all of blue, of "woven work," worn immediately......

HIGHWAY
a raised road for public use. Such roads were not found in Palestine; hence the force of the language used to describe the return of the captives and the advent of the Messiah (Isa. 11:16;35:8;40:3;62:10) under the figure of the preparation of a grand thoroughfare for their march. During their possession of Palestine the Romans constructed several important highways, as they did in all countries......

HILKIAH
portion of Jehovah. (1.) 1-Chr 6:54. (2.) 1-Chr 26:11. (3.) The father of Eliakim (2-Kings 18:18, 2-Kings 18: 26, 37). (4.) The father of Gemariah (Jer. 29:3). (5.) The father of the prophet Jeremiah (1:1). (6.) The high priest in the reign of Josiah (1-Chr 6:13; Ezra 7:1). To him and his deputy (2-Kings 23:5), along with the ordinary priests and the Levites who had charge of the gates, was entr......

HILL
(1.) Heb. gib'eah, a curved or rounded hill, such as are common to Palestine (Psa 65:12;72:3;114:4, 114: 6). (2.) Heb. har, properly a mountain range rather than an individual eminence (Exo 24:4, Exo 24: 12, 13, 18; Num. 14:40, Num. 14: 44, 45). In Deut. 1:7, Deut. 1: Josh. 9:1;10:40;11:16, 11: it denotes the elevated district of Judah, Benjamin, and Ephraim, which forms the watershed between th......

HILL OF EVIL COUNSEL
on the south of the Valley of Hinnom. It is so called from a tradition that the house of the high priest Caiaphas, when the rulers of the Jews resolved to put Christ to death, stood here.......

HILLEL
praising, a Pirathonite, father of the judge Abdon (Judg. 12:13, Judg. 12: 15).......

HIND
Heb. 'ayalah (2-Sam 22:34; Psa 18:33, Psa 18: etc.) and 'ayeleth (Ps. 22, title), the female of the hart or stag. It is referred to as an emblem of activity (Gen. 49:21), gentleness (Prov. 5:19), feminine modesty (2:7;3:5), earnest longing (Psa 42:1), timidity (Psa 29:9). In the title of Ps. 22, the word probably refers to some tune bearing that name.......

HINGE
(Heb. tsir), that on which a door revolves. "Doors in the East turn rather on pivots than on what we term hinges. In Syria, and especially in the Hauran, there are many ancient doors, consisting of stone slabs with pivots carved out of the same piece inserted in sockets above and below, and fixed during the building of the house" (Prov. 26:14).......

HINNOM
a deep, narrow ravine separating Mount Zion from the so-called "Hill of Evil Counsel." It took its name from "some ancient hero, the son of Hinnom." It is first mentioned in Josh. 15:8. It had been the place where the idolatrous Jews burned their children alive to Moloch and Baal. A particular part of the valley was called Tophet, or the "fire-stove," where the children were burned. After the Exil......

HIRAM
high-born. (1.) Generally "Huram," one of the sons of Bela (1-Chr 8:5). (2.) Also "Huram" and "Horam," king of Tyre. He entered into an alliance with David, and assisted him in building his palace by sending him able workmen, and also cedar-trees and fir-trees from Lebanon (2-Sam 5:11; 1-Chr 14:1). After the death of David he entered into a similar alliance with Solomon, and assisted him greatly......

HIRELING
a labourer employed on hire for a limited time (Job 7:1;14:6; Mark 1:20). His wages were paid as soon as his work was over (Lev. 19:13). In the time of our Lord a day's wage was a "penny" (q.v.) i.e., a Roman denarius (Matt. 20:1).......

HISS
to express contempt (Job 27:23). The destruction of the temple is thus spoken of (1-Kings 9:8). Zechariah (10:8) speaks of the Lord gathering the house of Judah as it were with a hiss: "I will hiss for them." This expression may be "derived from the noise made to attract bees in hiving, or from the sound naturally made to attract a person's attention."......

HITTITES
Palestine and Syria appear to have been originally inhabited by three different tribes. (1.) The Semites, living on the east of the isthmus of Suez. They were nomadic and pastoral tribes. (2.) The Phoenicians, who were merchants and traders; and (3.) the Hittites, who were the warlike element of this confederation of tribes. They inhabited the whole region between the Euphrates and Damascus, their......

HIVITES
one of the original tribes scattered over Palestine, from Hermon to Gibeon in the south. The name is interpreted as "midlanders" or "villagers" (Gen. 10:17; 1-Chr 1:15). They were probably a branch of the Hittites. At the time of Jacob's return to Canaan, Hamor the Hivite was the "prince of the land" (Gen. 24:2). They are next mentioned during the Conquest (Josh. 9:7;11:19). They principally inh......

HIZKIAH
an ancestor of the prophet Zephaniah (1:1).......

HIZKIJAH
(Neh. 10:17), one who sealed the covenant.......

HOBAB
beloved, the Kenite, has been usually identified with Jethro (q.v.), Exo 18:5, Exo 18: 27; comp. Num. 10:29, Num. 10: 30. In Judg. 4:11, Judg. 4: the word rendered "father-in-law" means properly any male relative by marriage (comp. Gen. 19:14, Gen. 19: "son-in-law," A.V.), and should be rendered "brother-in-law," as in the R.V. His descendants followed Israel to Canaan (Num. 10:29), and at first p......

HOBAH
hiding-place, a place to the north of Damascus, to which Abraham pursued Chedorlaomer and his confederates (Gen. 14:15).......

HODIJAH
majesty of Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levites who assisted Ezra in expounding the law (Neh. 8:7;9:5). (2.) Neh. 10:18, Neh. 10: a Levite who sealed the covenant. ......

HOGLAH
partridge, one of the daughters of Zelophehad the Gileadite, to whom portions were assigned by Moses (Num. 26:33;27:1;36:11). ......

HOHAM
Jehovah impels, the king of Hebron who joined the league against Gibeon. He and his allies were defeated (Josh. 10:3, Josh. 10: 5, 16-27). ......

HOLD
a fortress, the name given to David's lurking-places (1-Sam 22:4, 1-Sam 22: 5;24:22). ......

HOLINESS
in the highest sense belongs to God (Isa. 6:3; Rev. 15:4), and to Christians as consecrated to God's service, and in so far as they are conformed in all things to the will of God (Rom. 6:19, Rom. 6: 22; Eph. 1:4; Titus 1:8; 1-Pet 1:15). Personal holiness is a work of gradual development. It is carried on under many hindrances, hence the frequent admonitions to watchfulness, prayer, and perseveranc......

HOLY GHOST
the third Person of the adorable Trinity. His personality is proved (1) from the fact that the attributes of personality, as intelligence and volition, are ascribed to him (John 14:17, John 14: 26;15:26; 1-Cor 2:10, 1-Cor 2: 11;12:11). He reproves, helps, glorifies, intercedes (John 16:7; Rom. 8:26). (2) He executes the offices peculiar only to a person. The very nature of these offices involves......

HOLY OF HOLIES
the second or interior portion of the tabernacle. It was left in total darkness. No one was permitted to enter it except the high priest, and that only once a year. It contained the ark of the covenant only (Exo 25:10). It was in the form of a perfect cube of 20 cubits. (See TABERNACLE.) ......

HOLY PLACE
one of the two portions into which the tabernacle was divided (Exo 26:31;37:17; Heb. 9:2). It was 20 cubits long and 10 in height and breadth. It was illuminated by the golden candlestick, as it had no opening to admit the light. It contained the table of showbread (Exo 25:23) and the golden altar of incense (30:1). It was divided from the holy of holies by a veil of the most costly materials and ......

HOMER
heap, the largest of dry measures, containing about 8 bushels or 1 quarter English = 10 ephahs (Lev. 27:16; Num. 11:32) = a COR. (See OMER.) "Half a homer," a grain measure mentioned only in Hos. 3:2. ......

HONEY
(1.) Heb. ya'ar, occurs only 1-Sam 14:25, 1-Sam 14: 27, 29; 5:1, 5: where it denotes the honey of bees. Properly the word signifies a forest or copse, and refers to honey found in woods. (2.) Nopheth, honey that drops (Psa 19:10; Prov. 5:3; 4:11). (3.) Debash denotes bee-honey (Judg. 14:8); but also frequently a vegetable honey distilled from trees (Gen. 43:11; Ezek. 27:17). In these passages ......

HOOD
(Heb. tsaniph) a tiara round the head (Isa. 3:23; R.V., pl., "turbans"). Rendered "diadem," Job 29:14; high priest's "mitre," Zech. 3:5; "royal diadem," Isa. 62:3. ......

HOOF
a cleft hoof as of neat cattle (Exo 10:26; Ezek. 32:13); hence also of the horse, though not cloven (Isa. 5:28). The "parting of the hoof" is one of the distinctions between clean and unclean animals (Lev. 11:3; Deut. 14:7). ......

HOOK
(1.) Heb. hah, a "ring" inserted in the nostrils of animals to which a cord was fastened for the purpose of restraining them (2-Kings 19:28; Isa. 37:28, Isa. 37: 29; Ezek. 29:4;38:4). "The Orientals make use of this contrivance for curbing their work-beasts...When a beast becomes unruly they have only to draw the cord on one side, which, by stopping his breath, punishes him so effectually that aft......

HOPE
one of the three main elements of Christian character (1-Cor 13:13). It is joined to faith and love, and is opposed to seeing or possessing (Rom. 8:24; 1-John 3:2). "Hope is an essential and fundamental element of Christian life, so essential indeed, that, like faith and love, it can itself designate the essence of Christianity (1-Pet 3:15; Heb. 10:23). In it the whole glory of the Christian vocat......

HOPHNI
pugilist or client, one of the two sons of Eli, the high priest (1-Sam 1:3;2:34), who, because he was "very old," resigned to them the active duties of his office. By their scandalous conduct they brought down a curse on their father's house (2:22, 2: 12-27, 27-36;3:11). For their wickedness they were called "sons of Belial," i.e., worthless men (2:12). They both perished in the disastrous battle ......

HOPHRA
i.e., PHARAOH-HOPHRA (called Apries by the Greek historian Herodotus) king of Egypt (B.C. 591-572) in the time of Zedekiah, king of Judah (Jer. 37:544:30; Ezek. 29:6, Ezek. 29: 7). ......

HOR
mountain. (1.) One of the mountains of the chain of Seir or Edom, on the confines of Idumea (Num. 20:22;33:37). It was one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (33:37), which they reached in the circuitous route they were obliged to take because the Edomites refused them a passage through their territory. It was during the encampment here that Aaron died (Num. 33:37). (See AARON.) T......

HOREB
desert or mountain of the dried-up ground, a general name for the whole mountain range of which Sinai was one of the summits (Exo 3:1;17:6;33:6; Psa 106:19, Psa 106: etc.). The modern name of the whole range is Jebel Musa. It is a huge mountain block, about 2 miles long by about 1 in breadth, with a very spacious plain at its north-east end, called the Er Rahah, in which the Israelites encamped fo......

HOREM
consecrated, one of the fenced cities of Naphtali (Josh. 19:38). ......

HORITES
cave-men, a race of Troglodytes who dwelt in the limestone caves which abounded in Edom. Their ancestor was "Seir," who probably gave his name to the district where he lived. They were a branch of the Hivites (Gen. 14:6;36:20; 1-Chr 1:38, 1-Chr 1: 39). They were dispossessed by the descendants of Esau, and as a people gradually became extinct (Deut. 2:12). ......

HORMAH
banning; i.e., placing under a "ban," or devoting to utter destruction. After the manifestation of God's anger against the Israelites, on account of their rebellion and their murmurings when the spies returned to the camp at Kadesh, in the wilderness of Paran, with an evil report of the land, they quickly repented of their conduct, and presumed to go up "to the head of the mountain," seeking to en......

HORN
Trumpets were at first horns perforated at the tip, used for various purposes (Josh. 6:4, Josh. 6:5). Flasks or vessels were made of horn (1-Sam 16:1, 1-Sam 16: 13; 1-Kings 1:39). But the word is used also metaphorically to denote the projecting corners of the altar of burnt offerings (Exo 27:2) and of incense (30:2). The horns of the altar of burnt offerings were to be smeared with the blood ......

HORNET
Heb. tsir'ah, "stinging", (Exo 23:28; Deut. 7:20; Josh. 24:12). The word is used in these passages as referring to some means by which the Canaanites were to be driven out from before the Israelites. Some have supposed that the word is used in a metaphorical sense as the symbol of some panic which would seize the people as a "terror of God" (Gen. 35:5), the consternation with which God would inspi......

HORONAIM
two caverns, a city of Moab to the south of the Arnon, built, apparently, upon an eminence, and a place of some importance (Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:3, Jer. 48: 5, 34). ......

HORONITE
the designation of Sanballat (Neh. 2:10, Neh. 2: 19), a native of Horonaim, or of one of the two Beth-horons, the "upper" or the "nether," mentioned in Josh. 16:3, Josh. 16:5. ......

HORSE
always referred to in the Bible in connection with warlike operations, except Isa. 28:28. The war-horse is described Job 39:19. For a long period after their settlement in Canaan the Israelites made no use of horses, according to the prohibition, Deut. 17:16. David was the first to form a force of cavalry (2-Sam 8:4). But Solomon, from his connection with Egypt, greatly multiplied their number (1-......

HORSE-GATE
a gate in the wall of Jerusalem, at the west end of the bridge, leading from Zion to the temple (Neh. 3:28; Jer. 31:40). ......

HORSE-LEECH
occurs only in Prov. 30:15 (Heb. 'alukah); the generic name for any blood-sucking annelid. There are various species in the marshes and pools of Palestine. That here referred to, the Hoemopis, is remarkable for the coarseness of its bite, and is therefore not used for medical purposes. They are spoken of in the East with feelings of aversion and horror, because of their propensity to fasten on the......

HORSEMAN
Heb. ba'al parash, "master of a horse." The "horsemen" mentioned Exo 14:9 were "mounted men", i.e., men who rode in chariots. The army of Pharaoh consisted of a chariot and infantry force. We find that at a later period, however, the Egyptians had cavalry (2-Chr 12:3). (See HORSE.) ......

HOSAH
refuge. (1.) A place on the border of the tribe of Asher (Josh. 19:29), a little to the south of Zidon. (2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1-Chr 16:38). ......

HOSANNA
Save now! or Save, we beseech, (Matt. 21:9). This was a customary form of acclamation at the feast of Tabernacles. (Comp. Psa 118:25.) ......

HOSE
(Dan. 3:21), a tunic or undergarment. ......

HOSEA
salvation, the son of Beeri, and author of the book of prophecies bearing his name. He belonged to the kingdom of Israel. "His Israelitish origin is attested by the peculiar, rough, Aramaizing diction, pointing to the northern part of Palestine; by the intimate acquaintance he evinces with the localities of Ephraim (5:1;6:8, 6: 9;12:12;14:6, 14: etc.); by passages 1:2, 1: where the kingdom is styl......

HOSEA, PROPHECIES OF
This book stands first in order among the "Minor Prophets." "The probable cause of the location of Hosea may be the thoroughly national character of his oracles, their length, their earnest tone, and vivid representations." This was the longest of the prophetic books written before the Captivity. Hosea prophesied in a dark and melancholy period of Israel's history, the period of Israel's decline a......

HOSHEA
salvation. (1.) The original name of the son of Nun, afterwards called Joshua (Num. 13:8, Num. 13: 16; Deut. 32:44). (2.) 1-Chr 27:20. The ruler of Ephraim in David's time. (3.) The last king of Israel. He conspired against and slew his predecessor, Pekah (Isa. 7:16), but did not ascend the throne till after an interregnum of warfare of eight years (2-Kings 17:1, 2-Kings 17: 2). Soon after thi......

HOST
an entertainer (Rom. 16:23); a tavern-keeper, the keeper of a caravansary (Luke 10:35). In warfare, a troop or military force. This consisted at first only of infantry. Solomon afterwards added cavalry (1-Kings 4:26;10:26). Every male Israelite from twenty to fifty years of age was bound by the law to bear arms when necessary (Num. 1:3;26:2; 2-Chr 25:5). Saul was the first to form a standing a......

HOST OF HEAVEN
The sun, moon, and stars are so designated (Gen. 2:1). When the Jews fell into idolatry they worshipped these (Deut. 4:19; 2-Kings 17:16;21:3, 21:5;23:5; Jer. 19:13; Zeph. 1:5; Acts 7:42). ......

HOSTAGE
a person delivered into the hands of another as a security for the performance of some promise, etc. (2-Kings 14:14; 2-Chr 25:24). ......

HOUGH
to hamstring, i.e., sever the "tendon of Achilles" of the hinder legs of captured horses (Josh. 11:6; 2-Sam 8:4; 1-Chr 18:4), so as to render them useless. ......

HOUR
First found in Dan. 3:6;4:19, 4: 33;5:5. It is the rendering of the Chaldee shaah, meaning a "moment," a "look." It is used in the New Testament frequently to denote some determinate season (Matt. 8:13; Luke 12:39). With the ancient Hebrews the divisions of the day were "morning, evening, and noon-day" (Psa 55:17, Psa 55: etc.). The Greeks, following the Babylonians, divided the day into twelve ......

HOUSE
Till their sojourn in Egypt the Hebrews dwelt in tents. They then for the first time inhabited cities (Gen. 47:3; Exo 12:7; Heb. 11:9). From the earliest times the Assyrians and the Canaanites were builders of cities. The Hebrews after the Conquest took possession of the captured cities, and seem to have followed the methods of building that had been pursued by the Canaanites. Reference is made to......

HUKKOK
decreed, a town near Zebulun, not far from Jordan, on the border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:34). (See HELKATH.) ......

HUL
circle, the second son of Aram (Gen. 10:23), and grandson of Shem. ......

HULDAH
weasel, a prophetess; the wife of Shallum. She was consulted regarding the "book of the law" discovered by the high priest Hilkiah (2-Kings 22:14; 2-Chr 34:22). She resided in that part of Jerusalem called the Mishneh (A.V., "the college;" R.V., "the second quarter"), supposed by some to be the suburb between the inner and the outer wall, the second or lower city, Akra. Miriam (Exo 15:20) and Debo......

HUMILIATION OF CHRIST
(Phil. 2:8), seen in (1) his birth (Gal. 4:4; Luke 2:7; John 1:46; Heb. 2:9), (2) his circumstances, (3) his reputation (Isa. 53; Matt. 26:59, Matt. 26: 67; Psa 22:6; Matt. 26:68), (4) his soul (Psa 22:1; Matt. 4:1; Luke 22:44; Heb. 2:17, Heb. 2: 18;4:15), (5) his death (Luke 23; John 19; Mark 15:24, Mark 15: 25), (6) and his burial (Isa. 53:9; Matt. 27:57, Matt. 27: 58, 60). His humiliation was......

HUMILITY
a prominent Christian grace (Rom. 12:3;15:17, 15: 18; 1-Cor 3:5; 2-Cor 3:5; Phil. 4:11). It is a state of mind well pleasing to God (1-Pet 3:4); it preserves the soul in tranquillity (Psa 69:32, Psa 69: 33), and makes us patient under trials (Job 1:22). Christ has set us an example of humility (Phil. 2:6). We should be led thereto by a remembrance of our sins (Lam. 3:39), and by the thought that......

HUNTING
mentioned first in Gen. 10:9 in connection with Nimrod. Esau was "a cunning hunter" (Gen. 25:27). Hunting was practised by the Hebrews after their settlement in the "Land of Promise" (Lev. 17:15; Prov. 12:27). The lion and other ravenous beasts were found in Palestine (1-Sam 17:34; 2-Sam 23:20; 1-Kings 13:24; Ezek. 19:3), and it must have been necessary to hunt and destroy them. Various snares and......

HUR
a hole, as of a viper, etc. (1.) A son of Caleb (1-Chr 2:19, 1-Chr 2: 50;4:1, 4: 4; comp. 2-Chr 1:5). (2.) The husband of Miriam, Moses' sister (Exo 17:10). He was associated with Aaron in charge of the people when Moses was absent on Sinai (Exo 24:14). He was probably of the tribe of Judah, and grandfather of Bezaleel (Exo 31:2;35:30; 1-Chr 2:19). (3.) One of the five princes of Midian who we......

HURAI
linen-worker, one of David's heroes, a native of the valley of Mount Gaash (1-Chr 11:32). ......

HUSBAND
i.e., the "house-band," connecting and keeping together the whole family. A man when betrothed was esteemed from that time a husband (Matt. 1:16, Matt. 1: 20; Luke 2:5). A recently married man was exempt from going to war for "one year" (Deut. 20:7;24:5). ......

HUSBANDMAN
one whose business it is to cultivate the ground. It was one of the first occupations, and was esteemed most honourable (Gen. 9:20;26:12, 26: 14;37:7, 37: etc.). All the Hebrews, except those engaged in religious services, were husbandmen. (See AGRICULTURE.) ......

HUSHAI
quick, "the Archite," "the king's friend" (1-Chr 27:33). When David fled from Jerusalem, on account of the rebellion of Absalom, and had reached the summit of Olivet, he there met Hushai, whom he sent back to Jerusalem for the purpose of counteracting the influence of Ahithophel, who had joined the ranks of Absalom (2-Sam 15:32, 2-Sam 15: 37;16:16). It was by his advice that Absalom refrained from......

HUSK
In Num. 6:4 (Heb. zag) it means the "skin" of a grape. In 2-Kings 4:42 (Heb. tsiqlon) it means a "sack" for grain, as rendered in the Revised Version. In Luke 15:16, Luke 15: in the parable of the Prodigal Son, it designates the beans of the carob tree, or Ceratonia siliqua. From the supposition, mistaken, however, that it was on the husks of this tree that John the Baptist fed, it is called "St. ......

HYMN
occurs only Eph. 5:19 and Col. 3:16. The verb to "sing an hymn" occurs Matt. 26:30 and Mark 14:26. The same Greek word is rendered to "sing praises" Acts 16:25 (R.V., "sing hymns") and Heb. 2:12. The "hymn" which our Lord sang with his disciples at the last Supper is generally supposed to have been the latter part of the Hallel, comprehending Ps. 113-118. It was thus a name given to a number of ps......

HYPOCRITE
one who puts on a mask and feigns himself to be what he is not; a dissembler in religion. Our Lord severely rebuked the scribes and Pharisees for their hypocrisy (Matt. 6:2, Matt. 6: 5, 16). "The hypocrite's hope shall perish" (Job 8:13). The Hebrew word here rendered "hypocrite" rather means the "godless" or "profane," as it is rendered in Jer. 23:11, Jer. 23: i.e., polluted with crimes. ......

HYSSOP
(Heb. 'ezob; LXX. hyssopos), first mentioned in Exo 12:22 in connection with the institution of the Passover. We find it afterwards mentioned in Lev. 14:4, Lev. 14: 6, 52; Num. 19:6, Num. 19: 18; Heb. 9:19. It is spoken of as a plant "springing out of the wall" (1-Kings 4:33). Many conjectures have been formed as to what this plant really was. Some contend that it was a species of marjoram (origan......

IBHAR
chosen, one of David's sons (1-Chr 3:6; 2-Sam 5:15). ......

IBLEAM
people-waster, a city assigned to Manasseh (Josh. 17:11), from which the Israelites, however, could not expel the Canaanites (Judg. 1:27). It is also called Bileam (1-Chr 6:70). It was probably the modern Jelamah, a village 2 1/2 miles north of Jenin. ......

IBZAN
illustrious, the tenth judge of Israel (Judg. 12:8). He ruled seven years. ......

ICE
frequently mentioned (Job 6:16;38:29; Psa 147:17, Psa 147: etc.). (See CRYSTAL.) ......

ICHABOD
When the tidings of the disastrous defeat of the Israelites in the battle against the Philistines near to Mizpeh were carried to Shiloh, the wife of Phinehas "was near to be delivered. And when she heard the tidings that the ark of God was taken, and that her father-in-law and her husband were dead, she bowed herself and travailed" (1-Sam 4:19). In her great distress she regarded not "the women th......

ICONIUM
the capital of ancient Lycaonia. It was first visited by Paul and Barnabas from Antioch-in-Pisidia during the apostle's first missionary journey (Acts 13:50, Acts 13: 51). Here they were persecuted by the Jews, and being driven from the city, they fled to Lystra. They afterwards returned to Iconium, and encouraged the church which had been founded there (14:21, 14:22). It was probably again visite......

IDALAH
snares(?), a city near the west border of Zebulun (Josh. 19:15). It has been identified with the modern Jeida, in the valley of Kishon. ......

IDDO
(1.) Timely (1-Chr 6:21). A Gershonite Levite. (2.) Lovely. The son of Zechariah (1-Chr 27:21), the ruler of Manasseh in David's time. (3.) Timely. The father of Ahinadab, who was one of Solomon's purveyors (1-Kings 4:14). (4.) Lovely. A prophet of Judah who wrote the history of Rehoboam and Abijah (2-Chr 12:15). He has been identified with Oded (2-Chr 15:1). (5.) Lovely. The father of Ber......

IDOL
(1.) Heb. aven, "nothingness;" "vanity" (Isa. 66:3;41:29; Deut. 32:21; 1-Kings 16:13; Psa 31:6; Jer. 8:19, Jer. 8: etc.). (2.) 'Elil, "a thing of naught" (Psa 97:7; Isa. 19:3); a word of contempt, used of the gods of Noph (Ezek. 30:13). (3.) 'Emah, "terror," in allusion to the hideous form of idols (Jer. 50:38). (4.) Miphletzeth, "a fright;" "horror" (1-Kings 15:13; 2-Chr 15:16). (5.) Bosh......

IDOLATRY
image-worship or divine honour paid to any created object. Paul describes the origin of idolatry in Rom. 1:21: men forsook God, and sank into ignorance and moral corruption (1:28). The forms of idolatry are, (1.) Fetishism, or the worship of trees, rivers, hills, stones, etc. (2.) Nature worship, the worship of the sun, moon, and stars, as the supposed powers of nature. (3.) Hero worship, th......

IDUMAEA
the Greek form of Edom (Isa. 34:5, Isa. 34: 6; Ezek. 35:15;36:5, 36: but in R.V. "Edom"). (See EDOM). ......

IGAL
avengers. (1.) Num. 13:7, Num. 13: one of the spies of the tribe of Issachar. (2.) Son of Nathan of Zobah, and one of David's warriors (2-Sam 23:36). (3.) 1-Chr 3:22. ......

IIM
ruins. (1.) A city in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:29). (2.) One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:45). ......

IJE-ABARIM
ruins of Abarim, the forty-seventh station of the Israelites in the wilderness, "in the border of Moab" (Num. 33:44). ......

IJON
a ruin, a city of Naphtali, captured by Ben-hadad of Syria at the instance of Asa (1-Kings 15:20), and afterwards by Tiglath-pileser of Assyria (2-Kings 15:29) in the reign of Pekah; now el-Khiam. ......

ILAI
an Ahohite, one of David's chief warriors (1-Chr 11:29); called also Zalmon (2-Sam 23:28). ......

ILLYRICUM
a country to the north-west of Macedonia, on the eastern shores of the Adriatic, now almost wholly comprehended in Dalmatia, a name formerly given to the southern part of Illyricum (2-Tim 4:10). It was traversed by Paul in his third missionary journey (Rom. 15:19). It was the farthest district he had reached in preaching the gospel of Christ. This reference to Illyricum is in harmony with Acts 20:......

IMAGERY
only in the phrase "chambers of his imagery" (Ezek. 8:12). (See CHAMBER.) ......

IMLA
replenisher, the father of Micaiah the prophet (2-Chr 18:7, 2-Chr 18:8). ......

IMMANUEL
God with us. In the Old Testament it occurs only in Isa. 7:14 8:8. Most Christian interpreters have regarded these words as directly and exclusively a prophecy of our Saviour, an interpretation borne out by the words of the evangelist Matthew (1:23). ......

IMMER
talkative. (1.) The head of the sixteenth priestly order (1-Chr 24:14). (2.) Jer. 20:1. (3.) Ezra 2:37; Neh. 7:40. (4.) Ezra 2:59; Neh. 7:61. (5.) The father of Zadok (Neh. 3:29). ......

IMMORTALITY
perpetuity of existence. The doctrine of immortality is taught in the Old Testament. It is plainly implied in the writings of Moses (Gen. 5:22, Gen. 5: 24;25:8;37:35;47:9;49:29, 49: comp. Heb. 11:13; Exo 3:6, Exo 3: comp. Matt. 22:23). It is more clearly and fully taught in the later books (Isa. 14:9; Psa 17:15;49:15;73:24). It was thus a doctrine obviously well known to the Jews. With the full ......

IMPUTATION
is used to designate any action or word or thing as reckoned to a person. Thus in doctrinal language (1) the sin of Adam is imputed to all his descendants, i.e., it is reckoned as theirs, and they are dealt with therefore as guilty; (2) the righteousness of Christ is imputed to them that believe in him, or so attributed to them as to be considered their own; and (3) our sins are imputed to Christ,......

INCARNATION
that act of grace whereby Christ took our human nature into union with his Divine Person, became man. Christ is both God and man. Human attributes and actions are predicated of him, and he of whom they are predicated is God. A Divine Person was united to a human nature (Acts 20:28; Rom. 8:32; 1-Cor 2:8; Heb. 2:11; 1-Tim 3:16; Gal. 4:4, Gal. 4: etc.). The union is hypostatical, i.e., is personal; t......

INCENSE
a fragrant composition prepared by the "art of the apothecary." It consisted of four ingredients "beaten small" (Exo 30:34). That which was not thus prepared was called "strange incense" (30:9). It was offered along with every meat-offering; and besides was daily offered on the golden altar in the holy place, and on the great day of atonement was burnt by the high priest in the holy of holies (30:......

INDIA
occurs only in Esther 1:1 8:9, 8: where the extent of the dominion of the Persian king is described. The country so designated here is not the peninsula of Hindustan, but the country surrounding the Indus, the Punjab. The people and the products of India were well known to the Jews, who seem to have carried on an active trade with that country (Ezek. 27:15, Ezek. 27: 24). ......

INKHORN
The Hebrew word so rendered means simply a round vessel or cup for containing ink, which was generally worn by writers in the girdle (Ezek. 9:2, Ezek. 9: 3,11). The word "inkhorn" was used by the translators, because in former times in this country horns were used for containing ink. ......

INN
in the modern sense, unknown in the East. The khans or caravanserais, which correspond to the European inn, are not alluded to in the Old Testament. The "inn" mentioned in Exo 4:24 was just the halting-place of the caravan. In later times khans were erected for the accommodation of travellers. In Luke 2:7 the word there so rendered denotes a place for loosing the beasts of their burdens. It is ren......

INSPIRATION
that extraordinary or supernatural divine influence vouchsafed to those who wrote the Holy Scriptures, rendering their writings infallible. "All scripture is given by inspiration of God" (R.V., "Every scripture inspired of God"), 2-Tim 3:16. This is true of all the "sacred writings," not in the sense of their being works of genius or of supernatural insight, but as "theopneustic," i.e., "breathed ......

INTERCESSION OF CHRIST
Christ's priestly office consists of these two parts, (1) the offering up of himself as a sacrifice, and (2) making continual intercession for us. When on earth he made intercession for his people (Luke 23:34; John 17:20; Heb. 5:7); but now he exercises this function of his priesthood in heaven, where he is said to appear in the presence of God for us (Heb. 9:12, Heb. 9:24). His advocacy with ......

INTERCESSION OF THE SPIRIT
(Rom. 8:26, Rom. 8: 27; John 14:26). "Christ is a royal Priest (Zech. 6:13). From the same throne, as King, he dispenses his Spirit to all the objects of his care, while as Priest he intercedes for them. The Spirit acts for him, taking only of his things. They both act with one consent, Christ as principal, the Spirit as his agent. Christ intercedes for us, without us, as our advocate in heaven, a......

IPHEDEIAH
set free by Jehovah, a chief of the tribe of Benjamin (1-Chr 8:25). ......

IRA
citizen; wakeful. (1.) A Tekoite, one of David's thirty warriors (2-Sam 23:26). (2.) An Ithrite, also one of David's heroes (2-Sam 23:38). (3.) A Jairite and priest, a royal chaplain (2-Sam 20:26) or confidential adviser (comp. 2-Sam 8:18; 1-Chr 18:17). ......

IRAD
runner; wild ass, one of the antediluvian patriarchs, the father of Mehujael (Gen. 4:18), and grandson of Cain. ......

IRAM
citizen, chief of an Edomite tribe in Mount Seir (Gen. 36:43). ......

IRHA-HERES
according to some MSS., meaning "city of destruction." Other MSS. read _'Irhahares_; rendered "city of the sun", Isa. 19:18, Isa. 19: where alone the word occurs. This name may probably refer to Heliopolis. The prophecy here points to a time when the Jews would so increase in number there as that the city would fall under their influence. This might be in the time of the Ptolemies. (See ON.) ......

IRON
Tubal-Cain is the first-mentioned worker in iron (Gen. 4:22). The Egyptians wrought it at Sinai before the Exodus. David prepared it in great abundance for the temple (1-Chr 22:3:29:7). The merchants of Dan and Javan brought it to the market of Tyre (Ezek. 27:19). Various instruments are mentioned as made of iron (Deut. 27:5;19:5; Josh. 17:16, Josh. 17: 18; 1-Sam 17:7; 2-Sam 12:31; 2-Kings 6:5, 2-......

IRRIGATION
As streams were few in Palestine, water was generally stored up in winter in reservoirs, and distributed through gardens in numerous rills, which could easily be turned or diverted by the foot (Deut. 11:10). For purposes of irrigation, water was raised from streams or pools by water-wheels, or by a shaduf, commonly used on the banks of the Nile to the present day. ......

ISAAC
laughter. (1) Israel, or the kingdom of the ten tribes (Amos 7:9, Amos 7: 16). (2.) The only son of Abraham by Sarah. He was the longest lived of the three patriarchs (Gen. 21:1). He was circumcised when eight days old (4-7); and when he was probably two years old a great feast was held in connection with his being weaned. The next memorable event in his life is that connected with the command......

ISAIAH
(Heb. Yesh'yahu, i.e., "the salvation of Jehovah"). (1.) The son of Amoz (Isa. 1:1;2:1), who was apparently a man of humble rank. His wife was called "the prophetess" (8:3), either because she was endowed with the prophetic gift, like Deborah (Judg. 4:4) and Huldah (2-Kings 22:14), or simply because she was the wife of "the prophet" (Isa. 38:1). He had two sons, who bore symbolical names. He exe......

ISAIAH, THE BOOK OF
consists of prophecies delivered (Isa. 1) in the reign of Uzziah (1-5), (2) of Jotham (6), (3) Ahaz (4:28), (4) the first half of Hezekiah's reign (14:28), (5) the second half of Hezekiah's reign (36-66). Thus, counting from the fourth year before Uzziah's death (B.C. 762) to the last year of Hezekiah (B.C. 698), Isaiah's ministry extended over a period of sixty-four years. He may, however, have s......

ISCAH
spy, the daughter of Haran and sister of Milcah and Lot (Gen. 11:29, Gen. 11: 31). ......

ISCARIOT
(See JUDAS.) ......

ISH-BOSHETH
man of shame or humiliation, the youngest of Saul's four sons, and the only one who survived him (2 Sam. 2-4). His name was originally Eshbaal (1-Chr 8:33;9:39). He was about forty years of age when his father and three brothers fell at the battle of Gilboa. Through the influence of Abner, Saul's cousin, he was acknowledged as successor to the throne of Saul, and ruled over all Israel, except the ......

ISHBAK
leaving, one of Abraham's sons by Keturah (Gen. 25:2). ......

ISHBI-BENOB
my seat at Nob, one of the Rephaim, whose spear was three hundred shekels in weight. He was slain by Abishai (2-Sam 21:16, 2-Sam 21: 17). ......

ISHI
my husband, a symbolical name used in Hos. 2:16 (See BAALI.) ......

ISHMAEL
God hears. (1.) Abraham's eldest son, by Hagar the concubine (Gen. 16:15;17:23). He was born at Mamre, when Abraham was eighty-six years of age, eleven years after his arrival in Canaan (16:3;21:5). At the age of thirteen he was circumcised (17:25). He grew up a true child of the desert, wild and wayward. On the occasion of the weaning of Isaac his rude and wayward spirit broke out in expressions ......

ISHMAIAH
heard by Jehovah. (1.) A Gibeonite who joined David at Ziklag, "a hero among the thirty and over the thirty" (1-Chr 12:4). (2.) Son of Obadiah, and viceroy of Zebulun under David and Solomon (1-Chr 27:19). ......

ISHMEELITES
(Gen. 37:28;39:1, 39: A.V.) should be "Ishmaelites," as in the Revised Version. ......

ISHTOB
man of Tob, one of the small Syrian kingdoms which together constituted Aram (2-Sam 10:6, 2-Sam 10:8). ......

ISLAND
(Heb. 'i, "dry land," as opposed to water) occurs in its usual signification (Isa. 42:4, Isa. 42: 10, 12, 15, comp. Jer. 47:4), but more frequently simply denotes a maritime region or sea-coast (Isa. 20:6, Isa. 20: R.V.," coastland;"23:2, 23: 6; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:6, Ezek. 27: 7). (See CHITTIM.) The shores of the Mediterranean are called the "islands of the sea" (Isa. 11:11), or the "isles of the......

ISRAEL
the name conferred on Jacob after the great prayer-struggle at Peniel (Gen. 32:28), because "as a prince he had power with God and prevailed." (See JACOB.) This is the common name given to Jacob's descendants. The whole people of the twelve tribes are called "Israelites," the "children of Israel" (Josh. 3:17;7:25; Judg. 8:27; Jer. 3:21), and the "house of Israel" (Exo 16:31;40:38). This name Isr......

ISRAEL, KINGDOM OF
(B.C. 975-B.C. 722). Soon after the death of Solomon, Ahijah's prophecy (1-Kings 11:31) was fulfilled, and the kingdom was rent in twain. Rehoboam, the son and successor of Solomon, was scarcely seated on his throne when the old jealousies between Judah and the other tribes broke out anew, and Jeroboam was sent for from Egypt by the malcontents (12:2, 12:3). Rehoboam insolently refused to lighten ......

ISSACHAR
hired (Gen. 30:18). "God hath given me," said Leah, "my hire (Heb. sekhari)...and she called his name Issachar." He was Jacob's ninth son, and was born in Padan-aram (28:2). He had four sons at the going down into Egypt (6:13; Num. 26:23, Num. 26: 25). Issachar, Tribe of, during the journey through the wilderness, along with Judah and Zebulun (Num. 2:5), marched on the east of the tabernacle. Th......

ITALIAN BAND
the name of the Roman cohort to which Cornelius belonged (Acts 10:1), so called probably because it consisted of men recruited in Italy. ......

ITALY
Acts 18:2;27:1, 27: 6; Heb. 13:24), like most geographical names, was differently used at different periods of history. As the power of Rome advanced, nations were successively conquered and added to it till it came to designate the whole country to the south of the Alps. There was constant intercourse between Palestine and Italy in the time of the Romans. ......

ITHAMAR
palm isle, the fourth and youngest son of Aaron (1-Chr 6:3). He was consecrated to the priesthood along with his brothers (Exo 6:23); and after the death of Nadab and Abihu, he and Eleazar alone discharged the functions of that office (Lev. 10:6, Lev. 10: 12; Num. 3:4). He and his family occupied the position of common priest till the high priesthood passed into his family in the person of Eli (1-......

ITHRITE
two of David's warriors so designated (2-Sam 23:38; 1-Chr 11:40). ......

ITTAI
near; timely; or, with the Lord. (1.) A Benjamite, one of David's thirty heroes (2-Sam 23:29). (2.) A native of Gath, a Philistine, who had apparently the command of the six hundred heroes who formed David's band during his wanderings (2-Sam 15:19; comp. 1-Sam 23:13;27:2;30:9, 30: 10). He is afterwards with David at Mahanaim, holding in the army equal rank with Joab and Abishai (2-Sam 18:2, 2-Sa......

ITURAEA
a district in the north-east of Palestine, forming, along with the adjacent territory of Trachonitis, the tetrarchy of Philip (Luke 3:1). The present Jedur comprehends the chief part of Ituraea. It is bounded on the east by Trachonitis, on the south by Gaulanitis, on the west by Hermon, and on the north by the plain of Damascus. ......

IVAH
overturning, a city of the Assyrians, whence colonists were brought to Samaria (2-Kings 18:34;19:13). It lay on the Euphrates, between Sepharvaim and Henah, and is supposed by some to have been the Ahava of Ezra (8:15). ......

IVORY
(Heb. pl. shenhabbim, the "tusks of elephants") was early used in decorations by the Egyptians, and a great trade in it was carried on by the Assyrians (Ezek. 27:6; Rev. 18:12). It was used by the Phoenicians to ornament the box-wood rowing-benches of their galleys, and Hiram's skilled workmen made Solomon's throne of ivory (1-Kings 10:18). It was brought by the caravans of Dedan (Isa. 21:13), and......

IZHAR
oil, one of the sons of Kohath, and grandson of Levi (Exo 6:18, Exo 6: 21; Num. 16:1). ......

IZRAHITE
the designation of one of David's officers (1-Chr 27:8). ......

JAAKAN
he twists, one of the sons of Ezer, the son of Seir the Horite (1-Chr 1:42). ......

JAAKOBAH
heel-catcher, a form of the name Jacob, one of the descendants of Simeon (1-Chr 4:36). ......

JAALA
a wild she-goat, one of the Nethinim, whose descendants returned from the Captivity (Neh. 7:58). ......

JAALAM
concealer, the second of Esau's three sons by Aholibamah (Gen. 36:5, Gen. 36: 14). ......

JAANAI
mourner, one of the chief Gadites (1-Chr 5:12). ......

JAARE-OREGIM
forests of the weavers, a Bethlehemite (2-Sam 21:19), and the father of Elhanan, who slew Goliath. In 1-Chr 20:5 called JAIR. ......

JAASAU
fabricator, an Israelite who renounced his Gentile wife after the Return (Ezra 10:37). ......

JAASIEL
made by God, one of David's body-guard, the son of Abner (1-Chr 27:21), called Jasiel in 1-Chr 11:47. ......

JAAZ-ANIAH
heard by Jehovah. (1.) The son of Jeremiah, and one of the chief Rechabites (Jer. 35:3). (2.) The son of Shaphan (Ezek. 8:11). (3.) The son of Azur, one of the twenty-five men seen by Ezekiel (11:1) at the east gate of the temple. (4.) A Maachathite (2-Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8;42:1). He is also called Azariah (Jer. 43:2). ......

JAAZER
he (God) helps, a city of the Amorites on the east of Jordan, and assigned, with neighbouring places in Gilead, to Gad (Num. 32:1, Num. 32: 35; Josh. 13:25). It was allotted to the Merarite Levites (21:39). In David's time it was occupied by the Hebronites, i.e., the descendants of Kohath (1-Chr 26:31). It is mentioned in the "burdens" proclaimed over Moab (Isa. 16:8, Isa. 16: 9; Jer. 48:32). Its ......

JAAZIAH
comforted by Jehovah, a descendant of Merari the Levite (1-Chr 24:26, 1-Chr 24:27). ......

JAAZIEL
comforted by God, a Levitical musician (1-Chr 15:18). ......

JABAL
a stream, a descendant of Cain, and brother of Jubal; "the father of such as dwell in tents and have cattle" (Gen. 4:20). This description indicates that he led a wandering life. ......

JABBOK
a pouring out, or a wrestling, one of the streams on the east of Jordan, into which it falls about midway between the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea, or about 45 miles below the Sea of Galilee. It rises on the eastern side of the mountains of Gilead, and runs a course of about 65 miles in a wild and deep ravine. It was the boundary between the territory of the Ammonites and that of Og, king of Ba......

JABESH
dry. (1.) For Jabesh-Gilead (1-Sam 11:3, 1-Sam 11:9, 1-Sam 11:10). (2.) The father of Shallum (2-Kings 15:10, 2-Kings 15: 13, 14), who usurped the throne of Israel on the death of Zachariah. ......

JABESH-GILEAD
a town on the east of Jordan, on the top of one of the green hills of Gilead, within the limits of the half tribe of Manasseh, and in full view of Beth-shan. It is first mentioned in connection with the vengeance taken on its inhabitants because they had refused to come up to Mizpeh to take part with Israel against the tribe of Benjamin (Judg. 21:8). After the battles at Gibeah, that tribe was alm......

JABEZ
affiction. (1.) A descendant of Judah, of whom it is recorded that "God granted him that which he requested" (1-Chr 4:9, 1-Chr 4: 10). (2.) A place inhabited by several families of the scribes (1-Chr 2:55). ......

JABIN
discerner; the wise. (1.) A king of Hazor, at the time of the entrance of Israel into Canaan (Josh. 11:1), whose overthrow and that of the northern chief with whom he had entered into a confederacy against Joshua was the crowning act in the conquest of the land (11:21; 14:6). This great battle, fought at Lake Merom, was the last of Joshua's battles of which we have any record. Here for the first t......

JABNEEL
built by God. (1.) A town in the north boundary of Judah (Josh. 15:11), called afterwards by the Greeks Jamnia, the modern Yebna, 11 miles south of Jaffa. After the fall of Jerusalem (A.D. 70), it became one of the most populous cities of Judea, and the seat of a celebrated school. (2.) A town on the border of Naphtali (Josh. 19:33). Its later name was Kefr Yemmah, "the village by the sea," on t......

JABNEH
building, (2-Chr 26:6), identical with Jabneel (Josh. 15:11). ......

JACHAN
mourner, one of the chief Gadite "brothers" in Bashan (1-Chr 5:13). ......

JACHIN
firm. (1.) The fourth son of Simeon (Gen. 46:10), called also Jarib (1-Chr 4:24). (2.) The head of one of the courses (the twenty-first) of priests (1-Chr 24:17). (3.) One of the priests who returned from the Exile (1-Chr 9:10). ......

JACHIN AND BOAZ
the names of two brazen columns set up in Solomon's temple (1-Kings 7:15). Each was eighteen cubits high and twelve in circumference (Jer. 52:21, Jer. 52: 23; 1-Kings 7:17). They had doubtless a symbolical import. ......

JACINTH
properly a flower of a reddish blue or deep purple (hyacinth), and hence a precious stone of that colour (Rev. 21:20). It has been supposed to designate the same stone as the ligure (Heb. leshem) mentioned in Exo 28:19 as the first stone of the third row in the high priest's breast-plate. In Rev. 9:17 the word is simply descriptive of colour. ......

JACOB
one who follows on another's heels; supplanter, (Gen. 25:26;27:36; Hos. 12:2), the second born of the twin sons of Isaac by Rebekah. He was born probably at Lahai-roi, when his father was fifty-nine and Abraham one hundred and fifty-nine years old. Like his father, he was of a quiet and gentle disposition, and when he grew up followed the life of a shepherd, while his brother Esau became an enterp......

JACOB'S WELL
(John 4:5, John 4: 6). This is one of the few sites in Palestine about which there is no dispute. It was dug by Jacob, and hence its name, in the "parcel of ground" which he purchased from the sons of Hamor (Gen. 33:19). It still exists, but although after copious rains it contains a little water, it is now usually quite dry. It is at the entrance to the valley between Ebal and Gerizim, about 2 mi......

JADDUA
known. (1.) One of the chiefs who subscribed the covenant (Neh. 10:21). (2.) The last high priest mentioned in the Old Testament (Neh. 12:11, Neh. 12: 22), sons of Jonathan. ......

JADON
judge, a Meronothite who assisted in rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem (Neh. 3:7). ......

JAEL
mountain-goat, the wife of Heber the Kenite (Judg. 4:17). When the Canaanites were defeated by Barak, Sisera, the captain of Jabin's army, fled and sought refuge with the friendly tribe of Heber, beneath the oaks of Zaanaim. As he drew near, Jael invited him to enter her tent. He did so, and as he lay wearied on the floor he fell into a deep sleep. She then took in her left hand one of the great w......

JAGUR
place of sojourn, a city on the southern border of Judah (Josh. 15:21). ......

JAH
a contraction for Jehovah (Psa 68:4). ......

JAHATH
union. (1.) A son of Shimei, and grandson of Gershom (1-Chr 23:10). (2.) One of the sons of Shelomoth, of the family of Kohath (1-Chr 24:22). (3.) A Levite of the family of Merari, one of the overseers of the repairs of the temple under Josiah (2-Chr 34:12). ......

JAHAZ
trodden down (called also Jahaza, Josh. 13:18; Jahazah,21:36; Jahzah, 1-Chr 6:78), a town where Sihon was defeated, in the borders of Moab and in the land of the Ammonites beyond Jordan, and north of the river Arnon (Num. 21:23; Deut. 2:32). It was situated in the tribe of Reuben, and was assigned to the Merarite Levites (Josh. 13:18;21:36). Here was fought the decisive battle in which Sihon (q.v.......

JAHAZIEL
beheld by God. (1.) The third son of Hebron (1-Chr 23:19). (2.) A Benjamite chief who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:4). (3.) A priest who accompanied the removal of the ark to Jerusalem (1-Chr 16:6). (4.) The son of Zechariah, a Levite of the family of Asaph (2-Chr 20:14). He encouraged Jehoshaphat against the Moabites and Ammonites. ......

JAHDAI
grasper, a descendant of Caleb, of the family of Hezron (1-Chr 2:47). ......

JAHZEEL
allotted by God, the first of the sons of Naphtali (Gen. 46:24). ......

JAHZERAH
returner, the son of Meshullam, and father of Adiel (1-Chr 9:12). ......

JAILER
(of Philippi), Acts 16:23. The conversion of the Roman jailer, a man belonging to a class "insensible as a rule and hardened by habit, and also disposed to despise the Jews, who were the bearers of the message of the gospel," is one of those cases which illustrate its universality and power. ......

JAIR
enlightener. (1.) The son of Segub. He was brought up with his mother in Gilead, where he had possessions (1-Chr 2:22). He distinguished himself in an expedition against Bashan, and settled in the part of Argob on the borders of Gilead. The small towns taken by him there are called Havoth-jair, i.e., "Jair's villages" (Num. 32:41; Deut. 3:14; Josh. 13:30). (2.) The eighth judge of Israel, which ......

JAIRUS
a ruler of the synagogue at Capernaum, whose only daughter Jesus restored to life (Mark 5:22; Luke 8:41). Entering into the chamber of death, accompanied by Peter and James and John and the father and mother of the maiden, he went forward to the bed whereon the corpse lay, and said, Talitha cumi, i.e., "Maid, arise," and immediately the spirit of the maiden came to her again, and she arose straigh......

JAKEH
pious, the father of Agur (Prov. 30:1). Nothing is known of him. ......

JAKIM
establisher. (1.) Chief of the twelfth priestly order (1-Chr 24:12). (2.) A Benjamite (1-Chr 8:19). (3.) Margin in Matt. 1:11 means Jehoiakim. ......

JALON
lodger, the last of the four sons of Ezra, of the tribe of Judah (1-Chr 4:17). ......

JAMBRES
one of those who opposed Moses in Egypt (2-Tim 3:8). (See JANNES.) ......

JAMES
(1.) The son of Zebedee and Salome; an elder brother of John the apostle. He was one of the twelve. He was by trade a fisherman, in partnership with Peter (Matt. 20:20;27:56). With John and Peter he was present at the transfiguration (Matt. 17:1; Mark 9:2), at the raising of Jairus's daughter (Mark 5:37), and in the garden with our Lord (14:33). Because, probably, of their boldness and energy, he ......

JAMES, EPISTLE OF
(1.) Author of, was James the Less, the Lord's brother, one of the twelve apostles. He was one of the three pillars of the Church (Gal. 2:9). (2.) It was addressed to the Jews of the dispersion, "the twelve tribes scattered abroad." (3.) The place and time of the writing of the epistle were Jerusalem, where James was residing, and, from internal evidence, the period between Paul's two imprison......

JANNES
one of the Egyptians who "withstood Moses" (2-Tim 3:8). ......

JANOAH
or Jano'hah, rest. (1.) A town on the north-eastern border of Ephraim, in the Jordan valley (Josh. 16:6, Josh. 16: 7). Identified with the modern Yanun, 8 miles south-east of Nablus. (2.) A town of Northern Palestine, within the boundaries of Naphtali. It was taken by the king of Assyria (2-Kings 15:29). ......

JANUM
slumber, a town in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:53). ......

JAPHETH
wide spreading: "God shall enlarge Japheth" (Heb. Yaphat Elohim le-Yephet, Gen. 9:27. Some, however, derive the name from _yaphah_, "to be beautiful;" hence white), one of the sons of Noah, mentioned last in order (Gen. 5:32;6:10;7:13), perhaps first by birth (10:21; 9:24). He and his wife were two of the eight saved in the ark (1-Pet 3:20). He was the progenitor of many tribes inhabiting the east......

JAPHIA
splendid. (1.) The king of Lachish, who joined in the confederacy against Joshua (Josh. 10:3), and was defeated and slain. In one of the Amarna tablets he speaks of himself as king of Gezer. Called also Horam (Josh. 10:33). (2.) One of the sons of David (2-Sam 5:15), born in Jerusalem. (3.) A town in the southern boundary of Zebulum (Josh. 19:12); now Yafa, 2 miles south-west of Nazareth. ......

JAPHO
beauty, a sea-port in Dan (Josh. 19:46); called Joppa (q.v.) in 2-Chr 2:16; Ezra 3:7; Jonah 1:3; and in New Testament. ......

JARED
descent. (1.) The fourth antediluvian patriarch in descent from Seth (Gen. 5:15; Luke 3:37), the father of Enoch; called Jered in 1-Chr 1:2. (2.) A son of Ezra probably (1-Chr 4:18). ......

JARIB
an adversary. (1.) A son of Simeon (1-Chr 4:24). (2.) One of the chiefs sent by Ezra to bring up the priests to Jerusalem (Ezra 8:16). (3.) Ezra 10:18. ......

JARMUTH
height. (1.) A town in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:35), originally the residence of one of the Canaanitish kings (10:3, 10: 5, 23). It has been identified with the modern Yarmuk, a village about 7 miles north-east of Beit-Jibrin. (2.) A Levitical city of the tribe of Issachar (Josh. 21:29), supposed by some to be the Ramah of Samuel (1-Sam 19:22). ......

JASHEN
sleeping, called also Hashem (1-Chr 11:34); a person, several of whose sons were in David's body-guard (2-Sam 23:32). ......

JASHER
upright. "The Book of Jasher," rendered in the LXX. "the Book of the Upright One," by the Vulgate "the Book of Just Ones," was probably a kind of national sacred song-book, a collection of songs in praise of the heroes of Israel, a "book of golden deeds," a national anthology. We have only two specimens from the book, (1) the words of Joshua which he spake to the Lord at the crisis of the battle o......

JASHOBEAM
dweller among the people; or to whom the people turn, the Hachmonite (1-Chr 11:11), one of David's chief heroes who joined him at Ziklag (12:6). He was the first of the three who broke through the host of the Philistines to fetch water to David from the well of Bethlehem (2-Sam 23:13). He is also called Adino the Eznite (8). ......

JASHUB
returner. (1.) The third of Issachar's four sons (1-Chr 7:1); called also Job (Gen. 46:13). (2.) Ezra 10:29. ......

JASON
he that will cure, the host of Paul and Silas in Thessalonica. The Jews assaulted his house in order to seize Paul, but failing to find him, they dragged Jason before the ruler of the city (Acts 17:5). He was apparently one of the kinsmen of Paul (Rom. 16:21), and accompanied him from Thessalonica to Corinth. ......

JASPER
(Heb. yashpheh, "glittering"), a gem of various colours, one of the twelve inserted in the high priest's breast-plate (Exo 28:20). It is named in the building of the New Jerusalem (Rev. 21:18, Rev. 21: 19). It was "most precious," "clear as crystal" (21:11). It was emblematic of the glory of God (4:3). ......

JATTIR
pre-eminent, a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:48;21:14). ......

JAVAN
(1.) The fourth "son" of Japheth (Gen. 10:2), whose descendants settled in Greece, i.e., Ionia, which bears the name of Javan in Hebrew. Alexander the Great is called the "king of Javan" (rendered "Grecia," Dan. 8:21;10:20; 11:2; Zech. 9:13). This word was universally used by the nations of the East as the generic name of the Greek race. (2.) A town or district of Arabia Felix, from which the Sy......

JAVELIN
(1.) Heb. hanith, a lance, from its flexibility (1-Sam 18:10, 1-Sam 18: 11;19:9, 19: 10;20:33). (2.) Heb. romah, a lance for heavy-armed troops, so called from its piercing (Num. 25:7). (See ARMS.) ......

JAW-BONE
of an ass afforded Samson a weapon for the great slaughter of the Philistines (Judg. 15.15), in which he slew a thousand men. In verse 19 the Authorized Version reads, "God clave a hollow place that was in the jaw, and there came water thereout." This is a mis-translation of the words. The rendering should be as in the Revised Version, "God clave the hollow place that is in Lehi," etc., Lehi (q.v.......

JEALOUSY
suspicion of a wife's purity, one of the strongest passions (Num. 5:14; Prov. 6:34; 8:6); also an intense interest for another's honour or prosperity (Psa 79:5; 1-Cor 10:22; Zech. 1:14). ......

JEALOUSY OFFERING
the name of the offering the husband was to bring when he charged his wife with adultery (Num. 5:11). ......

JEALOUSY, IMAGE OF
an idolatrous object, seen in vision by Ezekiel (Ezek. 8:3, Ezek. 8: 5), which stood in the priests' or inner court of the temple. Probably identical with the statue of Astarte (2-Kings 21:7). ......

JEALOUSY, WATERS OF
water which the suspected wife was required to drink, so that the result might prove her guilt or innocence (Num. 5:12, Num. 5: 27). We have no record of this form of trial having been actually resorted to. ......

JEARIM
forests, a mountain on the border of Judah (Josh. 15:10). ......

JEBUS
trodden hard, or fastness, or "the waterless hill", the name of the Canaanitish city which stood on Mount Zion (Josh. 15:8;18:16, 18: 28). It is identified with Jerusalem (q.v.) in Judg. 19:10, Judg. 19: and with the castle or city of David (1-Chr 11:4, 1-Chr 11:5). It was a place of great natural strength, and its capture was one of David's most brilliant achievements (2-Sam 5:8). ......

JEBUSITES
the name of the original inhabitants of Jebus, mentioned frequently among the seven nations doomed to destruction (Gen. 10:16;15:21; Exo 3:8, Exo 3: 17;13:5, 13: etc.). At the time of the arrival of the Israelites in Palestine they were ruled by Adonizedek (Josh. 10:1, Josh. 10: 23). They were defeated by Joshua, and their king was slain; but they were not entirely driven out of Jebus till the tim......

JECOLIAH
able through Jehovah, the wife of King Amaziah, and mother of King Uzziah (2-Chr 26:3). ......

JEDAIAH
(1.) Invoker of Jehovah. The son of Shimri, a chief Simeonite (1-Chr 4:37). (2.) One of those who repaired the walls of Jerusalem after the return from Babylon (Neh. 3:10). (3.) Knowing Jehovah. The chief of one of the courses of the priests (1-Chr 24:7). (4.) A priest in Jerusalem after the Exile (1-Chr 9:10). ......

JEDIAEL
known by God. (1.) One of the sons of Benjamin, whose descendants numbered 17,200 warriors (1-Chr 7:6, 1-Chr 7: 10, 11). (2.) A Shimrite, one of David's bodyguard (1-Chr 11:45). Probably same as 12:20. (3.) A Korhite of the family of Ebiasaph, and one of the gate-keepers to the temple (1-Chr 26:2). ......

JEDIDIAH
beloved by Jehovah, the name which, by the mouth of Nathan, the Lord gave to Solomon at his birth as a token of the divine favour (2-Sam 12:25). ......

JEDUTHUN
lauder; praising, a Levite of the family of Merari, and one of the three masters of music appointed by David (1-Chr 16:41, 1-Chr 16: 42;25:1). He is called in 2-Chr 35:15 "the king's seer." His descendants are mentioned as singers and players on instruments (Neh. 11:17). He was probably the same as Ethan (1-Chr 15:17, 1-Chr 15: 19). In the superscriptions to Ps. 39, 62, and 77, the words "upon Jed......

JEGAR-SAHADUTHA
pile of testimony, the Aramaic or Syriac name which Laban gave to the pile of stones erected as a memorial of the covenant between him and Jacob (Gen. 31:47), who, however, called it in Hebrew by an equivalent name, Galeed (q.v.). ......

JEHALELEEL
praiser of God. (1.) A descendant of Judah (1-Chr 4:16). (2.) A Levite of the family of Merari (2-Chr 29:12). ......

JEHDEIAH
rejoicer in Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levitical attendants at the temple, a descendant of Shubael (1-Chr 24:20). (2.) A Meronothite, herdsman of the asses under David and Solomon (1-Chr 27:30). ......

JEHIEL
God's living one. (1.) The father of Gibeon (1-Chr 9:35). (2.) One of David's guard (1-Chr 11:44). (3.) One of the Levites "of the second degree," appointed to conduct the music on the occasion of the ark's being removed to Jerusalem (1-Chr 15:18, 1-Chr 15: 20). (4.) A Hachmonite, a tutor in the family of David toward the close of his reign (1-Chr 27:32). (5.) The second of Jehoshaphat's s......

JEHIZKIAH
Jehovah strengthens, one of the chiefs of Ephraim (2-Chr 28:12). ......

JEHOADDAN
Jehovah his ornament, the wife of King Jehoash, and mother of King Amaziah (2-Kings 14:2). ......

JEHOAHAZ
Jehovah his sustainer, or he whom Jehovah holdeth. (1.) The youngest son of Jehoram, king of Judah (2-Chr 21:17;22:1, 22: 6, 8, 9); usually Ahaziah (q.v.). (2.) The son and successor of Jehu, king of Israel (2-Kings 10:35). He reigned seventeen years, and followed the evil ways of the house of Jeroboam. The Syrians, under Hazael and Benhadad, prevailed over him, but were at length driven out of ......

JEHOASH
Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of King Ahaziah. While yet an infant, he was saved from the general massacre of the family by his aunt Jehosheba, and was apparently the only surviving descendant of Solomon (2-Chr 21:4, 2-Chr 21: 17). His uncle, the high priest Jehoiada, brought him forth to public notice when he was eight years of age, and crowned and anointed him king of Judah with the usual ceremoni......

JEHOHANAN
Jehovah-granted, Jeroboam II. (1.) A Korhite, the head of one of the divisions of the temple porters (1-Chr 26:3). (2.) One of Jehoshaphat's "captains" (2-Chr 17:15). (3.) The father of Azariah (2-Chr 28:12). (4.) The son of Tobiah, an enemy of the Jews (Neh. 6:18). (5.) Neh. 12:42. (6.) Neh. 12:13. ......

JEHOIACHIN
succeeded his father Jehoiakin (B.C. 599) when only eight years of age, and reigned for one hundred days (2-Chr 36:9). He is also called Jeconiah (Jer. 24:1;27:20, 27: etc.), and Coniah (22:24;37:1). He was succeeded by his uncle, Mattaniah = Zedekiah (q.v.). He was the last direct heir to the Jewish crown. He was carried captive to Babylon by Nebuchadnezzar, along with the flower of the nobility,......

JEHOIADA
Jehovah-known. (1.) The father of Benaiah, who was one of David's chief warriors (2-Sam 8:18;20:23). (2.) The high priest at the time of Athaliah's usurpation of the throne of Judah. He married Jehosheba, or Jehoshabeath, the daughter of king Jehoram (2-Chr 22:11), and took an active part along with his wife in the preservation and training of Jehoash when Athaliah slew all the royal family of J......

JEHOIAKIM
he whom Jehovah has set up, the second son of Josiah, and eighteenth king of Judah, which he ruled over for eleven years (B.C. 610-599). His original name was Eliakim (q.v.). On the death of his father his younger brother Jehoahaz (=Shallum, Jer. 22:11), who favoured the Chaldeans against the Egyptians, was made king by the people; but the king of Egypt, Pharaoh-necho, invaded the land and depos......

JEHOIARIB
Jehovah defends, a priest at Jerusalem, head of one of the sacerdotal courses (1-Chr 9:10;24:7). His "course" went up from Babylon after the Exile (Ezra 2:36; Neh. 7:39). ......

JEHONADAB
Jehovah is liberal; or, whom Jehovah impels. (1.) A son of Shimeah, and nephew of David. It was he who gave the fatal wicked advice to Amnon, the heir to the throne (2-Sam 13:3). He was very "subtil," but unprincipled. (2.) A son of Rechab, the founder of a tribe who bound themselves by a vow to abstain from wine (Jer. 35:6). There were different settlements of Rechabites (Judg. 1:16;4:11; 1-Chr......

JEHONATHAN
whom Jehovah gave. (1.) One of the stewards of David's store-houses (1-Chr 27:25). (2.) A Levite who taught the law to the people of Judah (2-Chr 17:8). (3.) Neh. 12:18. ......

JEHORAM
Jehovah-exalted. (1.) Son of Toi, king of Hamath, sent by his father to congratulate David on the occasion of his victory over Hadadezer (2-Sam 8:10). (2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1-Chr 26:25). (3.) A priest sent by Jehoshaphat to instructruct the people in Judah (2-Chr 17:8). (4.) The son of Ahab and Jezebel, and successor to his brother Ahaziah on the throne of Israel. He reigne......

JEHOSHAPHAT
Jehovah-judged. (1.) One of David's body-guard (1-Chr 11:43). (2.) One of the priests who accompanied the removal of the ark to Jerusalem (1-Chr 15:24). (3.) Son of Ahilud, "recorder" or annalist under David and Solomon (2-Sam 8:16), a state officer of high rank, chancellor or vizier of the kingdom. (4.) Solomon's purveyor in Issachar (1-Kings 4:17). (5.) The son and successor of Asa, king......

JEHOSHAPHAT, VALLEY OF
mentioned in Scripture only in Joel 3:2, Joel 3: 12. This is the name given in modern times to the valley between Jerusalem and the Mount of Olives, and the Kidron flows through it. Here Jehoshaphat overthrew the confederated enemies of Israel (Psa 83:6); and in this valley also God was to overthrow the Tyrians, Zidonians, etc. (Joel 3:4, Joel 3: 19), with an utter overthrow. This has been fulfill......

JEHOSHEBA
Jehovah-swearing, the daughter of Jehoram, the king of Israel. She is called Jehoshabeath in 2-Chr 22:11. She was the only princess of the royal house who was married to a high priest, Jehoiada (2-Chr 22:11). ......

JEHOVAH
the special and significant name (not merely an appellative title such as Lord [adonai]) by which God revealed himself to the ancient Hebrews (Exo 6:2, Exo 6: 3). This name, the Tetragrammaton of the Greeks, was held by the later Jews to be so sacred that it was never pronounced except by the high priest on the great Day of Atonement, when he entered into the most holy place. Whenever this name oc......

JEHOVAH-JIREH
Jehovah will see; i.e., will provide, the name given by Abraham to the scene of his offering up the ram which was caught in the thicket on Mount Moriah. The expression used in Gen. 22:14, Gen. 22: "in the mount of the Lord it shall be seen," has been regarded as equivalent to the saying, "Man's extremity is God's opportunity." ......

JEHOVAH-NISSI
Jehovah my banner, the title given by Moses to the altar which he erected on the hill on the top of which he stood with uplifted hands while Israel prevailed over their enemies the Amalekites (Exo 17:15). ......

JEHOVAH-SHALOM
Jehovah send peace, the name which Gideon gave to the altar he erected on the spot at Ophrah where the angel appeared to him (Judg. 6:24). ......

JEHOVAH-SHAMMAH
Jehovah is there, the symbolical title given by Ezekiel to Jerusalem, which was seen by him in vision (Ezek. 48:35). It was a type of the gospel Church. ......

JEHOVAH-TSIDKENU
Jehovah our rightousness, rendered in the Authorized Version, "The LORD our righteousness," a title given to the Messiah (Jer. 23:6, Jer. 23: marg.), and also to Jerusalem (33:16, 33: marg.). ......

JEHOZABAD
Jehovah-given. (1.) The son of Obed-edom (1-Chr 26:4), one of the Levite porters. (2.) The son of Shomer, one of the two conspirators who put king Jehoash to death in Millo in Jerusalem (2-Kings 12:21). (3.) 2-Chr 17:18. ......

JEHOZADAK
Jehovah-justified, the son of the high priest Seraiah at the time of the Babylonian exile (1-Chr 6:14, 1-Chr 6: 15). He was carried into captivity by Nebuchadnezzar, and probably died in Babylon. He was the father of Jeshua, or Joshua, who returned with Zerubbabel. ......

JEHU
Jehovah is he. (1.) The son of Obed, and father of Azariah (1-Chr 2:38). (2.) One of the Benjamite slingers that joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:3). (3.) The son of Hanani, a prophet of Judah (1-Kings 16:1, 1-Kings 16: 7; 2-Chr 19:2;20:34), who pronounced the sentence of God against Baasha, the king of Israel. (4.) King of Israel, the son of Jehoshaphat (2-Kings 9:2), and grandson of Nimshi......

JEHUCAL
able, the son of Shelemiah. He is also called Jucal (Jer. 38:1). He was one of the two persons whom Zedekiah sent to request the prophet Jeremiah to pray for the kingdom (Jer. 37:3) during the time of its final siege by Nebuchadnezzar. He was accompanied by Zephaniah (q.v.). ......

JEHUDI
a Jew, son of Nethaniah. He was sent by the princes to invite Baruch to read Jeremiah's roll to them (Jer. 36:14, Jer. 36: 21). ......

JEIEL
snatched away by God. (1.) A descendant of Benjamin (1-Chr 9:35;8:29). (2.) One of the Levites who took part in praising God on the removal of the ark to Jerusalem (1-Chr 16:5). (3.) 2-Chr 29:13. A Levite of the sons of Asaph. (4.) 2-Chr 26:11. A scribe. (5.) 1-Chr 5:7. A Reubenite chief. (6.) One of the chief Levites, who made an offering for the restoration of the Passover by Josiah (2......

JEMIMA
dove, the eldest of Job's three daughters born after his time of trial (Job 42:14). ......

JEPHTHAH
whom God sets free, or the breaker through, a "mighty man of valour" who delivered Israel from the oppression of the Ammonites (Judg. 11:1), and judged Israel six years (12:7). He has been described as "a wild, daring, Gilead mountaineer, a sort of warrior Elijah." After forty-five years of comparative quiet Israel again apostatized, and in "process of time the children of Ammon made war against I......

JEPHTHAH'S VOW
(Judg. 11:30, Judg. 11: 31). After a crushing defeat of the Ammonites, Jephthah returned to his own house, and the first to welcome him was his own daughter. This was a terrible blow to the victor, and in his despair he cried out, "Alas, my daughter! thou hast brought me very low...I have opened my mouth unto the Lord, and cannot go back." With singular nobleness of spirit she answered, "Do to me ......

JEPHUNNEH
nimble, or a beholder. (1.) The father of Caleb, who was Joshua's companion in exploring Canaan (Num. 13:6), a Kenezite (Josh. 14:14). (2.) One of the descendants of Asher (1-Chr 7:38). ......

JERAHMEEL
loving God. (1.) The son of Hezron, the brother of Caleb (1-Chr 2:9, 1-Chr 2: 25, 26, etc.). (2.) The son of Kish, a Levite (1-Chr 24:29). (3.) Son of Hammelech (Jer. 36:26). ......

JEREMIAH
raised up or appointed by Jehovah. (1.) A Gadite who joined David in the wilderness (1-Chr 12:10). (2.) A Gadite warrior (1-Chr 12:13). (3.) A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:4). (4.) One of the chiefs of the tribe of Manasseh on the east of Jordan (1-Chr 5:24). (5.) The father of Hamutal (2-Kings 23:31), the wife of Josiah. (6.) One of the "greater prophets" of th......

JEREMIAH, BOOK OF
consists of twenty-three separate and independent sections, arranged in five books. I. The introduction, ch. 1. II. Reproofs of the sins of the Jews, consisting of seven sections, (1.) ch. 2; (2.) ch. 3-6; (3.) ch. 7-10; (4.) ch. 11-13; (5.) ch. 7:18; (6.) 17:19ch. 20; (7.) ch. 21-24. III. A general review of all nations, in two sections, (1.) ch. 46-49; (2.) ch. 25; with an historical appendix of......

JERICHO
place of fragrance, a fenced city in the midst of a vast grove of palm trees, in the plain of Jordan, over against the place where that river was crossed by the Israelites (Josh. 3:16). Its site was near the 'Ain es-Sultan, Elisha's Fountain (2-Kings 2:19), about 5 miles west of Jordan. It was the most important city in the Jordan valley (Num. 22:1;34:15), and the strongest fortress in all the lan......

JERIMOTH
heights. (1.) One of the sons of Bela (1-Chr 7:7). (2.) 1-Chr 24:30, 1-Chr 24: a Merarite Levite. (3.) A Benjamite slinger who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:5). (4.) A Levitical musician under Heman his father (1-Chr 25:4). (5.) 1-Chr 27:19, 1-Chr 27: ruler of Naphtali. (6.) One of David's sons (2-Chr 11:18). (7.) A Levite, one of the overseers of the temple offerings (2-Chr 31:13) ......

JEROBOAM
increase of the people. (1.) The son of Nebat (1-Kings 11:26), "an Ephrathite," the first king of the ten tribes, over whom he reigned twenty-two years (B.C. 976-945). He was the son of a widow of Zereda, and while still young was promoted by Solomon to be chief superintendent of the "burnden", i.e., of the bands of forced labourers. Influenced by the words of the prophet Ahijah, he began to form ......

JEROHAM
cherished; who finds mercy. (1.) Father of Elkanah, and grandfather of the prophet Samuel (1-Sam 1:1). (2.) The father of Azareel, the "captain" of the tribe of Dan (1-Chr 27:22). (3.) 1-Chr 12:7; a Benjamite. (4.) 2-Chr 23:1; one whose son assisted in placing Joash on the throne. (5.) 1-Chr 9:8; a Benjamite. (6.) 1-Chr 9:12; a priest, perhaps the same as in Neh. 11:12. ......

JERUBBAAL
contender with Baal; or, let Baal plead, a surname of Gideon; a name given to him because he destroyed the altar of Baal (Judg. 6:32;7:1;8:29; 1-Sam 12:11). ......

JERUBBESHETH
contender with the shame; i.e., idol, a surname also of Gideon (2-Sam 11:21). ......

JERUEL
founded by God, a "desert" on the ascent from the valley of the Dead Sea towards Jerusalem. It lay beyond the wilderness of Tekoa, in the direction of Engedi (2-Chr 20:16, 2-Chr 20: 20). It corresponds with the tract of country now called el-Hasasah. ......

JERUSALEM
called also Salem, Ariel, Jebus, the "city of God," the "holy city;" by the modern Arabs el-Khuds, meaning "the holy;" once "the city of Judah" (2-Chr 25:28). This name is in the original in the dual form, and means "possession of peace," or "foundation of peace." The dual form probably refers to the two mountains on which it was built, viz., Zion and Moriah; or, as some suppose, to the two parts ......

JERUSHA
possession, or possessed; i.e., "by a husband", the wife of Uzziah, and mother of king Jotham (2-Kings 15:33). ......

JESHAIAH
deliverance of Jehovah. (1.) A Kohathite Levite, the father of Joram, of the family of Eliezer (1-Chr 26:25); called also Isshiah (24:21). (2.) One of the sons of Jeduthum (1-Chr 25:3, 1-Chr 25: 15). (3.) One of the three sons of Hananiah (1-Chr 3:21). (4.) Son of Athaliah (Ezra 8:7). (5.) A Levite of the family of Merari (8:19). ......

JESHANAH
a city of the kingdom of Israel (2-Chr 13:19). ......

JESHARELAH
upright towards God, the head of the seventh division of Levitical musicians (1-Chr 25:14). ......

JESHEBEAB
seat of his father, the head of the fourteenth division of priests (1-Chr 24:13). ......

JESHER
uprightness, the first of the three sons of Caleb by Azubah (1-Chr 2:18). ......

JESHIMON
the waste, probably some high waste land to the south of the Dead Sea (Num. 21:20;23:28; 1-Sam 23:19, 1-Sam 23: 24); or rather not a proper name at all, but simply "the waste" or "wilderness," the district on which the plateau of Ziph (q.v.) looks down. ......

JESHUA
(1.) Head of the ninth priestly order (Ezra 2:36); called also Jeshuah (1-Chr 24:11). (2.) A Levite appointed by Hezekiah to distribute offerings in the priestly cities (2-Chr 31:15). (3.) Ezra 2:6; Neh. 7:11. (4.) Ezra 2:40; Neh. 7:43. (5.) The son of Jozadak, and high priest of the Jews under Zerubbabel (Neh. 7:7;12:1, 12: 7, 10, 26); called Joshua (Hag. 1:1, Hag. 1: 12;2:2, 2: 4; Zech. ......

JESHURUN
a poetical name for the people of Israel, used in token of affection, meaning, "the dear upright people" (Deut. 32:15;33:5, 33: 26; Isa. 44:2). ......

JESSE
firm, or a gift, a son of Obed, the son of Boaz and Ruth (Ruth 4:17, Ruth 4: 22; Matt. 1:5, Matt. 1: 6; Luke 3:32). He was the father of eight sons, the youngest of whom was David (1-Sam 17:12). The phrase "stem of Jesse" is used for the family of David (Isa. 11:1), and "root of Jesse" for the Messiah (Isa. 11:10; Rev. 5:5). Jesse was a man apparently of wealth and position at Bethlehem (1-Sam 17:......

JESUS
(1.) Joshua, the son of Nun (Acts 7:45; Heb. 4:8; R.V., "Joshua"). (2.) A Jewish Christian surnamed Justus (Col. 4:11). Je'sus, the proper, as Christ is the official, name of our Lord. To distinguish him from others so called, he is spoken of as "Jesus of Nazareth" (John 18:7), and "Jesus the son of Joseph" (John 6:42). This is the Greek form of the Hebrew name Joshua, which was originally H......

JETHER
surplus; excellence. (1.) Father-in-law of Moses (Exo 4:18 marg.), called elsewhere Jethro (q.v.). (2.) The oldest of Gideon's seventy sons (Judg. 8:20). (3.) The father of Amasa, David's general (1-Kings 2:5, 1-Kings 2: 32); called Ithra (2-Sam 17:25). (4.) 1-Chr 7:38. (5.) 1-Chr 2:32; one of Judah's posterity. (6.) 1-Chr 4:17. ......

JETHETH
a peg, or a prince, one of the Edomitish kings of Mount Seir (Gen. 36:40). ......

JETHLAH
suspended; high, a city on the borders of Dan (Josh. 19:42). ......

JETHRO
his excellence, or gain, a prince or priest of Midian, who succeeded his father Reuel. Moses spent forty years after his exile from the Egyptian court as keeper of Jethro's flocks. While the Israelites were encamped at Sinai, and soon after their victory over Amalek, Jethro came to meet Moses, bringing with him Zipporah and her two sons. They met at the "mount of God," and "Moses told him all that......

JETUR
an enclosure, one of the twelve sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15). ......

JEUEL
snatched away by God, a descendant of Zerah (1-Chr 9:6). ......

JEUSH
assembler. (1.) The oldest of Esau's three sons by Aholibamah (Gen. 36:5, Gen. 36: 14, 18). (2.) A son of Bilhan, grandson of Benjamin (1-Chr 7:10). (3.) A Levite, one of the sons of Shimei (1-Chr 23:10, 1-Chr 23: 11). (4.) One of the three sons of Rehoboam (2-Chr 11:19). (5.) 1-Chr 8:39. ......

JEW
the name derived from the patriarch Judah, at first given to one belonging to the tribe of Judah or to the separate kingdom of Judah (2-Kings 16:6;25:25; Jer. 32:12;38:19;40:11;41:3), in contradistinction from those belonging to the kingdom of the ten tribes, who were called Israelites. During the Captivity, and after the Restoration, the name, however, was extended to all the Hebrew nation with......

JEWESS
a woman of Hebrew birth, as Eunice, the mother of Timothy (Acts 16:1; 2-Tim 1:5), and Drusilla (Acts 24:24), wife of Felix, and daughter of Herod Agrippa I. ......

JEZEBEL
chaste, the daughter of Ethbaal, the king of the Zidonians, and the wife of Ahab, the king of Israel (1-Kings 16:31). This was the "first time that a king of Israel had allied himself by marriage with a heathen princess; and the alliance was in this case of a peculiarly disastrous kind. Jezebel has stamped her name on history as the representative of all that is designing, crafty, malicious, reven......

JEZIEL
assembled by God, a son of Azmaveth. He was one of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:3). ......

JEZREEL
God scatters. (1.) A town of Issachar (Josh. 19:18), where the kings of Israel often resided (1-Kings 18:45;21:1; 2-Kings 9:30). Here Elijah met Ahab, Jehu, and Bidkar; and here Jehu executed his dreadful commission against the house of Ahab (2-Kings 9:14;10:1). It has been identified with the modern Zerin, on the most western point of the range of Gilboa, reaching down into the great and fertile ......

JEZREEL, BLOOD OF
the murder perpetrated here by Ahab and Jehu (Hos. 1:4; comp. 1-Kings 18:4; 2-Kings 9:6). ......

JEZREEL, DAY OF
the time predicted for the execution of vengeance for the deeds of blood committed there (Hos. 1:5). ......

JEZREEL, DITCH OF
(1-Kings 21:23; comp. 13), the fortification surrounding the city, outside of which Naboth was executed. ......

JEZREEL, FOUNTAIN OF
where Saul encamped before the battle of Gilboa (1-Sam 29:1). In the valley under Zerin there are two considerable springs, one of which, perhaps that here referred to, "flows from under a sort of cavern in the wall of conglomerate rock which here forms the base of Gilboa. The water is excellent; and issuing from crevices in the rocks, it spreads out at once into a fine limpid pool forty or fifty ......

JEZREEL, PORTION OF
the field adjoining the city (2-Kings 9:10, 2-Kings 9: 21, 36, 37). Here Naboth was stoned to death (1-Kings 21:13). ......

JEZREEL, TOWER OF
one of the turrets which guarded the entrance to the city (2-Kings 9:17). ......

JEZREEL, VALLEY OF
lying on the northern side of the city, between the ridges of Gilboa and Moreh, an offshoot of Esdraelon, running east to the Jordan (Josh. 17:16; Judg. 6:33; Hos. 1:5). It was the scene of the signal victory gained by the Israelites under Gideon over the Midianites, the Amalekites, and the "children of the east" (Judg. 6:3). Two centuries after this the Israelites were here defeated by the Philis......

JOAB
Jehovah is his father. (1.) One of the three sons of Zeruiah, David's sister, and "captain of the host" during the whole of David's reign (2-Sam 2:13;10:7;11:1; 1-Kings 11:15). His father's name is nowhere mentioned, although his sepulchre at Bethlehem is mentioned (2-Sam 2:32). His two brothers were Abishai and Asahel, the swift of foot, who was killed by Abner (2-Sam 2:13), whom Joab afterwards ......

JOAH
Jehovah his brother; i.e., helper. (1.) One of the sons of Obed-edom (1-Chr 26:4), a Korhite porter. (2.) A Levite of the family of Gershom (1-Chr 6:21), probably the same as Ethan (42). (3.) The son of Asaph, and "recorder" (q.v.) or chronicler to King Hezekiah (2-Kings 18:18, 2-Kings 18: 26, 37). (4.) Son of Joahaz, and "recorder" (q.v.) or keeper of the state archives under King Josiah (2......

JOAHAZ
(2-Chr 34:8), a contracted form of Jehoahaz (q.v.). ......

JOANNA
whom Jehovah has graciously given. (1.) The grandson of Zerubbabel, in the lineage of Christ (Luke 3:27); the same as Hananiah (1-Chr 3:19). (2.) The wife of Chuza, the steward of Herod Antipas, tetrarch of Galilee (Luke 8:3). She was one of the women who ministered to our Lord, and to whom he appeared after his resurrection (Luke 8:3;24:10). ......

JOASH
whom Jehovah bestowed. (1.) A contracted form of Jehoash, the father of Gideon (Judg. 6:11, Judg. 6: 29;8:13, 8: 29, 32). (2.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:3). (3.) One of King Ahab's sons (1-Kings 22:26). (4.) King of Judah (2-Kings 11:2;12:19, 12: 20). (See JEHOASH [1].) (5.) King of Israel (2-Kings 13:9, 2-Kings 13: 12, 13, 25). (See JEHOASH [2].) ......

JOB
persecuted, an Arabian patriarch who resided in the land of Uz (q.v.). While living in the midst of great prosperity, he was suddenly overwhelmed by a series of sore trials that fell upon him. Amid all his sufferings he maintained his integrity. Once more God visited him with the rich tokens of his goodness and even greater prosperity than he had enjoyed before. He survived the period of trial for......

JOB, BOOK OF
A great diversity of opinion exists as to the authorship of this book. From internal evidence, such as the similarity of sentiment and language to those in the Psalms and Proverbs (see Ps. 88 and 89), the prevalence of the idea of "wisdom," and the style and character of the composition, it is supposed by some to have been written in the time of David and Solomon. Others argue that it was written ......

JOBAB
dweller in the desert. (1.) One of the sons of Joktan, and founder of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 10:29). (2.) King of Edom, succeeded Bela (Gen. 36:33, Gen. 36: 34). (3.) A Canaanitish king (Josh. 11:1) who joined the confederacy against Joshua. ......

JOCHEBED
Jehovah is her glory, the wife of Amram, and the mother of Miriam, Aaron, and Moses (Num. 26:59). She is spoken of as the sister of Kohath, Amram's father (Exo 6:20; comp. 16, 18;2:1). ......

JOEL
Jehovah is his God. (1.) The oldest of Samuel's two sons appointed by him as judges in Beersheba (1-Sam 8:2). (See VASHNI ......

JOEL, BOOK OF
Joel was probably a resident in Judah, as his commission was to that people. He makes frequent mention of Judah and Jerusalem (1:14;2:1, 2: 15, 32;3:1, 3: 12, 17, 20, 21). He probably flourished in the reign of Uzziah (about B.C. 800), and was contemporary with Amos and Isaiah. The contents of this book are, (1.) A prophecy of a great public calamity then impending over the land, consisting of......

JOELAH
a Benjamite who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:7). ......

JOEZER
Jehovah is his help, one of the Korhites who became part of David's body-guard (1-Chr 12:6). ......

JOHANAN
whom Jehovah graciously bestows. (1.) One of the Gadite heroes who joined David in the desert of Judah (1-Chr 12:12). (2.) The oldest of King Josiah's sons (1-Chr 3:15). (3.) Son of Careah, one of the Jewish chiefs who rallied round Gedaliah, whom Nebuchadnezzar had made governor in Jerusalem (2-Kings 25:23; Jer. 40:8). He warned Gedaliah of the plans of Ishmael against him, a warning which wa......

JOHN
(1.) One who, with Annas and Caiaphas, sat in judgment on the apostles Peter and John (Acts 4:6). He was of the kindred of the high priest; otherwise unknown. (2.) The Hebrew name of Mark (q.v.). He is designated by this name in the acts of the Apostles (Acts 12:12, Acts 12: 25; Acts 13:5, Acts 13: 13; Acts 15:37). (3.) THE APOSTLE, brother of James the "Greater" (Matt. 4:21;10:2; Mark 1:19; M......

JOHN THE BAPTIST
the "forerunner of our Lord." We have but fragmentary and imperfect accounts of him in the Gospels. He was of priestly descent. His father, Zacharias, was a priest of the course of Abia (1-Chr 24:10), and his mother, Elisabeth, was of the daughters of Aaron (Luke 1:5). The mission of John was the subject of prophecy (Matt. 3:3; Isa. 40:3; Mal. 3:1). His birth, which took place six months before th......

JOHN, FIRST EPISTLE OF
the fourth of the catholic or "general" epistles. It was evidently written by John the evangelist, and probably also at Ephesus, and when the writer was in advanced age. The purpose of the apostle (1:1) is to declare the Word of Life to those to whom he writes, in order that they might be united in fellowship with the Father and his Son Jesus Christ. He shows that the means of union with God are, ......

JOHN, GOSPEL OF
The genuineness of this Gospel, i.e., the fact that the apostle John was its author, is beyond all reasonable doubt. In recent times, from about 1820, many attempts have been made to impugn its genuineness, but without success. The design of John in writing this Gospel is stated by himself (John 20:31). It was at one time supposed that he wrote for the purpose of supplying the omissions of the s......

JOHN, SECOND EPISTLE OF
is addressed to "the elect lady," and closes with the words, "The children of thy elect sister greet thee;" but some would read instead of "lady" the proper name Kyria. Of the thirteen verses composing this epistle seven are in the First Epistle. The person addressed is commended for her piety, and is warned against false teachers. ......

JOHN, THIRD EPISTLE OF
is addressed to Caius, or Gaius, but whether to the Christian of that name in Macedonia (Acts 19:29) or in Corinth (Rom. 16:23) or in Derbe (Acts 20:4) is uncertain. It was written for the purpose of commending to Gaius some Christians who were strangers in the place where he lived, and who had gone thither for the purpose of preaching the gospel (ver. 7). The Second and Third Epistles were prob......

JOIADA
(whom Jehovah favours) = Jehoiada. (1.) Neh. 3:6. (2.) One of the high priests (12:10, 12: 11, 22). ......

JOIAKIM
(whom Jehovah has set up) = Jehoiakim, a high priest, the son and successor of Jeshua (Neh. 12:10, Neh. 12: 12, 26). ......

JOIARIB
(whom Jehovah defends) = Jehoiarib. (1.) The founder of one of the courses of the priests (Neh. 11:10). (2.) Neh. 11:5; a descendant of Judah. (3.) Neh. 12:6. (4.) Ezra 8:16, Ezra 8: a "man of understanding" whom Ezra sent to "bring ministers for the house of God." ......

JOKDEAM
a city in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:56). ......

JOKIM
whom Jehovah has set up, one of the descendants of Shelah (1-Chr 4:22). ......

JOKMEAM
gathering of the people, a city of Ephraim, which was given with its suburbs to the Levites (1-Chr 6:68). It lay somewhere in the Jordan valley (1-Kings 4:12, 1-Kings 4: R.V.; but in A.V. incorrectly "Jokneam"). ......

JOKNEAM
gathered by the people, (Josh. 19:11;21:34), a city "of Carmel" (12:22), i.e., on Carmel, allotted with its suburbs to the Merarite Levites. It is the modern Tell Kaimon, about 12 miles south-west of Nazareth, on the south of the river Kishon.......

JOKSHAN
snarer, the second son of Abraham and Keturah (Gen. 25:2, Gen. 25: 3; 1-Chr 1:32).......

JOKTAN
little, the second of the two sons of Eber (Gen. 10:25; 1-Chr 1:19). There is an Arab tradition that Joktan (Arab. Kahtan) was the progenitor of all the purest tribes of Central and Southern Arabia.......

JOKTHEEL
subdued by God. (1.) A city of Judah near Lachish (Josh. 15, 38). Perhaps the ruin Kutlaneh, south of Gezer. (2.) Amaziah, king of Judah, undertook a great expedition against Edom (2-Chr 25:5), which was completely successful. He routed the Edomites and slew vast numbers of them. So wonderful did this victory appear to him that he acknowledged that it could have been achieved only by the special......

JONADAB
=Jehon'adab. (1.) The son of Rechab, and founder of the Rechabites (q.v.), 2-Kings 10:15; Jer. 35:6, Jer. 35: 10. (2.) The son of Shimeah, David's brother (2-Sam 13:3). He was "a very subtil man."......

JONAH
a dove, the son of Amittai of Gath-hepher. He was a prophet of Israel, and predicted the restoration of the ancient boundaries (2-Kings 14:25) of the kingdom. He exercised his ministry very early in the reign of Jeroboam II., and thus was contemporary with Hosea and Amos; or possibly he preceded them, and consequently may have been the very oldest of all the prophets whose writings we possess. His......

JONAH, BOOK OF
This book professes to give an account of what actually took place in the experience of the prophet. Some critics have sought to interpret the book as a parable or allegory, and not as a history. They have done so for various reasons. Thus (1) some reject it on the ground that the miraculous element enters so largely into it, and that it is not prophetical but narrative in its form; (2) others, de......

JONAS
(1.) Greek form of Jonah (Matt. 12:39, Matt. 12: 40, 41, etc.). (2.) The father of the apostles Peter (John 21:15) and Andrew; but the reading should be (also 1:42), as in the Revised Version, "John," instead of Jonas.......

JONATH-ELEM-RECHOKIM
dove of the dumbness of the distance; i.e., "the silent dove in distant places", title of Ps. 56. This was probably the name of some well known tune or melody to which the psalm was to be sung.......

JONATHAN
whom Jehovah gave, the name of fifteen or more persons that are mentioned in Scripture. The chief of these are, (1.) A Levite descended from Gershom (Judg. 18:30). His history is recorded 17:7 18:30. The Rabbins changed this name into Manasseh "to screen the memory of the great lawgiver from the stain of having so unworthy an apostate among his near descendants." He became priest of the idol image......

JOPPA
beauty, a town in the portion of Dan (Josh. 19:46; A.V., "Japho"), on a sandy promontory between Caesarea and Gaza, and at a distance of 30 miles north-west from Jerusalem. It is one of the oldest towns in Asia. It was and still is the chief sea-port of Judea. It was never wrested from the Phoenicians. It became a Jewish town only in the second century B.C. It was from this port that Jonah "took s......

JORAM
=Jeho'ram. (1.) One of the kings of Israel (2-Kings 8:16, 2-Kings 8: 25, 28). He was the son of Ahab. (2.) Jehoram, the son and successor of Jehoshaphat on the throne of Judah (2-Kings 8:24).......

JORDAN
Heb. Yarden, "the descender;" Arab. Nahr-esh-Sheriah, "the watering-place" the chief river of Palestine. It flows from north to south down a deep valley in the centre of the country. The name descender is significant of the fact that there is along its whole course a descent to its banks; or it may simply denote the rapidity with which it "descends" to the Dead Sea. It originates in the snows of......

JOSEPH
remover or increaser. (1.) The elder of the two sons of Jacob by Rachel (Gen. 30:23, Gen. 30: 24), who, on the occasion of his birth, said, "God hath taken away [Heb. 'asaph] my reproach." "The Lord shall add [Heb. yoseph] to me another son" (Gen. 30:24). He was a child of probably six years of age when his father returned from Haran to Canaan and took up his residence in the old patriarchal town ......

JOSHUA
Jehovah is his help, or Jehovah the Saviour. The son of Nun, of the tribe of Ephraim, the successor of Moses as the leader of Israel. He is called Jehoshua in Num. 13:16 (A.V.), and Jesus in Acts 7:45 and Heb. 4:8 (R.V., Joshua). He was born in Egypt, and was probably of the age of Caleb, with whom he is generally associated. He shared in all the events of the Exodus, and held the place of comma......

JOSHUA, THE BOOK OF
contains a history of the Israelites from the death of Moses to that of Joshua. It consists of three parts: (1.) The history of the conquest of the land (1-12). (2.) The allotment of the land to the different tribes, with the appointment of cities of refuge, the provision for the Levites (13-22), and the dismissal of the eastern tribes to their homes. This section has been compared to the Domesday......

JOSIAH
healed by Jehovah, or Jehovah will support. The son of Amon, and his successor on the throne of Judah (2-Kings 22:1; 2-Chr 34:1). His history is contained in 2 Kings 22, 23. He stands foremost among all the kings of the line of David for unswerving loyalty to Jehovah (23:25). He "did that which was right in the sight of the Lord, and walked in all the way of David his father." He ascended the thro......

JOT
or Iota, the smallest letter of the Greek alphabet, used metaphorically or proverbially for the smallest thing (Matt. 5:18); or it may be = yod, which is the smallest of the Hebrew letters.......

JOTHAM
Jehovah is perfect. (1.) The youngest of Gideon's seventy sons. He escaped when the rest were put to death by the order of Abimelech (Judg. 9:5). When "the citizens of Shechem and the whole house of Millo" were gathered together "by the plain of the pillar" (i.e., the stone set up by Joshua,24:26; comp. Gen. 35:4) "that was in Shechem, to make Abimelech king," from one of the heights of Mount Geri......

JOURNEY
(1.) A day's journey in the East is from 16 to 20 miles (Num. 11:31). (2.) A Sabbath-day's journey is 2,000 paces or yards from the city walls (Acts 1:12). According to Jewish tradition, it was the distance one might travel without violating the law of Exo 16:29. (See SABBATH.)......

JOZABAD
whom Jehovah bestows. (1.) One of the Benjamite archers who joined David at Ziklag (1-Chr 12:4). (2.) A chief of the tribe of Manasseh (1-Chr 12:20).......

JOZACHAR
Jehovah-remembered, one of the two servants who assassinated Jehoash, the king of Judah, in Millo (2-Kings 12:21). He is called also Zabad (2-Chr 24:26).......

JUBAL
jubilee, music, Lamech's second son by Adah, of the line of Cain. He was the inventor of "the harp" (Heb. kinnor, properly "lyre") and "the organ" (Heb. 'ugab, properly "mouth-organ" or Pan's pipe), Gen. 4:21.......

JUBILEE
a joyful shout or clangour of trumpets, the name of the great semi-centennial festival of the Hebrews. It lasted for a year. During this year the land was to be fallow, and the Israelites were only permitted to gather the spontaneous produce of the fields (Lev. 25:11, Lev. 25: 12). All landed property during that year reverted to its original owner (13-34;27:16), and all who were slaves were set f......

JUDA
(1.) The patriarch Judah, son of Jacob (Luke 3:33; Heb. 7:14). In Luke 1:39; Heb. 7:14; Rev. 5:5;7:5, 7: the word refers to the tribe of Judah. (2.) The father of Simeon in Christ's maternal ancestry (Luke 3:30). (3.) Son of Joanna, and father of Joseph in Christ's maternal ancestry (26), probably identical with Abiud (Matt. 1:13), and with Obadiah (1-Chr 3:21). (4.) One of the Lord's "breth......

JUDAH
praise, the fourth son of Jacob by Leah. The name originated in Leah's words of praise to the Lord on account of his birth: "Now will I praise [Heb. odeh] Jehovah, and she called his name Yehudah" (Gen. 29:35). It was Judah that interposed in behalf of Joseph, so that his life was spared (Gen. 37:26, Gen. 37: 27). He took a lead in the affairs of the family, and "prevailed above his brethren" (G......

JUDAH UPON JORDAN
The Authorized Version, following the Vulgate, has this rendering in Josh. 19:34. It has been suggested that, following the Masoretic punctuation, the expression should read thus, "and Judah; the Jordan was toward the sun-rising." The sixty cities (Havoth-jair, Num. 32:41) on the east of Jordan were reckoned as belonging to Judah, because Jair, their founder, was a Manassite only on his mother's s......

JUDAH, KINGDOM OF
When the disruption took place at Shechem, at first only the tribe of Judah followed the house of David. But very soon after the tribe of Benjamin joined the tribe of Judah, and Jerusalem became the capital of the new kingdom (Josh. 18:28), which was called the kingdom of Judah. It was very small in extent, being only about the size of the Scottish county of Perth. For the first sixty years the ......

JUDAH, TRIBE OF
Judah and his three surviving sons went down with Jacob into Egypt (Gen. 46:12; Exo 1:2). At the time of the Exodus, when we meet with the family of Judah again, they have increased to the number of 74,000 males (Num. 1:26, Num. 1: 27). Its number increased in the wilderness (26:22). Caleb, the son of Jephunneh, represented the tribe as one of the spies (13:6;34:19). This tribe marched at the van ......

JUDAS
the Graecized form of Judah. (1.) The patriarch (Matt. 1:2, Matt. 1: 3). (2.) Son of Simon (John 6:71;13:2, 13: 26), surnamed Iscariot, i.e., a man of Kerioth (Josh. 15:25). His name is uniformly the last in the list of the apostles, as given in the synoptic (i.e., the first three) Gospels. The evil of his nature probably gradually unfolded itself till "Satan entered into him" (John 13:27), and ......

JUDE
= Judas. Among the apostles there were two who bore this name, (1) Judas (Jude 1:1; Matt. 13:55; John 14:22; Acts 1:13), called also Lebbaeus or Thaddaeus (Matt. 10:3; Mark 3:18); and (2) Judas Iscariot (Matt. 10:4; Mark 3:19). He who is called "the brother of James" (Luke 6:16), may be the same with the Judas surnamed Lebbaeus. The only thing recorded regarding him is in John 14:22.......

JUDE, EPISTLE OF
The author was "Judas, the brother of James" the Less (Jude 1:1), called also Lebbaeus (Matt. 10:3) and Thaddaeus (Mark 3:18). The genuineness of this epistle was early questioned, and doubts regarding it were revived at the time of the Reformation; but the evidences in support of its claims are complete. It has all the marks of having proceeded from the writer whose name it bears. There is noth......

JUDEA
After the Captivity this name was applied to the whole of the country west of the Jordan (Hag. 1:1, Hag. 1: 14;2:2). But under the Romans, in the time of Christ, it denoted the southernmost of the three divisions of Palestine (Matt. 2:1, Matt. 2: 5;3:1;4:25), although it was also sometimes used for Palestine generally (Acts 28:21). The province of Judea, as distinguished from Galilee and Samaria......

JUDGE
(Heb. shophet, pl. shophetim), properly a magistrate or ruler, rather than one who judges in the sense of trying a cause. This is the name given to those rulers who presided over the affairs of the Israelites during the interval between the death of Joshua and the accession of Saul (Judg. 2:18), a period of general anarchy and confusion. "The office of judges or regents was held during life, but i......

JUDGES, BOOK OF
is so called because it contains the history of the deliverance and government of Israel by the men who bore the title of the "judges." The book of Ruth originally formed part of this book, but about A.D. 450 it was separated from it and placed in the Hebrew scriptures immediately after the Song of Solomon. The book contains, (1.) An introduction (1-3:6), connecting it with the previous narrativ......

JUDGMENT HALL
Gr. praitorion (John 18:28, John 18: 33;19:9; Matt. 27:27), "common hall." In all these passages the Revised Version renders "palace." In Mark 15:16 the word is rendered "Praetorium" (q.v.), which is a Latin word, meaning literally the residence of the praetor, and then the governor's residence in general, though not a praetor. Throughout the Gospels the word "praitorion" has this meaning (comp. A......

JUDGMENT SEAT
(Matt. 27:19), a portable tribunal (Gr. bema) which was placed according as the magistrate might direct, and from which judgment was pronounced. In this case it was placed on a tesselated pavement, probably in front of the procurator's residence. (See GABBATHA.)......

JUDGMENT, THE FINAL
the sentence that will be passed on our actions at the last day (Matt. 25; Rom. 14:10, Rom. 14: 11; 2-Cor 5:10; 2-Thess 1:7). The judge is Jesus Christ, as mediator. All judgment is committed to him (Acts 17:31; John 5:22, John 5: 27; Rev. 1:7). "It pertains to him as mediator to complete and publicly manifest the salvation of his people and the overthrow of his enemies, together with the glorio......

JUDGMENTS OF GOD
(1.) The secret decisions of God's will (Psa 110:5;36:6). (2.) The revelations of his will (Exo 21:1; Deut. 6:20; Psa 119:7). (3.) The infliction of punishment on the wicked (Exo 6:6;12:12; Ezek. 25:11; Rev. 16:7), such as is mentioned in Gen. 7;19:24, 19:25; Judg. 1:6, Judg. 1:7; Acts 5:1, Acts 5: etc.......

JUDITH
Jewess, the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and one of Esau's wives (Gen. 26:34), elsewhere called Aholibamah (36:2).......

JULIA
a Christian woman at Rome to whom Paul sent his salutations (Rom. 16:15), supposed to be the wife of Philologus.......

JULIUS
the centurion of the Augustan cohort, or the emperor's body-guard, in whose charge Paul was sent prisoner to Rome (Acts 27:1, Acts 27: 3, 43). He entreated Paul "courteously," showing in many ways a friendly regard for him.......

JUNIA
(Rom. 16:7), a Christian at Rome to whom Paul sends salutations along with Andronicus.......

JUNIPER
(Heb. rothem), called by the Arabs retem, and known as Spanish broom; ranked under the genus genista. It is a desert shrub, and abounds in many parts of Palestine. In the account of his journey from Akabah to Jerusalem, Dr. Robinson says: "This is the largest and most conspicuous shrub of these deserts, growing thickly in the water-courses and valleys. Our Arabs always selected the place of encamp......

JUPITER
the principal deity of the ancient Greeks and Romans. He was worshipped by them under various epithets. Barnabas was identified with this god by the Lycaonians (Acts 14:12), because he was of stately and commanding presence, as they supposed Jupiter to be. There was a temple dedicated to this god outside the gates of Lystra (14:13).......

JUSTICE
is rendering to every one that which is his due. It has been distinguished from equity in this respect, that while justice means merely the doing what positive law demands, equity means the doing of what is fair and right in every separate case.......

JUSTICE OF GOD
that perfection of his nature whereby he is infinitely righteous in himself and in all he does, the righteousness of the divine nature exercised in his moral government. At first God imposes righteous laws on his creatures and executes them righteously. Justice is not an optional product of his will, but an unchangeable principle of his very nature. His legislative justice is his requiring of his ......

JUSTIFICATION
a forensic term, opposed to condemnation. As regards its nature, it is the judicial act of God, by which he pardons all the sins of those who believe in Christ, and accounts, accepts, and treats them as righteous in the eye of the law, i.e., as conformed to all its demands. In addition to the pardon (q.v.) of sin, justification declares that all the claims of the law are satisfied in respect of th......

JUSTUS
(1.) Another name for Joseph, surnamed Barsabas. He and Matthias are mentioned only in Acts 1:23. "They must have been among the earliest disciples of Jesus, and must have been faithful to the end; they must have been well known and esteemed among the brethren. What became of them afterwards, and what work they did, are entirely unknown" (Lindsay's Acts of the Apostles). (2.) A Jewish proselyte ......

JUTTAH
extended, a Levitical city in the mountains or hill-country of Judah (Josh. 15:55;21:16). Its modern name is Yutta, a place about 5 1/2 miles south of Hebron. It is supposed to have been the residence of Zacharias and Elisabeth, and the birthplace of John the Baptist, and on this account is annually visited by thousands of pilgrims belonging to the Greek Church (Luke 1:39). (See MARY.)......

KABZEEL
gathering of God, a city in the extreme south of Judah, near to Idumaea (Josh. 15:21), the birthplace of Benaiah, one of David's chief warriors (2-Sam 23:20; 1-Chr 11:22). It was called also Jekabzeel (Neh. 11:25), after the Captivity.......

KADESH
the sacred city of the Hittites, on the left bank of the Orontes, about 4 miles south of the Lake of Homs. It is identified with the great mound Tell Neby Mendeh, some 50 to 100 feet high, and 400 yards long. On the ruins of the temple of Karnak, in Egypt, has been found an inscription recording the capture of this city by Rameses II. (See PHARAOH.) Here the sculptor "has chiselled in deep work on......

KADMIEL
before God; i.e., his servant, one of the Levites who returned with Zerubbabel from the Captivity (Neh. 9:4;10:9;12:8).......

KADMONITES
Orientals, the name of a Canaanitish tribe which inhabited the north-eastern part of Palestine in the time of Abraham (Gen. 15:19). Probably they were identical with the "children of the east," who inhabited the country between Palestine and the Euphrates.......

KANAH
reedy; brook of reeds. (1.) A stream forming the boundary between Ephraim and Manasseh, from the Mediterranean eastward to Tappuah (Josh. 16:8). It has been identified with the sedgy streams that constitute the Wady Talaik, which enters the sea between Joppa and Caesarea. Others identify it with the river' Aujeh. (2.) A town in the north of Asher (Josh. 19:28). It has been identified with 'Ain-K......

KAREAH
bald, the father of Johanan and Jonathan, who for a time were loyal to Gedaliah, the Babylonian governor of Jerusalem (Jer. 40:8, Jer. 40: 13, 15, 16).......

KARKAA
a floor; bottom, a place between Adar and Azmon, about midway between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea (Josh. 15:3).......

KARKOR
foundation, a place in the open desert wastes on the east of Jordan (Judg. 8:10), not far beyond Succoth and Penuel, to the south. Here Gideon overtook and routed a fugitive band of Midianites under Zeba and Zalmunna, whom he took captive.......

KARTAH
city, a town in the tribe of Zebulun assigned to the Levites of the family of Merari (Josh. 21:34). It is identical with Kattath (19:15), and perhaps also with Kitron (Judg. 1:30).......

KARTAN
double city, a town of Naphali, assigned to the Gershonite Levites, and one of the cities of refuge (Josh. 21:32). It was probably near the north-western shore of the Sea of Tiberias, identical with the ruined village el-Katanah.......

KATTATH
(Josh. 19:15), a town of Asher, has been identified with Kana el Jelil. (See CANA.)......

KEDAR
dark-skinned, the second son of Ishmael (Gen. 25:13). It is the name for the nomadic tribes of Arabs, the Bedouins generally (Isa. 21:16;42:11;60:7; Jer. 2:10; Ezek. 27:21), who dwelt in the north-west of Arabia. They lived in black hair-tents (1:5). To "dwell in the tents of Kedar" was to be cut off from the worship of the true God (Psa 120:5). The Kedarites suffered at the hands of Nebuchadnez......

KEDEMAH
eastward, the last-named of the sons of Ishmael (Gen. 25:15).......

KEDEMOTH
beginnings; easternmost, a city of Reuben, assigned to the Levites of the family of Merari (Josh. 13:18). It lay not far north-east of Dibon-gad, east of the Dead Sea.......

KEDESH
sanctuary. (1.) A place in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:23). Probably the same as Kadesh-barnea (q.v.). (2.) A city of Issachar (1-Chr 6:72). Possibly Tell Abu Kadeis, near Lejjun. (3.) A "fenced city" of Naphtali, one of the cities of refuge (Josh. 19:37; Judg. 4:6). It was assigned to the Gershonite Levites (Josh. 21:32). It was originally a Canaanite royal city (Josh. 12:22), and wa......

KEDRON
the valley, now quite narrow, between the Mount of Olives and Mount Moriah. The upper part of it is called the Valley of Jehoshaphat. The LXX., in 1-Kings 15:13, 1-Kings 15: translate "of the cedar." The word means "black," and may refer to the colour of the water or the gloom of the ravine, or the black green of the cedars which grew there. John 18:1, John 18: "Cedron," only here in New Testament......

KEHELATHAH
assembly, one of the stations of the Israelites in the desert (Num. 33:22, Num. 33: 23).......

KEILAH
citadel, a city in the lowlands of Judah (Josh. 15:44). David rescued it from the attack of the Philistines (1-Sam 23:1); but the inhabitants proving unfaithful to him, in that they sought to deliver him up to Saul (13), he and his men "departed from Keilah, and went whithersoever they could go." They fled to the hill Hareth, about 3 miles to the east, and thence through Hebron to Ziph (q.v.). "An......

KELITA
dwarf, a Levite who assisted Ezra in expounding the law to the people (Neh. 8:7;10:10).......

KEMUEL
helper of God, or assembly of God. (1.) The third son of Nahor (Gen. 22:21). (2.) Son of Shiphtan, appointed on behalf of the tribe of Ephraim to partition the land of Canaan (Num. 34:24). (3.) A Levite (1-Chr 27:17).......

KENATH
possession, a city of Gilead. It was captured by Nobah, who called it by his own name (Num. 32:42). It has been identified with Kunawat, on the slopes of Jebel Hauran (Mount Bashan), 60 miles east from the south end of the Sea of Galilee.......

KENAZ
hunter. (1.) One of the sons of Eliphaz, the son of Esau. He became the chief of an Edomitish tribe (Gen. 36:11, Gen. 36: 15, 42). (2.) Caleb's younger brother, and father of Othniel (Josh. 15:17), whose family was of importance in Israel down to the time of David (1-Chr 27:15). Some think that Othniel (Judg. 1:13), and not Kenaz, was Caleb's brother. (3.) Caleb's grandson (1-Chr 4:15).......

KENITES
smiths, the name of a tribe inhabiting the desert lying between southern Palestine and the mountains of Sinai. Jethro was of this tribe (Judg. 1:16). He is called a "Midianite" (Num. 10:29), and hence it is concluded that the Midianites and the Kenites were the same tribe. They were wandering smiths, "the gipsies and travelling tinkers of the old Oriental world. They formed an important guild in a......

KENIZZITE
(1.) The name of a tribe referred to in the covenant God made with Abraham (Gen. 15:19). They are not mentioned among the original inhabitants of Canaan (Exo 3:8; Josh. 3:10), and probably they inhabited some part of Arabia, in the confines of Syria. (2.) A designation given to Caleb (R.V., Num. 32:12; A.V., Kenezite).......

KERCHIEF
mentioned only Ezek. 13:18, Ezek. 13: 21, as an article of apparel or ornament applied to the head of the idolatrous women of Israel. The precise meaning of the word is uncertain. It appears to have been a long loose shawl, such as Oriental women wrap themselves in (Ruth 3:15; Isa. 3:22). Some think that it was a long veil or head-dress, denoting by its form the position of those who wore it.......

KEREN-HAPPUCH
horn of the face-paint = cosmetic-box, the name of Job's third daughter (Job. 42:14), born after prosperity had returned to him.......

KERIOTH
cities. (1.) A town in the south of Judah (Josh. 15:25). Judas the traitor was probably a native of this place, and hence his name Iscariot. It has been identified with the ruins of el-Kureitein, about 10 miles south of Hebron. (See HAZOR [4]). (2.) A city of Moab (Jer. 48:24, Jer. 48: 41), called Kirioth (Amos 2:2).......

KESITAH
(Gen. 33:19, Gen. 33: R.V., marg., a Hebrew word, rendered, A.V., pl. "pieces of money," marg., "lambs;" Josh. 24:32, Josh. 24: "pieces of silver;" Job 42:11, Job 42: "piece of money"). The kesitah was probably a piece of money of a particular weight, cast in the form of a lamb. The monuments of Egypt show that such weights were used. (See PIECES.)......

KETTLE
a large pot for cooking. The same Hebrew word (dud, "boiling") is rendered also "pot" (Psa 81:6), "caldron" (2-Chr 35:13), "basket" (Jer. 24:2). It was used for preparing the peace-offerings (1-Sam 2:13, 1-Sam 2: 14).......

KETURAH
incense, the wife of Abraham, whom he married probably after Sarah's death (Gen. 25:1), by whom he had six sons, whom he sent away into the east country. Her nationality is unknown. She is styled "Abraham's concubine" (1-Chr 1:32). Through the offshoots of the Keturah line Abraham became the "father of many nations."......

KEY
frequently mentioned in Scripture. It is called in Hebrew _maphteah_, i.e., the opener (Judg. 3:25); and in the Greek New Testament _kleis_, from its use in shutting (Matt. 16:19; Luke 11:52; Rev. 1:18, Rev. 1: etc.). Figures of ancient Egyptian keys are frequently found on the monuments, also of Assyrian locks and keys of wood, and of a large size (comp. Isa. 22:22). The word is used figurative......

KEZIA
cassia, the name of Job's second daughter (2:14), born after prosperity had returned to him.......

KEZIZ
abrupt; cut off, a city of the tribe of Benjamin (Josh. 18:21).......

KIBROTH-HATTAAVAH
the graves of the longing or of lust, one of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness. It was probably in the Wady Murrah, and has been identified with the Erweis el-Ebeirig, where the remains of an ancient encampment have been found, about 30 miles north-east of Sinai, and exactly a day's journey from 'Ain Hudherah. "Here began the troubles of the journey. First, complaints broke out am......

KIBZAIM
two heaps, a city of Ephraim, assigned to the Kohathite Levites, and appointed as a city of refuge (Josh. 21:22). It is also called Jokmeam (1-Chr 6:68).......

KID
the young of the goat. It was much used for food (Gen. 27:9;38:17; Judg. 6:19;14:6). The Mosaic law forbade to dress a kid in the milk of its dam, a law which is thrice repeated (Exo 23:19;34:26; Deut. 14:21). Among the various reasons assigned for this law, that appears to be the most satisfactory which regards it as "a protest against cruelty and outraging the order of nature." A kid cooked in i......

KIDRON
= Kedron = Cedron, turbid, the winter torrent which flows through the Valley of Jehoshaphat, on the eastern side of Jerusalem, between the city and the Mount of Olives. This valley is known in Scripture only by the name "the brook Kidron." David crossed this brook bare-foot and weeping, when fleeing from Absalom (2-Sam 15:23, 2-Sam 15: 30), and it was frequently crossed by our Lord in his journeyi......

KINAH
an elegy, a city in the extreme south of Judah (Josh. 15:22). It was probably not far from the Dead Sea, in the Wady Fikreh.......

KINE
(Heb. sing. parah, i.e., "fruitful"), mentioned in Pharaoh's dream (Gen. 41:18). Here the word denotes "buffaloes," which fed on the reeds and sedge by the river's brink.......

KING
is in Scripture very generally used to denote one invested with authority, whether extensive or limited. There were thirty-one kings in Canaan (Josh. 12:9, Josh. 12: 24), whom Joshua subdued. Adonibezek subdued seventy kings (Judg. 1:7). In the New Testament the Roman emperor is spoken of as a king (1-Pet 2:13, 1-Pet 2: 17); and Herod Antipas, who was only a tetrarch, is also called a king (Matt. ......

KING'S DALE
mentioned only in Gen. 14:17; 2-Sam 18:18, 2-Sam 18: the name given to "the valley of Shaveh," where the king of Sodom met Abram.......

KINGDOM OF GOD
(Matt. 6:33; Mark 1:14, Mark 1: 15; Luke 4:43) = "kingdom of Christ" (Matt. 13:41;20:21) = "kingdom of Christ and of God" (Eph. 5:5) = "kingdom of David" (Mark 11:10) = "the kingdom" (Matt. 8:12;13:19) = "kingdom of heaven" (Matt. 3:2;4:17;13:41), all denote the same thing under different aspects, viz.: (1) Christ's mediatorial authority, or his rule on the earth; (2) the blessings and advantages ......

KINGLY OFFICE OF CHRIST
one of the three special relations in which Christ stands to his people. Christ's office as mediator comprehends three different functions, viz., those of a prophet, priest, and king. These are not three distinct offices, but three functions of the one office of mediator. Christ is King and sovereign Head over his Church and over all things to his Church (Eph. 1:22;4:15; Col. 1:18;2:19). He exec......

KINGS, THE BOOKS OF
The two books of Kings formed originally but one book in the Hebrew Scriptures. The present division into two books was first made by the LXX., which now, with the Vulgate, numbers them as the third and fourth books of Kings, the two books of Samuel being the first and second books of Kings. They contain the annals of the Jewish commonwealth from the accession of Solomon till the subjugation of ......

KINSMAN
Heb. goel, from root meaning to redeem. The goel among the Hebrews was the nearest male blood relation alive. Certain important obligations devolved upon him toward his next of kin. (1.) If any one from poverty was unable to redeem his inheritance, it was the duty of the kinsman to redeem it (Lev. 25:25, Lev. 25:28; Ruth 3:9, Ruth 3: 12). He was also required to redeem his relation who had sold hi......

KIR
a wall or fortress, a place to which Tiglath-pileser carried the Syrians captive after he had taken the city of Damascus (2-Kings 16:9; Amos 1:5;9:7). Isaiah (22:6), who also was contemporary with these events, mentions it along with Elam. Some have supposed that Kir is a variant of Cush (Susiana), on the south of Elam.......

KIR OF MOAB
Isa. 15:1. The two strongholds of Moab were Ar and Kir, which latter is probably the Kir-haraseth (16:7) following. ......

KIR-HARASETH
built fortress, a city and fortress of Moab, the modern Kerak, a small town on the brow of a steep hill about 6 miles from Rabbath-Moab and 10 miles from the Dead Sea; called also Kir-haresh, Kir-hareseth, Kir-heres (Isa. 16:7, Isa. 16: 11; Jer. 48:31, Jer. 48: 36). After the death of Ahab, Mesha, king of Moab (see MOABITE+STONE), threw off allegiance to the king of Israel, and fought successfully......

KIRJATH
city, a city belonging to Benjamin (Josh. 18:28), the modern Kuriet el-'Enab, i.e., "city of grapes", about 7 1/2 miles west-north-west of Jerusalem.......

KIRJATH-ARBA
city of Arba, the original name of Hebron (q.v.), so called from the name of its founder, one of the Anakim (Gen. 23:2;35:27; Josh. 15:13). It was given to Caleb by Joshua as his portion. The Jews interpret the name as meaning "the city of the four", i.e., of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Adam, who were all, as they allege, buried there. ......

KIRJATH-HUZOTH
city of streets, Num. 22:39, Num. 22: a Moabite city, which some identify with Kirjathaim. Balak here received and entertained Balaam, whom he had invited from Pethor, among the "mountains of the east," beyond the Euphrates, to lay his ban upon the Israelites, whose progress he had no hope otherwise of arresting. It was probably from the summit of Attarus, the high place near the city, that the so......

KIRJATH-JEARIM
city of jaars; i.e., of woods or forests, a Gibeonite town (Josh. 9:17) on the border of Benjamin, to which tribe it was assigned (18:15, 18: 28). The ark was brought to this place (1-Sam 7:1, 1-Sam 7: 2) from Beth-shemesh and put in charge of Abinadab, a Levite. Here it remained till it was removed by David to Jerusalem (2-Sam 6:2, 2-Sam 6: 3, 12; 1-Chr 15:1; comp. Ps. 132). It was also called Ba......

KIRJATH-SANNAH
city of the sannah; i.e., of the palm(?), Josh. 15:49; the same as Kirjath-sepher (15:16; Judg. 1:11) and Debir (q.v.), a Canaanitish royal city included in Judah (Josh. 10:38;15:49), and probably the chief seat of learning among the Hittites. It was about 12 miles to the south-west of Hebron. ......

KIRJATH-SEPHER
city of books, Josh. 15:15; same as Kirjath-sannah (q.v.), now represented by the valley of ed-Dhaberiyeh, south-west of Hebron. The name of this town is an evidence that the Canaanites were acquainted with writing and books. "The town probably contained a noted school, or was the site of an oracle and the residence of some learned priest." The "books" were probably engraved stones or bricks. ......

KIRJATHAIM
two cities; a double city. (1.) A city of refuge in Naphtali (1-Chr 6:76). (2.) A town on the east of Jordan (Gen. 14:5; Deut. 2:9, Deut. 2: 10). It was assigned to the tribe of Reuben (Num. 32:37). In the time of Ezekiel (25:9) it was one of the four cities which formed the "glory of Moab" (comp. Jer. 48:1, Jer. 48: 23). It has been identified with el-Kureiyat, 11 miles south-west of Medeba, on......

KISH
a bow. (1.) A Levite of the family of Merari (1-Chr 23:21;24:29). (2.) A Benjamite of Jerusalem (1-Chr 8:30;9:36). (3.) A Levite in the time of Hezekiah (2-Chr 29:12). (4.) The great-grandfather of Mordecai (Esther 2:5). (5.) A Benjamite, the son of Abiel, and father of king Saul (1-Sam 9:1, 1-Sam 9: 3;10:11, 10: 21;14:51; 2-Sam 21:14). All that is recorded of him is that he sent his son S......

KISHION
hardness, a city of Issachar assigned to the Gershonite Levites (Josh. 19:20), the same as Kishon (21:28). ......

KISHON
winding, a winter torrent of Central Palestine, which rises about the roots of Tabor and Gilboa, and passing in a northerly direction through the plains of Esdraelon and Acre, falls into the Mediterranean at the north-eastern corner of the bay of Acre, at the foot of Carmel. It is the drain by which the waters of the plain of Esdraelon and of the mountains that surround it find their way to the se......

KISS
of affection (Gen. 27:26, Gen. 27: 27;29:13; Luke 7:38, Luke 7: 45); reconciliation (Gen. 33:4; 2-Sam 14:33); leave-taking (Gen. 31:28, Gen. 31:55; Ruth 1:14; 2-Sam 19:39); homage (Psa 2:12; 1-Sam 10:1); spoken of as between parents and children (Gen. 27:26;31:28, 31: 55;48:10;50:1; Exo 18:7; Ruth 1:9, Ruth 1: 14); between male relatives (Gen. 29:13;33:4;45:15). It accompanied social worship as a ......

KITE
an unclean and keen-sighted bird of prey (Lev. 11:14; Deut. 14:13). The Hebrew word used, _'ayet_, is rendered "vulture" in Job 28:7 in Authorized Version, "falcon" in Revised Version. It is probably the red kite (Milvus regalis), a bird of piercing sight and of soaring habits found all over Palestine. ......

KITHLISH
a man's wall, a town in the plain of Judah (Josh. 15:40). It has been identified with Jelameh. ......

KITRON
knotty, a city of Zebulun (Judg. 1:30), called also Kattath (Josh. 19:15); supposed to be "Cana of Galilee." ......

KITTIM
(Gen. 10:4). (See CHITTIM.) ......

KNEAD
to prepare dough in the process of baking (Gen. 18:6; 1-Sam 28:24; Hos. 7:4). ......

KNEADING-TROUGH
the vessel in which the dough, after being mixed and leavened, was left to swell or ferment (Exo 8:3;12:34; Deut. 28:5, Deut. 28: 7). The dough in the vessels at the time of the Exodus was still unleavened, because the people were compelled to withdraw in haste. ......

KNIFE
(1.) Heb. hereb, "the waster," a sharp instrument for circumcision (Josh. 5:2, Josh. 5: 3, lit. "knives of flint;" comp. Exo 4:25); a razor (Ezek. 5:1); a graving tool (Exo 20:25); an axe (Ezek. 26:9). (2.) Heb. maakeleth, a large knife for slaughtering and cutting up food (Gen. 22:6, Gen. 22: 10; Prov. 30:14). (3.) Heb. sakkin, a knife for any purpose, a table knife (Prov. 23:2). (4.) Heb. ......

KNOCK
"Though Orientals are very jealous of their privacy, they never knock when about to enter your room, but walk in without warning or ceremony. It is nearly impossible to teach an Arab servant to knock at your door. They give warning at the outer gate either by calling or knocking. To stand and call is a very common and respectful mode. Thus Moses commanded the holder of a pledge to stand without an......

KNOP
some architectural ornament. (1.) Heb. kaphtor (Exo 25:31), occurring in the description of the candlestick. It was an ornamental swell beneath the cups of the candlestick, probably an imitation of the fruit of the almond. (2.) Heb. peka'im, found only in 1-Kings 6:18 7:24, 7: an ornament resembling a small gourd or an egg, on the cedar wainscot in the temple and on the castings on the brim of t......

KOA
he-camel, occurs only in Ezek. 23:23, Ezek. 23: some province or place in the Babylonian empire, used in this passage along with Shoa (q.v.). ......

KOHATH
assembly, the second son of Levi, and father of Amram (Gen. 46:11). He came down to Egypt with Jacob, and lived to the age of one hundred and thirty-three years (Exo 6:18). ......

KOHATHITES
the descendants of Kohath. They formed the first of the three divisions of the Levites (Exo 6:16, Exo 6: 18; Num. 3:17). In the journeyings of the Israelites they had the charge of the most holy portion of the vessels of the tabernacle, including the ark (Num. 4). Their place in the marching and encampment was south of the tabernacle (Num. 3:29, Num. 3: 31). Their numbers at different times are sp......

KORAH
ice, hail. (1.) The third son of Esau, by Aholibamah (Gen. 36:14; 1-Chr 1:35). (2.) A Levite, the son of Izhar, the brother of Amram, the father of Moses and Aaron (Exo 6:21). The institution of the Aaronic priesthood and the Levitical service at Sinai was a great religious revolution. The old priesthood of the heads of families passed away. This gave rise to murmurings and discontent, while the......

KORAHITES
that portion of the Kohathites that descended from Korah. (1.) They were an important branch of the singers of the Kohathite division (2-Chr 20:19). There are eleven psalms (42-49; 84; 85; 87; 88) dedicated to the sons of Korah. (2.) Some of the sons of Korah also were "porters" of the temple (1-Chr 9:17); one of them was over "things that were made in the pans" (31), i.e., the baking in pans fo......

KORE
partridge. (1.) A Levite and temple-warder of the Korahites, the son of Asaph. He was father of Shallum and Meshelemiah, temple-porters (1-Chr 9:19;26:1). (2.) A Levitical porter at the east gate of the temple (2-Chr 31:14). (3.) In 1-Chr 26:19 the word should be "Korahites," as in the Revised Version. ......

KORHITES
a Levitical family descended from Korah (Exo 6:24; 1-Chr 12:6;26:1; 2-Chr 20:19). ......

KOZ
thorn. (1.) A descendant of Judah. 1-Chr 4:8, 1-Chr 4: "Coz;" R.V., "Hakkoz." (2.) A priest, the head of the seventh division of the priests (Ezra 2:61; Neh. 3:4, Neh. 3: 21;7:63). In 1-Chr 24:10 the word has the article prefixed, and it is taken as a part of the word "Hakkoz." ......

LABAN
white. (1.) The son of Bethuel, who was the son of Nahor, Abraham's brother. He lived at Haran in Mesopotamia. His sister Rebekah was Isaac's wife (Gen. 24). Jacob, one of the sons of this marriage, fled to the house of Laban, whose daughters Leah and Rachel (ch. 29) he eventually married. (See JACOB.) (2.) A city in the Arabian desert in the route of the Israelites (Deut. 1:1), probably identic......

LACHISH
impregnable, a royal Canaanitish city in the Shephelah, or maritime plain of Palestine (Josh. 10:3, Josh. 10: 5;12:11). It was taken and destroyed by the Israelites (Josh. 10:31). It afterwards became, under Rehoboam, one of the strongest fortresses of Judah (2-Chr 10:9). It was assaulted and probably taken by Sennacherib (2-Kings 18:14, 2-Kings 18: 17;19:8; Isa. 36:2). An account of this siege is......

LADDER
occurs only once, in the account of Jacob's vision (Gen. 28:12). ......

LAISH
a lion. (1.) A city of the Sidonians, in the extreme north of Palestine (Judg. 18:7, Judg. 18: 14); called also Leshem (Josh. 19:47) and Dan (Judg. 18:7, Judg. 18: 29; Jer. 8:16). It lay near the sources of the Jordan, about 4 miles from Paneas. The restless and warlike tribe of Dan (q.v.), looking out for larger possessions, invaded this country and took Laish with its territory. It is identified......

LAMA
(Matt. 27:46), a Hebrew word meaning why, quoted from Psa 22:1. ......

LAMB
(1.) Heb. kebes, a male lamb from the first to the third year. Offered daily at the morning and the evening sacrifice (Exo 29:38), on the Sabbath day (Num. 28:9), at the feast of the New Moon (28:11), of Trumpets (29:2), of Tabernacles (13-40), of Pentecost (Lev. 23:18), and of the Passover (Exo 12:5), and on many other occasions (1-Chr 29:21; 2-Chr 29:21; Lev. 9:3;14:10). (2.) Heb. taleh, a you......

LAMECH
the strikerdown; the wild man. (1.) The fifth in descent from Cain. He was the first to violate the primeval ordinance of marriage (Gen. 4:18). His address to his two wives, Adah and Zillah (4:23, 4: 24), is the only extant example of antediluvian poetry. It has been called "Lamech's sword-song." He was "rude and ruffianly," fearing neither God nor man. With him the curtain falls on the race of Ca......

LAMENTATION
(Heb. qinah), an elegy or dirge. The first example of this form of poetry is the lament of David over Saul and Jonathan (2-Sam 1:17). It was a frequent accompaniment of mourning (Amos 8:10). In 2-Sam 3:33, 2-Sam 3: 34 is recorded David's lament over Abner. Prophecy sometimes took the form of a lament when it predicted calamity (Ezek. 27:2, Ezek. 27: 32;28:12;32:2, 32: 16). ......

LAMENTATIONS, BOOK OF
called in the Hebrew canon _'Ekhah_, meaning "How," being the formula for the commencement of a song of wailing. It is the first word of the book (see 2-Sam 1:19). The LXX. adopted the name rendered "Lamentations" (Gr. threnoi = Heb. qinoth) now in common use, to denote the character of the book, in which the prophet mourns over the desolations brought on the city and the holy land by Chaldeans. I......

LAMP
(1.) That part of the candle-sticks of the tabernacle and the temple which bore the light (Exo 25:37; 1-Kings 7:49; 2-Chr 4:20;13:11; Zech. 4:2). Their form is not described. Olive oil was generally burned in them (Exo 27:20). (2.) A torch carried by the soliders of Gideon (Judg. 7:16, Judg. 7: 20). (R.V., "torches.") (3.) Domestic lamps (A.V., "candles") were in common use among the Hebrews (......

LANDMARK
a boundary line indicated by a stone, stake, etc. (Deut. 19:14;27:17; Prov. 22:28;23:10; Job 24:2). Landmarks could not be removed without incurring the severe displeasure of God. ......

LAODICEA
The city of this name mentioned in Scripture lay on the confines of Phrygia and Lydia, about 40 miles east of Ephesus (Rev. 3:14), on the banks of the Lycus. It was originally called Diospolis and then Rhoas, but afterwards Laodicea, from Laodice, the wife of Antiochus II., king of Syria, who rebuilt it. It was one of the most important and flourishing cities of Asia Minor. At a very early period ......

LAODICEA, EPISTLE FROM
(Col. 4:16), was probably the Epistle to the Ephesians, as designed for general circulation. It would reach the Colossians by way of Laodicea. ......

LAPIDOTH
torches. Deborah is called "the wife of Lapidoth" (Judg. 4:4). Some have rendered the expression "a woman of a fiery spirit," under the supposition that Lapidoth is not a proper name, a woman of a torch-like spirit. ......

LAPPING
of water like a dog, i.e., by putting the hand filled with water to the mouth. The dog drinks by shaping the end of his long thin tongue into the form of a spoon, thus rapidly lifting up water, which he throws into his mouth. The three hundred men that went with Gideon thus employed their hands and lapped the water out of their hands (Judg. 7:7). ......

LAPWING
the name of an unclean bird, mentioned only in Lev. 11:19 and Deut. 14:18. The Hebrew name of this bird, _dukiphath_, has been generally regarded as denoting the hoope (Upupa epops), an onomatopoetic word derived from the cry of the bird, which resembles the word "hoop;" a bird not uncommon in Palestine. Others identify it with the English peewit. ......

LASAEA
a city in the island of Crete (Acts 27:8). Its ruins are still found near Cape Leonda, about 5 miles east of "Fair Havens." ......

LASHA
fissure, a place apparently east of the Dead Sea (Gen. 10:19). It was afterwards known as Callirhoe, a place famous for its hot springs. ......

LATCHET
a thong (Acts 22:25), cord, or strap fastening the sandal on the foot (Isa. 5:27; Mark 1:7; Luke 3:16). ......

LATIN
the vernacular language of the ancient Romans (John 19:20). ......

LATTICE
(1.) Heb. 'eshnabh, a latticed opening through which the cool breeze passes (Judg. 5:28). The flat roofs of the houses were sometimes enclosed with a parapet of lattice-work on wooden frames, to screen the women of the house from the gaze of the neighbourhood. (2.) Heb. harakim, the network or lattice of a window (2:9). (3.) Heb. sebakhah, the latticed balustrade before a window or balcony (2-......

LAVER
(Heb. kiyor), a "basin" for boiling in, a "pan" for cooking (1-Sam 2:14), a "fire-pan" or hearth (Zech. 12:6), the sacred wash-bowl of the tabernacle and temple (Exo 30:18, Exo 30: 28;31:9;35:16;38:8;39:39;40:7, 40: 11, 30, etc.), a basin for the water used by the priests in their ablutions. That which was originally used in the tabernacle was of brass (rather copper; Heb. nihsheth), made from t......

LAW
a rule of action. (1.) The Law of Nature is the will of God as to human conduct, founded on the moral difference of things, and discoverable by natural light (Rom. 1:20;2:14, 2: 15). This law binds all men at all times. It is generally designated by the term conscience, or the capacity of being influenced by the moral relations of things. (2.) The Ceremonial Law prescribes under the Old Testamen......

LAW OF MOSES
is the whole body of the Mosaic legislation (1-Kings 2:3; 2-Kings 23:25; Ezra 3:2). It is called by way of eminence simply "the Law" (Heb. Torah, Deut. 1:5;4:8, 4: 44;17:18, 17: 19;27:3, 27: 8). As a written code it is called the "book of the law of Moses" (2-Kings 14:6; Isa. 8:20), the "book of the law of God" (Josh. 24:26). The great leading principle of the Mosaic law is that it is essentiall......

LAWYER
among the Jews, was one versed in the laws of Moses, which he expounded in the schools and synagogues (Matt. 22:35; Luke 10:25). The functions of the "lawyer" and "scribe" were identical. (See DOCTOR.) ......

LAZARUS
an abbreviation of Eleazar, whom God helps. (1.) The brother of Mary and Martha of Bethany. He was raised from the dead after he had lain four days in the tomb (John 11:1). This miracle so excited the wrath of the Jews that they sought to put both Jesus and Lazarus to death. (2.) A beggar named in the parable recorded Luke 16:19. ......

LEAF
of a tree. The olive-leaf mentioned Gen. 8:11. The barren fig-tree had nothing but leaves (Matt. 21:19; Mark 11:13). The oak-leaf is mentioned Isa. 1:30;6:13. There are numerous allusions to leaves, their flourishing, their decay, and their restoration (Lev. 26:36; Isa. 34:4; Jer. 8:13; Dan. 4:12, Dan. 4: 14, 21; Mark 11:13;13:28). The fresh leaf is a symbol of prosperity (Psa 1:3; Jer. 17:8; Ezek......

LEAGUE
a treaty or confederacy. The Jews were forbidden to enter into an alliance of any kind (1) with the Canaanites (Exo 23:32, Exo 23: 33;34:12); (2) with the Amalekites (Exo 17:8, Exo 17: 14; Deut. 25:17); (3) with the Moabites and Ammonites (Deut. 2:9, Deut. 2: 19). Treaties were permitted to be entered into with all other nations. Thus David maintained friendly intercourse with the kings of Tyre an......

LEAH
weary, the eldest daughter of Laban, and sister of Rachel (Gen. 29:16). Jacob took her to wife through a deceit of her father (Gen. 29:23). She was "tender-eyed" (17). She bore to Jacob six sons (32-35), also one daughter, Dinah (30:21). She accompanied Jacob into Canaan, and died there before the time of the going down into Egypt (Gen. 31), and was buried in the cave of Machpelah (9:31). ......

LEANNOTH
for answering; i.e., in singing, occurs in the title to Ps. 88. The title "Mahalath (q.v.) Leannoth" may be rendered "concerning sickness, to be sung" i.e., perhaps, to be sung in sickness. ......

LEASING
(Psa 4:2;5:6) an Old English word meaning lies, or lying, as the Hebrew word _kazabh_ is generally rendered. ......

LEATHER
a girdle of, worn by Elijah (2-Kings 1:8) and John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4). Leather was employed both for clothing (Num. 31:20; Heb. 11:37) and for writing upon. The trade of a tanner is mentioned (Acts 9:43;10:6, 10: 32). It was probably learned in Egypt. ......

LEAVEN
(1.) Heb. seor (Exo 12:15, Exo 12: 19;13:7; Lev. 2:11), the remnant of dough from the preceding baking which had fermented and become acid. (2.) Heb. hamets, properly "ferment." In Num. 6:3, Num. 6: "vinegar of wine" is more correctly "fermented wine." In Exo 13:7, Exo 13: the proper rendering would be, "Unfermented things [Heb. matstsoth] shall be consumed during the seven days; and there shall......

LEBANON
white, "the white mountain of Syria," is the loftiest and most celebrated mountain range in Syria. It is a branch running southward from the Caucasus, and at its lower end forking into two parallel ranges, the eastern or Anti-Lebanon, and the western or Lebanon proper. They enclose a long valley (Josh. 11:17) of from 5 to 8 miles in width, called by Roman writers Coele-Syria, now called el-Buka'a,......

LEBBAEUS
courageous, a surname of Judas (Jude), one of the twelve (Matt. 10:3), called also Thaddaeus, not to be confounded with the Judas who was the brother of our Lord. ......

LEBONAH
frankincense, a town near Shiloh, on the north side of Bethel (Judg. 21:19). It has been identified with el-Lubban, to the south of Nablus. ......

LEEK
(Heb. hatsir; the Allium porrum), rendered "grass" in 1-Kings 18:5, 1-Kings 18: 2-Kings 19:26, 2-Kings 19: Job 40:15, Job 40: etc.; "herb" in Job 8:12; "hay" in Prov. 27:25, Prov. 27: and Isa. 15:6; "leeks" only in Num. 11:5. This Hebrew word seems to denote in this last passage simply herbs, such as lettuce or savoury herbs cooked as kitchen vegetables, and not necessarily what are now called lee......

LEES
(Heb. shemarim), from a word meaning to keep or preserve. It was applied to "lees" from the custom of allowing wine to stand on the lees that it might thereby be better preserved (Isa. 25:6). "Men settled on their lees" (Zeph. 1:12) are men "hardened or crusted." The image is derived from the crust formed at the bottom of wines long left undisturbed (Jer. 48:11). The effect of wealthy undisturbed ......

LEFT HAND
among the Hebrews, denoted the north (Job 23:9; Gen. 14:15), the face of the person being supposed to be toward the east. ......

LEFT-HANDED
(Judg. 3:15;20:16), one unable to use the right hand skilfully, and who therefore uses the left; and also one who uses the left as well as the right, ambidexter. Such a condition of the hands is due to physical causes. This quality was common apparently in the tribe of Benjamin. ......

LEGION
a regiment of the Roman army, the number of men composing which differed at different times. It originally consisted of three thousand men, but in the time of Christ consisted of six thousand, exclusive of horsemen, who were in number a tenth of the foot-men. The word is used (Matt. 26:53; Mark 5:9) to express simply a great multitude. ......

LEHI
a jawbone, a place in the tribe of Judah where Samson achieved a victory over the Philistines (Judg. 15:9, Judg. 15: 14, 16), slaying a thousand of them with the jawbone of an ass. The words 15:19, 15: "a hollow place that was in the jaw" (A.V.), should be, as in Revised Version, "the hollow place that is in Lehi." ......

LEMUEL
dedicated to God, a king whom his mother instructed (Prov. 31:1). Nothing is certainly known concerning him. The rabbis identified him with Solomon. ......

LENTILES
(Heb. 'adashim), a species of vetch (Gen. 25:34; 2-Sam 23:11), common in Syria under the name addas. The red pottage made by Jacob was of lentils (Gen. 25:29). They were among the provisions brought to David when he fled from Absalom (2-Sam 17:28). It is the Ervum lens of Linnaeus, a leguminous plant which produces a fruit resembling a bean. ......

LEOPARD
(Heb. namer, so called because spotted, 4:8), was that great spotted feline which anciently infested the mountains of Syria, more appropriately called a panther (Felis pardus). Its fierceness (Isa. 11:6), its watching for its prey (Jer. 5:6), its swiftness (Hab. 1:8), and the spots of its skin (Jer. 13:23), are noticed. This word is used symbolically (Dan. 7:6; Rev. 13:2). ......

LEPROSY
(Heb. tsara'ath, a "smiting," a "stroke," because the disease was regarded as a direct providential infliction). This name is from the Greek lepra, by which the Greek physicians designated the disease from its scaliness. We have the description of the disease, as well as the regulations connected with it, in Lev. 13; 14; Num. 12:10, Num. 12: etc. There were reckoned six different circumstances und......

LETTER
in Rom. 2:27, Rom. 2: 29 means the outward form. The "oldness of the letter" (7:6) is a phrase which denotes the old way of literal outward obedience to the law as a system of mere external rules of conduct. In 2-Cor 3:6, 2-Cor 3: "the letter" means the Mosaic law as a written law. (See WRITING.) ......

LEUMMIM
peoples; nations, the last mentioned of the three sons of Dedan, and head of an Arabian tribe (Gen. 25:3). ......

LEVI
adhesion. (1.) The third son of Jacob by Leah. The origin of the name is found in Leah's words (Gen. 29:34), "This time will my husband be joined [Heb. yillaveh] unto me." He is mentioned as taking a prominent part in avenging his sister Dinah (Gen. 34:25). He and his three sons went down with Jacob (6:11) into Egypt, where he died at the age of one hundred and thirty-seven years (Exo 6:16). (2.......

LEVIATHAN
a transliterated Hebrew word (livyathan), meaning "twisted," "coiled." In Job 3:8, Job 3: Revised Version, and marg. of Authorized Version, it denotes the dragon which, according to Eastern tradition, is an enemy of light; 41:1 the crocodile is meant; in Psa 104:26 it "denotes any large animal that moves by writhing or wriggling the body, the whale, the monsters of the deep." This word is also use......

LEVIRATE LAW
from Latin levir, "a husband's brother," the name of an ancient custom ordained by Moses, by which, when an Israelite died without issue, his surviving brother was required to marry the widow, so as to continue his brother's family through the son that might be born of that marriage (Gen. 38:8; Deut. 25:5; comp. Ruth 3;4:10). Its object was "to raise up seed to the departed brother." ......

LEVITE
a descendant of the tribe of Levi (Exo 6:25; Lev. 25:32; Num. 35:2; Josh. 21:3, Josh. 21: 41). This name is, however, generally used as the title of that portion of the tribe which was set apart for the subordinate offices of the sanctuary service (1-Kings 8:4; Ezra 2:70), as assistants to the priests. When the Israelites left Egypt, the ancient manner of worship was still observed by them, the ......

LEVITICUS
the third book of the Pentateuch; so called in the Vulgate, after the LXX., because it treats chiefly of the Levitical service. In the first section of the book (1-17), which exhibits the worship itself, there is, (1.) A series of laws (1-7) regarding sacrifices, burnt-offerings, meat-offerings, and thank-offerings (1-3), sin-offerings and trespass-offerings (4; 5), followed by the law of the pr......

LEVY
(1-Kings 4:6, 1-Kings 4: R.V.;5:13), forced service. The service of tributaries was often thus exacted by kings. Solomon raised a "great levy" of 30,000 men, about two per cent. of the population, to work for him by courses on Lebanon. Adoram (12:18) presided over this forced labour service (Ger. Frohndienst; Fr. corvee). ......

LEWDNESS
(Acts 18:14), villany or wickedness, not lewdness in the modern sense of the word. The word "lewd" is from the Saxon, and means properly "ignorant," "unlearned," and hence low, vicious (Acts 17:5). ......

LIBERTINE
found only Acts 6:9, Acts 6: one who once had been a slave, but who had been set at liberty, or the child of such a person. In this case the name probably denotes those descendants of Jews who had been carried captives to Rome as prisoners of war by Pompey and other Roman generals in the Syrian wars, and had afterwards been liberated. In A.D. 19 these manumitted Jews were banished from Rome. Many ......

LIBNAH
transparency; whiteness. (1.) One of the stations of the Israelites in the wilderness (Num. 33:20, Num. 33: 21). (2.) One of the royal cities of the Canaanites taken by Joshua (Josh. 10:29;12:15). It became one of the Levitical towns in the tribe of Judah (21:13), and was strongly fortified. Sennacherib laid siege to it (2-Kings 19:8; Isa. 37:8). It was the native place of Hamutal, the queen of ......

LIBNI
white, one of the two sons of Gershon, the son of Levi (Exo 6:17; Num. 3:18, Num. 3: 21). (See LAADAN ......

LIBYA
the country of the Ludim (Gen. 10:13), Northern Africa, a large tract lying along the Mediterranean, to the west of Egypt (Acts 2:10). Cyrene was one of its five cities. ......

LICE
(Heb. kinnim), the creatures employed in the third plague sent upon Egypt (Exo 8:16). They were miraculously produced from the dust of the land. "The entomologists Kirby and Spence place these minute but disgusting insects in the very front rank of those which inflict injury upon man. A terrible list of examples they have collected of the ravages of this and closely allied parasitic pests." The pl......

LIE
an intentional violation of the truth. Lies are emphatically condemned in Scripture (John 8:44; 1-Tim 1:9, 1-Tim 1: 10; Rev. 21:27;22:15). Mention is made of the lies told by good men, as by Abraham (Gen. 12:12, Gen. 12: 13;20:2), Isaac (26:7), and Jacob (27:24); also by the Hebrew midwives (Exo 1:15), by Michal (1-Sam 19:14), and by David (1-Sam 20:6). (See ANANIAS.) ......

LIEUTENANT
(only in A.V. Esther 3:12;8:9;9:3; Ezra 8:36), a governor or viceroy of a Persian province having both military and civil power. Correctly rendered in the Revised Version "satrap." ......

LIFE
generally of physical life (Gen. 2:7; Luke 16:25, Luke 16: etc.); also used figuratively (1) for immortality (Heb. 7:16); (2) conduct or manner of life (Rom. 6:4); (3) spiritual life or salvation (John 3:16, John 3: 17, 18, 36); (4) eternal life (Matt. 19:16, Matt. 19: 17; John 3:15); of God and Christ as the absolute source and cause of all life (John 1:4;5:26, 5: 39;11:25;12:50). ......

LIGHT
the offspring of the divine command (Gen. 1:3). "All the more joyous emotions of the mind, all the pleasing sensations of the frame, all the happy hours of domestic intercourse were habitually described among the Hebrews under imagery derived from light" (1-Kings 11:36; Isa. 58:8; Esther 8:16; Psa 97:11). Light came also naturally to typify true religion and the felicity it imparts (Psa 119:105; I......

LIGHTNING
frequently referred to by the sacred writers (Nah. 1:3). Thunder and lightning are spoken of as tokens of God's wrath (2-Sam 22:15; Job 28:26;37:4; Psa 135:7;144:6; Zech. 9:14). They represent God's glorious and awful majesty (Rev. 4:5), or some judgment of God on the world (20:9). ......

LIGN-ALOES
(only in pl., Heb. 'ahalim), a perfume derived from some Oriental tree (Num. 24:6), probably the agallochum or aloe-wood. (See ALOES). ......

LIGURE
(Heb. leshem) occurs only in Exo 28:19 39:12, 39: as the name of a stone in the third row on the high priest's breastplate. Some have supposed that this stone was the same as the jacinth (q.v.), others that it was the opal. There is now no mineral bearing this name. The "ligurite" is so named from Liguria in Italy, where it was found. ......

LILY
The Hebrew name shushan or shoshan, i.e., "whiteness", was used as the general name of several plants common to Syria, such as the tulip, iris, anemone, gladiolus, ranunculus, etc. Some interpret it, with much probability, as denoting in the Old Testament the water-lily (Nymphoea lotus of Linn.), or lotus (2:1, 2: 2;2:16;4:5;5:13;6:2, 6: 3;7:2). "Its flowers are large, and they are of a white colo......

LIME
The Hebrew word so rendered means "boiling" or "effervescing." From Isa. 33:12 it appears that lime was made in a kiln lighted by thorn-bushes. In Amos 2:1 it is recorded that the king of Moab "burned the bones of the king of Edom into lime." The same Hebrew word is used in Deut. 27:2, Deut. 27: and is there rendered "plaster." Limestone is the chief constituent of the mountains of Syria. ......

LINEN
(1.) Heb., pishet, pishtah, denotes "flax," of which linen is made (Isa. 19:9); wrought flax, i.e., "linen cloth", Lev. 13:47, Lev. 13: 48, 52, 59; Deut. 22:11. Flax was early cultivated in Egypt (Exo 9:31), and also in Palestine (Josh. 2:6; Hos. 2:9). Various articles were made of it: garments (2-Sam 6:14), girdles (Jer. 13:1), ropes and thread (Ezek. 40:3), napkins (Luke 24:12; John 20:7), tur......

LINEN-YARN
(See YARN.) ......

LINES
were used for measuring and dividing land; and hence the word came to denote a portion or inheritance measured out; a possession (Psa 16:6). ......

LINTEL
(1.) Heb. mashkoph, a projecting cover (Exo 12:22, Exo 12: 23; ver. 7, "upper door post," but R.V. "lintel"); the head-piece of a door, which the Israelites were commanded to mark with the blood of the paschal lamb. (2.) Heb. kaphtar. Amos 9:1; Zeph. 2:14 (R.V. correctly "chapiters," as in A.V. marg.). ......

LIONS
the most powerful of all carnivorous animals. Although not now found in Palestine, they must have been in ancient times very numerous there. They had their lairs in the forests (Jer. 5:6;12:8; Amos 3:4), in the caves of the mountains (4:8; Nah. 2:12), and in the canebrakes on the banks of the Jordan (Jer. 49:19;50:44; Zech. 11:3). No fewer than at least six different words are used in the Old Te......

LIP
besides its literal sense (Isa. 37:29, Isa. 37: etc.), is used in the original (saphah) metaphorically for an edge or border, as of a cup (1-Kings 7:26), a garment (Exo 28:32), a curtain (26:4), the sea (Gen. 22:17), the Jordan (2-Kings 2:13). To "open the lips" is to begin to speak (Job 11:5); to "refrain the lips" is to keep silence (Psa 40:9; 1-Pet 3:10). The "fruit of the lips" (Heb. 13:15) is......

LITTER
(Heb. tsab, as being lightly and gently borne), a sedan or palanquin for the conveyance of persons of rank (Isa. 66:20). In Num. 7:3, Num. 7: the words "covered wagons" are more literally "carts of the litter kind." There they denote large and commodious vehicles drawn by oxen, and fitted for transporting the furniture of the temple. ......

LIVER
(Heb. kabhed, "heavy;" hence the liver, as being the heaviest of the viscera, Exo 29:13, Exo 29: 22; Lev. 3:4, Lev. 3: 1, 10, 15) was burnt upon the altar, and not used as sacrificial food. In Ezek. 21:21 there is allusion, in the statement that the king of Babylon "looked upon the liver," to one of the most ancient of all modes of divination. The first recorded instance of divination (q.v.) is th......

LIVING CREATURES
as represented by Ezekiel (1-10) and John (Rev. 4, etc.), are the cherubim. They are distinguished from angels (Rev. 15:7); they join the elders in the "new song" (5:8, 5: 9); they warn of danger from divine justice (Isa. 6:3), and deliver the commission to those who execute it (Ezek. 10:2, Ezek. 10: 7); they associate with the elders in their sympathy with the hundred and forty-four thousand who ......

LIZARD
Only in Lev. 11:30, Lev. 11: as rendering of Hebrew _letaah_, so called from its "hiding." Supposed to be the Lacerta gecko or fan-foot lizard, from the toes of which poison exudes. (See CHAMELEON.) ......

LO-AMMI
not my people, a symbolical name given by God's command to Hosea's second son in token of Jehovah's rejection of his people (Hos. 1:9, Hos. 1: 10), his treatment of them as a foreign people. This Hebrew word is rendered by "not my people" in ver. 10;2:23. ......

LO-DEBAR
no pasture, (2-Sam 17:27), a town in Gilead not far from Mahanaim, north of the Jabbok (9:4, 9: 5). It is probably identical with Debir (Josh. 13:26). ......

LO-RUHAMAH
not pitied, the name of the prophet Hosea's first daughter, a type of Jehovah's temporary rejection of his people (Hos. 1:6;2:23). ......

LOAN
The Mosaic law required that when an Israelite needed to borrow, what he asked was to be freely lent to him, and no interest was to be charged, although interest might be taken of a foreigner (Exo 22:25; Deut. 23:19, Deut. 23: 20; Lev. 25:35). At the end of seven years all debts were remitted. Of a foreigner the loan might, however, be exacted. At a later period of the Hebrew commonwealth, when co......

LOCK
The Hebrews usually secured their doors by bars of wood or iron (Isa. 45:2; 1-Kings 4:3). These were the locks originally used, and were opened and shut by large keys applied through an opening in the outside (Judg. 3:24). (See KEY.) Lock of hair (Judg. 16:13, Judg. 16: 19; Ezek. 8:3; Num. 6:5, Num. 6: etc.). ......

LOCUST
There are ten Hebrew words used in Scripture to signify locust. In the New Testament locusts are mentioned as forming part of the food of John the Baptist (Matt. 3:4; Mark 1:6). By the Mosaic law they were reckoned "clean," so that he could lawfully eat them. The name also occurs in Rev. 9:3, Rev. 9: 7, in allusion to this Oriental devastating insect. Locusts belong to the class of Orthoptera, i......

LODGE
a shed for a watchman in a garden (Isa. 1:8). The Hebrew name _melunah_ is rendered "cottage" (q.v.) in Isa. 24:20. It also denotes a hammock or hanging-bed. ......

LOG
the smallest measure for liquids used by the Hebrews (Lev. 14:10, Lev. 14: 12, 15, 21, 24), called in the Vulgate sextarius. It is the Hebrew unit of measure of capacity, and is equal to the contents of six ordinary hen's eggs=the twelfth part of a him, or nearly a pint. ......

LOIS
the maternal grandmother of Timothy. She is commended by Paul for her faith (2-Tim 1:5). ......

LOOP
a knotted "eye" of cord, corresponding to the "taches" or knobs in the edges of the curtains of the tabernacle, for joining them into a continuous circuit, fifty to a curtain (Exo 26:4, Exo 26: 5, 10, 11). ......

LORD
There are various Hebrew and Greek words so rendered. (1.) Heb. Jehovah, has been rendered in the English Bible LORD, printed in small capitals. This is the proper name of the God of the Hebrews. The form "Jehovah" is retained only in Exo 6:3; Psa 83:18; Isa. 12:2;26:4, 26: both in the Authorized and the Revised Version. (2.) Heb. 'adon, means one possessed of absolute control. It denotes a ma......

LORD'S DAY
only once, in Rev. 1:10, Rev. 1: was in the early Christian ages used to denote the first day of the week, which commemorated the Lord's resurrection. There is every reason to conclude that John thus used the name. (See SABBATH.) ......

LORD'S PRAYER
the name given to the only form of prayer Christ taught his disciples (Matt. 6:9). The closing doxology of the prayer is omitted by Luke (11:2), also in the R.V. of Matt. 6:13. This prayer contains no allusion to the atonement of Christ, nor to the offices of the Holy Spirit. "All Christian prayer is based on the Lord's Prayer, but its spirit is also guided by that of His prayer in Gethsemane and ......

LORD'S SUPPER
(1-Cor 11:20), called also "the Lord's table" (10:21), "communion," "cup of blessing" (10:16), and "breaking of bread" (Acts 2:42). In the early Church it was called also "eucharist," or giving of thanks (comp. Matt. 26:27), and generally by the Latin Church "mass," a name derived from the formula of dismission, Ite, missa est, i.e., "Go, it is discharged." The account of the institution of th......

LOT
(Heb. goral, a "pebble"), a small stone used in casting lots (Num. 33:54; Jonah 1:7). The lot was always resorted to by the Hebrews with strictest reference to the interposition of God, and as a method of ascertaining the divine will (Prov. 16:33), and in serious cases of doubt (Esther 3:7). Thus the lot was used at the division of the land of Canaan among the serveral tribes (Num. 26:55;34:13), a......

LOTAN
coverer, one of the sons of Seir, the Horite (Gen. 36:20, Gen. 36: 29). ......

LOVE
This word seems to require explanation only in the case of its use by our Lord in his interview with "Simon, the son of Jonas," after his resurrection (John 21:16, John 21: 17). When our Lord says, "Lovest thou me?" he uses the Greek word _agapas_; and when Simon answers, he uses the Greek word _philo_, i.e., "I love." This is the usage in the first and second questions put by our Lord; but in the......

LUBIMS
the inhabitants of a thirsty or scorched land; the Lybians, an African nation under tribute to Egypt (2-Chr 12:3;16:8). Their territory was apparently near Egypt. They were probably the Mizraite Lehabim. ......

LUCAS
a friend and companion of Paul during his imprisonment at Rome; Luke (q.v.), the beloved physician (Philemon 1:24; Col. 4:14). ......

LUCIFER
brilliant star, a title given to the king of Babylon (Isa. 14:12) to denote his glory. ......

LUCIUS
of Cyrene, a Christian teacher at Antioch (Acts 13:1), and Paul's kinsman (Rom. 16:21). His name is Latin, but his birthplace seems to indicate that he was one of the Jews of Cyrene, in North Africa. ......

LUCRE
from the Lat. lucrum, "gain." 1-Tim 3:3, 1-Tim 3: "not given to filthy lucre." Some MSS. have not the word so rendered, and the expression has been omitted in the Revised Version. ......

LUD
(1.) The fourth son of Shem (Gen. 10:22; 1-Chr 1:17), ancestor of the Lydians probably. (2.) One of the Hamitic tribes descended from Mizraim (Gen. 10:13), a people of Africa (Ezek. 27:10;30:5), on the west of Egypt. The people called Lud were noted archers (Isa. 66:19; comp. Jer. 46:9). ......

LUDIM
probably the same as Lud (2) (comp. Gen. 10:13; 1-Chr 1:11). They are associated (Jer. 46:9) with African nations as mercenaries of the king of Egypt. ......

LUHITH
made of boards, a Moabitish place between Zoar and Horonaim (Isa. 15:5; Jer. 48:5). ......

LUKE
the evangelist, was a Gentile. The date and circumstances of his conversion are unknown. According to his own statement (Luke 1:2), he was not an "eye-witness and minister of the word from the beginning." It is probable that he was a physician in Troas, and was there converted by Paul, to whom he attached himself. He accompanied him to Philippi, but did not there share his imprisonment, nor did he......

LUKE, GOSPEL ACCORDING TO
was written by Luke. He does not claim to have been an eye-witness of our Lord's ministry, but to have gone to the best sources of information within his reach, and to have written an orderly narrative of the facts (Luke 1:1). The authors of the first three Gospels, the synoptics, wrote independently of each other. Each wrote his independent narrative under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. Each ......

LUNATIC
probably the same as epileptic, the symptoms of which disease were supposed to be more aggravated as the moon increased. In Matt. 4:24 "lunatics" are distinguished from demoniacs. 17:15 the name "lunatic" is applied to one who is declared to have been possessed. (See DAEMONIAC.) ......

LUST
sinful longing; the inward sin which leads to the falling away from God (Rom. 1:21). "Lust, the origin of sin, has its place in the heart, not of necessity, but because it is the centre of all moral forces and impulses and of spiritual activity." In Mark 4:19 "lusts" are objects of desire. ......

LUZ
a nut-bearing tree, the almond. (1.) The ancient name of a royal Canaanitish city near the site of Bethel (Gen. 28:19;35:6), on the border of Benjamin (Josh. 18:13). Here Jacob halted, and had a prophetic vision. (See BETHEL.) (2.) A place in the land of the Hittites, founded (Judg. 1:26) by "a man who came forth out of the city of Luz." It is identified with Luweiziyeh, 4 miles north-west of Ba......

LYCAONIA
an inland province of Asia Minor, on the west of Cappadocia and the south of Galatia. It was a Roman province, and its chief towns were Iconium, Lystra, and Derbe. The "speech of Lycaonia" (Acts 14:11) was probably the ancient Assyrian language, or perhaps, as others think, a corrupt Greek intermingled with Syriac words. Paul preached in this region, and revisited it (Acts 16:1;18:23;19:1). ......

LYCIA
a wolf, a province in the south-west of Asia Minor, opposite the island of Rhodes. It forms part of the region now called Tekeh. It was a province of the Roman empire when visited by Paul (Acts 21:1;27:5). Two of its towns are mentioned, Patara (21:1, 21: 2) and Myra (27:5). ......

LYDDA
a town in the tribe of Ephraim, mentioned only in the New Testament (Acts 9:32, Acts 9: 35, 38) as the scene of Peter's miracle in healing the paralytic AEneas. It lay about 9 miles east of Joppa, on the road from the sea-port to Jerusalem. In the Old Testament (1-Chr 8:12) it is called Lod. It was burned by the Romans, but was afterwards rebuilt, and was known by the name of Diospolis. Its modern......

LYDIA
(1.) Ezek. 30:5 (Heb. Lud), a province in the west of Asia Minor, which derived its name from the fourth son of Shem (Gen. 10:22). It was bounded on the east by the greater Phrygia, and on the west by Ionia and the AEgean Sea. (2.) A woman of Thyatira, a "seller of purple," who dwelt in Philippi (Acts 16:14, Acts 16: 15). She was not a Jewess but a proselyte. The Lord opened her heart as she hea......

LYSANIAS
tetrarch of Abilene (Luke 3:1), on the eastern slope of Anti-Lebanon, near the city of Damascus. ......

LYSIAS, CLAUDIUS
the chief captain (chiliarch) who commanded the Roman troops in Jerusalem, and sent Paul under guard to the procurator Felix at Caesarea (Acts 21:31;22:24). His letter to his superior officer is an interesting specimen of Roman military correspondence (23:26). He obtained his Roman citizenship by purchase, and was therefore probably a Greek. (See CLAUDIUS.) ......

LYSTRA
a town of Lycaonia, in Asia Minor, in a wild district and among a rude population. Here Paul preached the gospel after he had been driven by persecution from Iconium (Acts 14:2). Here also he healed a lame man (8), and thus so impressed the ignorant and superstitious people that they took him for Mercury, because he was the "chief speaker," and his companion Barnabas for Jupiter, probably in conse......

MAACHAH
oppression, a small Syrian kingdom near Geshur, east of the Hauran, the district of Batanea (Josh. 13:13; 2-Sam 10:6, 2-Sam 10:8; 1-Chr 19:7). (2.) A daughter of Talmai, king of the old native population of Geshur. She became one of David's wives, and was the mother of Absalom (2-Sam 3:3). (3.) The father of Hanan, who was one of David's body-guard (1-Chr 11:43). (4.) The daughter of Abishal......

MAALEH-ACRABBIM
ascent of the scorpions; i.e., "scorpion-hill", a pass on the south-eastern border of Palestine (Num. 34:4; Josh. 15:3). It is identified with the pass of Sufah, entering Palestine from the great Wady el-Fikreh, south of the Dead Sea. (See AKRABBIM.) ......

MAARATH
desolation, a place in the mountains of Judah (Josh. 15:59), probably the modern village Beit Ummar, 6 miles north of Hebron. ......

MAASEIAH
the work of Jehovah. (1.) One of the Levites whom David appointed as porter for the ark (1-Chr 15:18, 1-Chr 15: 20). (2.) One of the "captains of hundreds" associated with Jehoiada in restoring king Jehoash to the throne (2-Chr 23:1). (3.) The "king's son," probably one of the sons of king Ahaz, killed by Zichri in the invasion of Judah by Pekah, king of Israel (2-Chr 28:7). (4.) One who was......

MAASIAI
work of Jehovah, one of the priests resident at Jerusalem at the Captivity (1-Chr 9:12). ......

MAATH
small, a person named in our Lord's ancestry (Luke 3:26). ......

MAAZIAH
strength or consolation of Jehovah. (1.) The head of the twenty-fourth priestly course (1-Chr 24:18) in David's reign. (2.) A priest (Neh. 10:8). ......

MACCABEES
This word does not occur in Scripture. It was the name given to the leaders of the national party among the Jews who suffered in the persecution under Antiochus Epiphanes, who succeeded to the Syrian throne B.C. 175. It is supposed to have been derived from the Hebrew word (makkabah) meaning "hammer," as suggestive of the heroism and power of this Jewish family, who are, however, more properly cal......

MACCABEES, BOOKS OF THE
There were originally five books of the Maccabees. The first contains a history of the war of independence, commencing (B.C. 175) in a series of patriotic struggles against the tyranny of Antiochus Epiphanes, and terminating B.C. 135. It became part of the Vulgate Version of the Bible, and was thus retained among the Apocrypha. The second gives a history of the Maccabees' struggle from B.C. 176 ......

MACEDONIA
in New Testament times, was a Roman province lying north of Greece. It was governed by a propraetor with the title of proconsul. Paul was summoned by the vision of the "man of Macedonia" to preach the gospel there (Acts 16:9). Frequent allusion is made to this event (18:5;19:21; Rom. 15:26; 2-Cor 1:16;11:9; Phil. 4:15). The history of Paul's first journey through Macedonia is given in detail in Ac......

MACHAERUS
the Black Fortress, was built by Herod the Great in the gorge of Callirhoe, one of the wadies 9 miles east of the Dead Sea, as a frontier rampart against Arab marauders. John the Baptist was probably cast into the prison connected with this castle by Herod Antipas, whom he had reproved for his adulterous marriage with Herodias. Here Herod "made a supper" on his birthday. He was at this time marchi......

MACHBANAI
clad with a mantle, or bond of the Lord, one of the Gadite heroes who joined David in the wilderness (1-Chr 12:13). ......